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Hearing Views discusses important issues that impact both audiology professionals and the people with hearing loss that they serve. We know that things we cannot see, touch, taste, or smell can hurt us, so why is it unreasonable also to believe that what we can’t hear might also hurt us? Industrial-scale wind turbines generate peak sound pressure levels at infrasonic frequencies, especially between 0.25 and 3 Hz, as the blades pass in front of the tower. Readers familiar with the anatomy of the ear know that approximately 95% of the fibers innervating the IHCs lead to the brain as afferent fibers, while only about 5% of the fibers innervating the OHCs are afferent fibers. Similar pathways to various centers of the brain also exist through the vestibular, or balance, mechanisms of the inner ear, meaning that it is biologically plausible for infrasound to produce the variety of sensations described by Pierpont, sensations such as pulsation, annoyance, stress, panic, ear pressure or fullness, unsteadiness, vertigo, nausea, tinnitus, general discomfort, memory loss, and disturbed sleep.
Salt and colleagues have also found that when higher-pitched sounds (150-1500 Hz) are present, they can suppress infrasound.
Another relatively recent discovery is that there is likely a cause-effect relationship between AHEs and ILFN that mirrors that occurring in motion sickness. As utility-scale wind turbines increase in size and power, the blade-pass frequency goes increasingly deeper into the nauseogenic zone. These research efforts of Salt and colleagues, Schomer, and others are leading the way in establishing the biological plausibility of the harmful effects of ILFN generated by wind turbines. Decisions regarding the siting of industrial wind turbines deserve careful attention to limiting noise exposure levels in community residents through specified restrictions on either distance or noise levels, or both. Jerry Punch is an audiologist and professor emeritus at Michigan State University in the Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders. Topics range from education and advocacy to industry, technology and the client-professional relationship, and more. Nina Pierpont, in describing Wind Turbine Syndrome (WTS), has expressed her belief that many of the symptoms comprising WTS are mediated by overstimulation of the vestibular system of the inner ear by ILFN. Recent evidence supports the general view that the functioning of both the vestibular and cochlear components of the inner ear, and their interconnections with the brain, mediate the type of symptoms that Pierpont and others have described.
Most of us do not experience the energy in this lowest of low-frequency regions as sound; instead, we perceive a variety of other sensations. Thus, we hear through our IHCs, and our hearing sensitivity is comparable to the calculated IHC sensitivity.
This means that the ear is most sensitive to infrasound when higher-frequency sounds are absent. An experiment in the late 1980s, conducted using training-mission scenarios with Navy pilots, showed that motion sickness was associated with significant amounts of acoustic energy inside the flight cabin over the frequency range from just under 1 Hz to as low as 0.05 Hz (the nauseogenic range).
The right of the public to enjoy health and well-being should be paramount to the economic and political interests of the wind industry and governmental bodies. Since his retirement in 2011, he has become actively involved as a private audiological consultant in areas related to his long-standing interest in community noise. Richard James is an acoustical consultant with over 40 years of experience in industrial noise measurement and control. Louis has provided a feasible and coherent explanation of how sound that is normally not audible can result in the kinds of negative reactions reported by people who are exposed to wind turbine noise. The OHCs, which respond physiologically to infrasound, serve as a pathway for infrasound to reach the brain. This occurs at night when wind turbine noise is present, ambient sound levels are low, and higher-pitched sounds are attenuated by walls and other physical structures. Persons affected by wind turbine noise appear to be responding directly to acoustic stimulation of the same nerves and organs affected in that experimental environment. He served as an adjunct instructor in Michigan State University’s Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders from 1985-2013 and currently serves as an adjunct professor in Central Michigan University’s Department of Communication Disorders. One inch of ice in 3 days !!!It wasreal windy most of the day and I spent more time in the EskimoQuick Fish 3.The two holes in the shelter provided some steady action for perch and bluegills. That research has shown that extremely low-frequency sound is largely inaudible to humans because the outer hair cells (OHCs) in the inner ear detect and effectively cancel it before it reaches the inner hair cells (IHCs). Infrasonic signals that reach the brain are normally not perceived as sound, but are believed to stimulate centers other than auditory centers, resulting in perceptions that may be unfamiliar and disturbing. That experiment resulted in the conclusion that flight simulator sickness may be, to a significant extent, a function of exposure to infrasonic frequencies. Industrial-scale wind turbines should be sited only at distances from residents that are sufficient to minimize sleep disturbance and that do not put them at risk for a variety of other serious health problems.
The IHC stereocilia, which do not contact the tectorial membrane, are fluid-coupled and sensitive to stimulus velocity, while the OHC stereocilia are sensitive to displacement. This phenomenon is akin to seasickness, except that the acoustic energy causes nausea without body movement or visual stimulation.


