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A person’s body has the capacity to regulate the core temperature between 98 degrees F and 100 degrees F. A human body is quite strong and intelligent and knows how to regulate the body’s temperature. It responds to the various temperature receptors that are located on the body and makes some physiological adjustments for maintaining the constant temperature.
The body loses heat through various processes such as convection, conduction, evaporation, radiation etc. Definition of Fever Fever is the term used to describe the temporary increase in your body temperature and it is often caused by an illness. Growing Ginseng could be a simple or a complex process, depending on the size and quantity of plants you wish to have. Introduction The Cinnamon tree is a miniature form of herbal spicy species, which belongs to the Cinnamomum family. Hearing is a series of events in which the ear converts sound waves into electrical signals and causes nerve impulses to be sent to the brain where they are interpreted as sound.
Otosclerosis can cause different types of hearing loss, depending on which structure within the ear is affected. Otosclerosis usually causes a conductive hearing loss, a hearing loss caused by a problem in the outer or middle ear.
The cause of otosclerosis is not fully understood, although research has shown that otosclerosis tends to run in families and may be hereditary, or passed down from parent to child. Some research suggests a relationship between otosclerosis and the hormonal changes associated with pregnancy. In addition to hearing loss, some people with otosclerosis may experience dizziness, balance problems, or tinnitus.
An examination by an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat physician) or otologists (ear physician) is needed to rule out other diseases or health problems that may cause these same symptoms.
The information presented here is courtesy of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD).
A major role of sensory receptors is to help us learn about the environment around us, or about the state of our internal environment. Describing sensory function with the term sensation or perception is a deliberate distinction. Stimuli in the environment activate specialized receptor cells in the peripheral nervous system. Another way that receptors can be classified is based on their location relative to the stimuli.
A third classification of receptors is by how the receptor transduces stimuli into membrane potential changes. Receptor cells can be further categorized on the basis of the type of stimuli they transduce. Hearing, or audition, is the transduction of sound waves into a neural signal that is made possible by the structures of the ear (Figure).
The inner ear is often described as a bony labyrinth, as it is composed of a series of canals embedded within the temporal bone.
The oval window is located at the beginning of a fluid-filled tube within the cochlea called the scala vestibuli.
A cross-sectional view of the cochlea shows that the scala vestibuli and scala tympani run along both sides of the cochlear duct (Figure). The organs of Corti contain hair cells, which are named for the hair-like stereocilia extending from the cell’s apical surfaces (Figure). The hair cell is a mechanoreceptor with an array of stereocilia emerging from its apical surface.
As stated above, a given region of the basilar membrane will only move if the incoming sound is at a specific frequency. The standing sound wave generated in the cochlea by the movement of the oval window deflects the basilar membrane on the basis of the frequency of sound.
Along with audition, the inner ear is responsible for encoding information about equilibrium, the sense of balance. The maculae are specialized for sensing linear acceleration, such as when gravity acts on the tilting head, or if the head starts moving in a straight line. Rotational movement of the head is encoded by the hair cells in the base of the semicircular canals. This entry was posted in Biology, Humans, Learning and tagged ampulla, basilar membrane, Canals, Cochlea, Corti, cupula, ears, electrochemical, equilibrium, hair cells, macula, membrane, neuron, otolith, recording, saccule, scala tympani, sound, Soundwaves, speech, stereocilia, Stimuli, stimulus, talking, utricle, vestibular ganglion, vestibule, Vibrations. Yes, please add me to your mailing list so I receive a monthly newsletter and nothing more. And, in spite of the temperatures outside, the body temperature regulation takes place and the temperature is kept at normal. There is a nerve known as hypothalamus which contains the control mechanism and the key temperature sensors. For people who work outdoors or remain outdoors, it is very essential for them to remain hydrated so that the body becomes cools.
And, it does it with the help of keeping a balance between the heat gain and the loss of heat. So, if it is unbearably hot outside, the receptors that are located on the skin will send the signals to hypothalamus so that the sweating can take place and the body will get cooled off. A person’s body is only around 25% efficient and therefore, one loses about 75% of the energy as heat. If you are suffering from allergies, rhinitis (common cold), or sinusitis, you may experience bouts of coughing.
This bone prevents structures within the ear from working properly and causes hearing loss.
Otosclerosis usually affects the last bone in the chain, the stapes, which rests in the entrance to the inner ear (the oval window). While the exact cause remains unknown, there is some evidence associating viral infections (such as measles) and otosclerosis. Tinnitus is a sensation of ringing, roaring, buzzing, or hissing in the ears or head that accompanies many forms of hearing loss. An audiologist is a hearing health care professional who is trained to identify, measure, and rehabilitate hearing impairment and related disorders. In an operation called a stapedectomy, a surgeon (otolaryngologist or otologists) bypasses the diseased bone with a prosthetic device that allows sound waves to be passed to the inner ear.
Genetic studies continue in order to identify the gene or genes that may lead to this disorder.
The NIDCD, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conducts and supports research in the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, taste, smell, voice, speech, and language.
It was only the other day at work that my manager replayed a telephone recording back to us and she looked horrified.
Stimuli from varying sources, and of different types, are received and changed into the electrochemical signals of the nervous system. The pain and temperature receptors in the dermis of the skin are examples of neurons that have free nerve endings.
An exteroceptor is a receptor that is located near a stimulus in the external environment, such as the somatosensory receptors that are located in the skin.
Chemical stimuli can be interpreted by a chemoreceptor that interprets chemical stimuli, such as an object’s taste or smell. The middle ear contains the ossicles and is connected to the pharynx by the Eustachian tube.


It has two separate regions, the cochlea and the vestibule, which are responsible for hearing and balance, respectively. The scala vestibuli extends from the oval window, travelling above the cochlear duct, which is the central cavity of the cochlea that contains the sound-transducing neurons.
The cochlear duct contains several organs of Corti, which tranduce the wave motion of the two scala into neural signals. The stereocilia are an array of microvilli-like structures arranged from tallest to shortest. The stereocilia are tethered together by proteins that open ion channels when the array is bent toward the tallest member of their array, and closed when the array is bent toward the shortest member of their array. Because the tectorial membrane only moves where the basilar membrane moves, the hair cells in this region will also only respond to sounds of this specific frequency. Therefore, hair cells at the base of the cochlea are activated only by high frequencies, whereas those at the apex of the cochlea are activated only by low frequencies. A similar mechanoreceptor—a hair cell with stereocilia—senses head position, head movement, and whether our bodies are in motion.
The difference in inertia between the hair cell stereocilia and the otolith in which they are embedded leads to a shearing force that causes the stereocilia to bend in the direction of that linear acceleration. One is oriented in the horizontal plane, whereas the other two are oriented in the vertical plane. As one of the canals moves in an arc with the head, the internal fluid moves in the opposite direction, causing the cupula and stereocilia to bend. Because of these control mechanisms, sweating starts off immediately when the skin’s temperature touches 37 degrees Celsius so that the body is cooled down. Even for the people who do aquatic exercises, it is very important for them to drink a lot of water.
Human beings regulate the heat generation and the heat preservation for maintaining the internal body’s temperature.
Also, when a person is doing a lot of exercise, the body’s ability for thermo-regulating gets challenged. So, when a person is exercising, the heat gets generated and the temperature can even increase to about 104 degrees F.
So, it is one of the most essential nutrients that is there in our body which is needed for survival.
The abnormal bone fixates the stapes in the oval window and interferes with sound passing waves to the inner ear. On average, a person who has one parent with otosclerosis has a 25 percent chance of developing the disorder. Many people with otosclerosis first notice that they cannot hear low-pitched sounds or that they can no longer hear a whisper.
An audiologist uses a variety of tests and procedures to assess hearing and balance function.
It is important to discuss the risks and possible complications of this procedure, as well as the benefits, with the surgeon.
A properly fitted hearing aid may help some people with otosclerosis in situations that include persistent hearing loss. Other researchers are studying the effectiveness of lasers currently used in surgery, of amplification devices, and of various stapes prosthesis. Receptor cells can be classified into types on the basis of three different criteria: cell type, position, and function. Also located in the dermis of the skin are lamellated corpuscles, neurons with encapsulated nerve endings that respond to pressure and touch.