The death lull kicked in around1230 and fishing picked back up again at 3pm.I landed the usual residents of the lake-- a few trout, afew nice crappies, perch and gills. Plenty ofpanfish with a few perch hitting the 9-inch mark and a crappie thatwas almost 10 inches.I caught trout sporadically throughout the day, ending with 9. Teddy told me the lake is completed covered and the ice might be about 1 inch orso.Teddy has patrolled and lived next toAntietam Lakealmostall his life and he knows the lake.
There isplenty of rainfall predicted for that area.Most of the fish sitting in the estuary should be entering the river as I type this. Anglers tend to give you space, the scenery is beautiful and the Osprey's always put on a show. Wednesday was spent in the upper fly zone and wasslow in the morning but pretty consistent in the afternoon. Ialso landed a smallmouth bass, a few small brown trout, afew small rainbows (steelhead smolts ?), a fallfishand a baby AtlanticSalmon. The Mohawk egg pattern accounted for many smaller fish and the salmon sized Light Spruce fly produced a few hookups.
Last years--One Day Trip-- hot fly,Olive bugger with White marabou tail and redcrystal flash also received plenty of attention and did account for 2 fish.
The guyI was fishing withused plenty of flies with smaller bucktail flies doing most of the damage. He didhook-up with a few fish while usingmy Death Stonefly, landing one nice Coho.I can tell you this---the next few weeks will provide some serious action. There are fish in the system at this moment and with the water release at 1800 CFS and the rain. The pool we were fishing was loaded with suckers and chubs and I did see a few trout and a couple of nice sized smallmouth bass. Any questions as to what to tie, just shoot me an email or use the Contact 2Bonthewater page. All that cold water coming from a quarry and the creek itself in that area is near lifeless.
The bridge is now being painted a Hunter Green color.Most of the creeks in the OleyValley are really low.
Even with the rain, the creeks remain very low.A I have a trip scheduled to the Salmon River planned inlate September thanks to Jack. Without Jack's kindness and awesomeness, I would not be going salmon fishing.A I have startedtyingflies for the upcoming salmon trip. Zoe competed in a National Beauty pageant and won honorable mention in the beauty competition (FYI -- Zoe wears no make-up, fake hairor fake teethand she competes in the natural division--she is my little girl and I would never DRESS HER UP like all those crazy folks you see on TV). We dressed as fishermen, answered a question about each other and then Zoe did some fly casting on stage. Zoe was crowned Little Queen when she won the Pennsylvania state pageant back in 2006 while competing in a Sunburst pageant. There are plenty of out of the way smaller streams that are teeming with Smallmouths, Carp and a variety of Panfish. Perkiomen Creek -- air temp 89 degrees, checked the temperature at two spots, temps were 70 and 69 degrees -- Taken between 415-425 pmA Manatawny Creek -- air temp was 88 degrees, checked the temperature at three spots, temps were 76 degrees at Red Covered Bridge, 74 degrees above TIKI bar and 76 degrees below the Rt. This heatwave has made most ofthe local trout streams too warm to fishfor the catch and release angler. Maiden Creek below Ontelaunee Lake should provide anglers with some fishthat are willing to bite. You can find Carp, Smallmouth Bass, Largemouth Bassand a wide assortment of panfish to keep you busy. Take some cold water with you !!!Your best way to keep the water cool is to freeze a bottle or two of water the night before you head out. As the day heats up, the water bottles will slowly melt, leaving you with nice cold waterto drink throughout the day.
I fished for 30-minutes on Manatawny and landed 2 wild browns on a tan caddis dry fly in the area where the water temp was 68 degrees. Temperature wise, if it is 90 degrees outside, pretty sure most, if not all of the local trout waters will be at 70 degrees or higher. We don't wantto kill the trout.The trout that survive through the summer will offerus great fishing in the fall.


I have not made a trip to the Schuylkill River as of yet, but I'd bet the house that the smallie action should be pretty darn good.
You can also takeyour watercraft outbefore Epler atCross Keys Road or at Muhlenburg Township park which is below the PFBC Epler Access.
There is little room to fish, unless you don't mind walking the shoreline that is covered with all types of vegetation, including Poison Ivy. Pleny of fish to be caught in this body of water, that is if you can get to them.A Manatawny Creek fished OK.
This stretch used to provide some very nice smallmouth action, but the last few trips here have been poor. Switched to a spent spinner pattern and hooked up twice--snapped one off and landed a nice stocker brown. The water is up from recent rains inthe valley, but the stream was clear and in perfect condition. The Schuylkill River and a few tribs shouldprovide any cat or carp angler with a few bites each nite. Channel catfish prefer dead baits andsmaller live bait, while the Flatheads prefer larger live bait. Carp will eatsmaller live bait including minnows andcrayfish along with the standard fare of homemade MUSH bait or whole kernel corn.The bottom line is--It doesn't really matter what bait you areusing. But, by now it was pitch black and it was raining pretty good and thelightning made it look like the 4th of July came early.I managed to land 2 fish on my emerger pattern androll 2 other trout. Started out at the mouth of Sacony Creek but there was some serious bridge work going on, so I left after a few casts. Caught some nice bluegills, onebrown trout, pumpkinseeds, green sunfish, agolden shiner and I almost hooked into a very nice largemouth bass. Kids and water mean plenty of noise,lots of splashing and lots offun.Normally, 750pm is about the timethe sulphurs start popping off. I saw some Iso's and huge stoneflies coming off and flying around.I caught a trophy Bluegill, no kidding check out the picture, almost 9 inches. I left my headlamp in the truck so I had to walkout before it got too dark and miss the potential spinner fall.
I then drove to another stretch of the crick and hooked up a few times fishing a brown spent spinner.
I lost them at the bank.A Fish the mornings with a brown or white spent spinner and you might get a few takes on the surface. My favorite is a "John's Spring Creek Pupa" tied in size 18 and 20 (Trout Flies of The East--page 93).
I caught two brookies on a CDC sulphur dry fly and the rest of the fish were caught with nymphs. What an amazing fish, especially on a 2 wt bamboo fly rod with a fly reel that is dated to the 1930's or 1940's.
What a specimen.He looked like a submarine swimming in the water !!My first impression of the leviathan is that it was a wild fish. Tonights fishing provided a mixed bag of fish, a few smallwild brown trout, along with a few stocker browns, stockerrainbows and the brook trout.
I topped it all off with a visit to Ted's house to show off the bamboo fly rod and talk shop. It was about 40 degrees and raining.I didroll a larger fish on a midge, but aside from that, it was a very slow night. Cast down and across and hop the flies upoff the bottom with quick upward lifts of the fly rod.The fish would really strike hard.
I still have not figured out whyone day I will catch all browns, one day I will catch all rainbows and some days, you will catch a little of everything.



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