Photoreceptors in the eyes, such as rod cells, are examples of (c) specialized receptor cells. An interoceptor is one that interprets stimuli from internal organs and tissues, such as the receptors that sense the increase in blood pressure in the aorta or carotid sinus. Some stimuli are ions and macromolecules that affect transmembrane receptor proteins when these chemicals diffuse across the cell membrane. Some sources will also refer to this structure as the pinna, though that term is more appropriate for a structure that can be moved, such as the external ear of a cat. The inner ear contains the cochlea and vestibule, which are responsible for audition and equilibrium, respectively. The neural signals from these two regions are relayed to the brain stem through separate fiber bundles. At the uppermost tip of the cochlea, the scala vestibuli curves over the top of the cochlear duct.
The amplified vibration is picked up by the oval window causing pressure waves in the fluid of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani.
The organs of Corti lie on top of the basilar membrane, which is the side of the cochlear duct located between the organs of Corti and the scala tympani. The organ of Corti, containing the mechanoreceptor hair cells, is adjacent to the scala tympani, where it sits atop the basilar membrane.
Protein fibers tether adjacent hairs together within each array, such that the array will bend in response to movements of the basilar membrane. Therefore, as the frequency of a sound changes, different hair cells are activated all along the basilar membrane. The anterior and posterior vertical canals are oriented at approximately 45 degrees relative to the sagittal plane (Figure). The movement of two canals within a plane results in information about the direction in which the head is moving, and activation of all six canals can give a very precise indication of head movement in three dimensions. And, when the temperature drops down to below 37 degrees Celsius, various responses get initiated so that the body’s heat gets conserved and the heat production gets increased.
Sound waves enter through the outer ear and reach the middle ear, where they cause the ear drum to vibrate. The audiologist may produce an audiogram (a graph that shows a persona€™s hearing sensitivity) and a tympanogram (a graph that shows how well the middle ear functions to conduct sound). The stimulus causes the sensory cell to produce an action potential that is relayed into the central nervous system (CNS), where it is integrated with other sensory information—or sometimes higher cognitive functions—to become a conscious perception of that stimulus. Receptors can be classified structurally on the basis of cell type and their position in relation to stimuli they sense. The cells in the retina that respond to light stimuli are an example of a specialized receptor, a photoreceptor. These cells release neurotransmitters onto a bipolar cell, which then synapses with the optic nerve neurons. Finally, a proprioceptor is a receptor located near a moving part of the body, such as a muscle, that interprets the positions of the tissues as they move.
Some stimuli are physical variations in the environment that affect receptor cell membrane potentials.
Additionally, pain is primarily a chemical sense that interprets the presence of chemicals from tissue damage, or similar intense stimuli, through a nociceptor.
However, these two distinct bundles travel together from the inner ear to the brain stem as the vestibulocochlear nerve. The fluid-filled tube, now called the scala tympani, returns to the base of the cochlea, this time travelling under the cochlear duct. The complexity of the pressure waves is determined by the changes in amplitude and frequency of the sound waves entering the ear. As the fluid waves move through the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, the basilar membrane moves at a specific spot, depending on the frequency of the waves. The stereocilia extend up from the hair cells to the overlying tectorial membrane, which is attached medially to the organ of Corti.


The cochlea encodes auditory stimuli for frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz, which is the range of sound that human ears can detect. Head position is sensed by the utricle and saccule, whereas head movement is sensed by the semicircular canals.
The otolith contains calcium carbonate crystals, making it denser and giving it greater inertia than the macula. The base of each semicircular canal, where it meets with the vestibule, connects to an enlarged region known as the ampulla. These responses usually include an end to sweating, shivering, erection of hair so that the insulation gets increased. This core temperature is regulated with the help of hypothalamus which is also known as the body’s thermostat. An audiologist can discuss the various types of hearing aids available and make a recommendation based on the specific needs of an individual. They can also be classified functionally on the basis of the transduction of stimuli, or how the mechanical stimulus, light, or chemical changed the cell membrane potential. Physical stimuli, such as pressure and vibration, as well as the sensation of sound and body position (balance), are interpreted through a mechanoreceptor. Sound is transduced into neural signals within the cochlear region of the inner ear, which contains the sensory neurons of the spiral ganglia. The scala tympani ends at the round window, which is covered by a membrane that contains the fluid within the scala.
Higher frequency waves move the region of the basilar membrane that is close to the base of the cochlea. When the pressure waves from the scala move the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane slides across the stereocilia.
The unit of Hertz measures the frequency of sound waves in terms of cycles produced per second. The neural signals generated in the vestibular ganglion are transmitted through the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain stem and cerebellum. Therefore, gravity will cause the otolith to move separately from the macula in response to head movements.
The ampulla contains the hair cells that respond to rotational movement, such as turning the head while saying “no.” The stereocilia of these hair cells extend into the cupula, a membrane that attaches to the top of the ampulla.
This water is the main component in the blood and is lost when a person sweats out or perspires. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones in the middle ear called the ossicles.
For humans, the only electromagnetic energy that is perceived by our eyes is visible light. Another physical stimulus that has its own type of receptor is temperature, which is sensed through a thermoreceptor that is either sensitive to temperatures above (heat) or below (cold) normal body temperature. At the end of the auditory canal is the tympanic membrane, or ear drum, which vibrates after it is struck by sound waves.
As vibrations of the ossicles travel through the oval window, the fluid of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani moves in a wave-like motion.
Lower frequency waves move the region of the basilar membrane that is near the tip of the cochlea.
Frequencies as low as 20 Hz are detected by hair cells at the apex, or tip, of the cochlea.
As the head rotates in a plane parallel to the semicircular canal, the fluid lags, deflecting the cupula in the direction opposite to the head movement. These three bones are named the malleus, incus, and the stapes (and are also known as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup). A transmembrane protein receptor is a protein in the cell membrane that mediates a physiological change in a neuron, most often through the opening of ion channels or changes in the cell signaling processes. Some other organisms have receptors that humans lack, such as the heat sensors of snakes, the ultraviolet light sensors of bees, or magnetic receptors in migratory birds.
When the stereocilia bend toward the tallest member of their array, tension in the protein tethers opens ion channels in the hair cell membrane. Frequencies in the higher ranges of 20 KHz are encoded by hair cells at the base of the cochlea, close to the round and oval windows (Figure). The moving otolith layer, in turn, bends the sterocilia to cause some hair cells to depolarize as others hyperpolarize. The semicircular canals contain several ampullae, with some oriented horizontally and others oriented vertically. The membrane covering the round window will bulge out or pucker in with the movement of the fluid within the scala tympani.
This will depolarize the hair cell membrane, triggering nerve impulses that travel down the afferent nerve fibers attached to the hair cells. Most auditory stimuli contain a mixture of sounds at a variety of frequencies and intensities (represented by the amplitude of the sound wave). The exact tilt of the head is interpreted by the brain on the basis of the pattern of hair-cell depolarization.
By comparing the relative movements of both the horizontal and vertical ampullae, the vestibular system can detect the direction of most head movements within three-dimensional (3-D) space.
The three ossicles are the malleus, incus, and stapes, which are Latin names that roughly translate to hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
When the stereocilia bend toward the shortest member of their array, the tension on the tethers slackens and the ion channels close. The hair cells along the length of the cochlear duct, which are each sensitive to a particular frequency, allow the cochlea to separate auditory stimuli by frequency, just as a prism separates visible light into its component colors.
The stirrup transmits the vibrations through the oval window and into the fluid that fills the inner ear. Other transmembrane proteins, which are not accurately called receptors, are sensitive to mechanical or thermal changes.
When no sound is present, and the stereocilia are standing straight, a small amount of tension still exists on the tethers, keeping the membrane potential of the hair cell slightly depolarized. Physical changes in these proteins increase ion flow across the membrane, and can generate an action potential or a graded potential in the sensory neurons. The vibrations move through fluid in the snail-shaped hearing part of the inner ear (cochlea) that contains the hair cells. The stapes is then attached to the inner ear, where the sound waves will be transduced into a neural signal. The fluid in the cochlea moves the top of the hair cells, which initiates the changes that lead to the production of the nerve impulses.
The middle ear is connected to the pharynx through the Eustachian tube, which helps equilibrate air pressure across the tympanic membrane. The tube is normally closed but will pop open when the muscles of the pharynx contract during swallowing or yawning. Different sounds stimulate different parts of the inner ear, allowing the brain to distinguish among various sounds, for example, different vowel and consonant sounds.



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