The Hawthorne family took the train on Thursday, May 23, 1850, from the Castle station in Salem to Lenox in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts.
I detest this town so much that I hate to go into the streets, or to have the people see me.
In The House of the Seven Gables, the legend of the Golden Bough from the Aeneid appears with the morning sun: ". This one mystic branch hung down before the main-entrance of the seven gables, so nigh the ground, that any passer-by might have stood on tiptoe and plucked it off. Clifford becomes a second Aeneas: "this poor, forlorn voyager from the Islands of the Blest, in a frail bark, on a tempestuous sea, had been flung, by the last mountain-wave of his shipwreck, into a quiet harbor. Translating the "Aeneid" for entrance to Bowdoin College at the age of sixteen in 1820 was a revelation and a consolation for Nathaniel, the forlorn son of lost seafarers. Hathorne had served first in 1789 before the mast on the Salem ship "America", sailing later as third mate on the "Perseverance", as first mate aboard the armed "Herald", as mate on the "Hannah" for St. Hathorne's logbooks describe the sailors taken ashore at Ascension Island for the great turtles and their eggs for trading, and the two-day battle against the eighteen-gun French privateer "La Gloire" armed with "12 & 9 Pounders". On March 10, 1796 aboard the "America", Nathaniel Hathorne commented---"this Night we saw the North Star which I think is a great Pleasure to a homeward Bound Mariner after a Long Voige to India".
Captain Nathaniel Hathorne was inducted into the East Indian Marine Society on November 7, 1804. Captain Nathaniel Hathorne sailed from Salem for the last time in December 1807 with a cargo of salt fish, to be traded for sugar and molasses.
Two weeks later, with the "Nabby" still awaiting clearance, Nathaniel Hathorne died in the boardinghouse of Englishwoman Hannah Birch.
The first six books of Virgil's epic poem speak of Aeneas' moral quest, the almost fatal sea journey, and his death-celebrating funeral rites. If you know anything of me, you know how I sprang out of mystery, akin to none, a thing concocted out of the elements, without visible agency---how, all through my boyhood, I was alone; how I grew up without a root, yet continually longing for one--longing to be connected with somebody---and never feeling myself so.
Hawthorne feared that he should "leave no son to inherit my share in life, with a better sense of its privileges and duties, when his father should vanish like a bubble". Hawthorne inherited his father's sea journals---a source of inspiration and a spur to the writer's literary impulse. While translating the Aeneid, the son thought of going to sea himself and practiced writing a ship's log. Many of Hawthorne's tales deal with the sudden departure, by a character, from the ordinary way.
These stories were Hawthorne's first literary obsequies, along with the quatrain he composed for the burial of the family's cat. This child again dominates the author of The House of the Seven Gables passage in which Hepzibah, in flight from her house, has "the wretched consciousness of being adrift," while "wandering all abroad, on precisely such a pilgrimage as a child often meditates, to the world's end." Surinam may well have been the world's end. Both Hawthorne's uncles---John Manning and Daniel Hathorne, maternal and paternal---had been lost at sea. Jaffrey Pyncheon's "sultry, dog-day heat" of benevolence radiates from his heart, making him "very much like a serpent, which, as a preliminary to fascination, is said to fill the air with his peculiar odor." The scissor-grinder's wheel "issued an intense and spiteful prolongation of a hiss, as fierce as those emitted by Satan and his compeers in Pandemonium.
In the chapter "The Arched Window," the political procession that "trailed its length of trampling footsteps" past the Seven Gables is a kind of serpent.
Hawthorne once told Horace Conolly, whom he regarded as his most subtle betrayer in Salem, "I don't reckon you among my enemies, nor ever have. Before writing The House of the Seven Gables, Hawthorne wrote a fairly long, detailed story about a witchcraft execution of a woman. Nathaniel Hawthorne was ready to write about Salem, but the good citizens of Essex County and the politicos of that "unblessed" Custom House were not ready to appreciate Hawthorne's modern witch-hunt for Clifford and Hepzibah.
Hawthorne refers directly to the possibility of a reader discovering his deeper meaning---and his literary duplicity---in The House of the Seven Gables itself: "Had any observer of these proceedings been aware of the fearful secret, hidden within the house, it would have affected him with a singular shape and modification of horror". On February 10, 1850 Hawthorne wrote that, in a particular type of story, it might be "allowable, and highly advisable.
Hawthorne feared that his loss of his secure position at the Custom House, after years of struggle for financial stability for his growing family, would ruin him. On August 5, 1850 Nathaniel Hawthorne met Herman Melville: the impact shook every timber in The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne eventually recoiled from Melville's truth---but not before giving to Moby Dick; or the Whale the bitter duplicity of his literary technique in The House of the Seven Gables.
Yes, there is death in this business of whaling--a speechlessly quick chaotic bundling of a man into Eternity.
The initial encounter during an excursion to Monument Mountain, that amiable conversation while sitting on benches with Melville---smoking cigars, drinking port in the barn behind Arrowhead---these found a chink Hawthorne's armor that none ever even suspected was there.
Herman Melville held the literary key to unlock the secret treasure in The House of the Seven Gables. He wrote in his personal copy of Hawthorne's Mosses From an Old Manse, "For there is a sure, though a secret sign in some works which prove the culmination of the powers (only the developable ones, however) that produced them. Melville so admired Hawthorne's skill in deliberately concealing these fragments--and his true meaning--that he modelled the sinking of the Pequod on the sinking of Clifford. Hawthorne describes the process of Clifford's drowning in detail, a matter of "whirling sticks, straws, and all such trifles, round and round, right over the black depth where a dead corpse lay unseen. Since Ixion is mentioned by Hawthorne and Melville alike, they may have discussed this Greek legend. In the Aeneid, Ixion is tortured in the lower world, and a hundred iron throats cannot tell his crimes. But Melville never revealed Hawthorne's secret---even until his death forty years later in 1891. On August 5, 1850, Hawthorne and Melville went on an outing of literary people---a picnic on Monument Mountain in the Berkshire Hills. The secret collaboration between Hawthorne and Melville began in this atmosphere of mystery, and continued with Melville's literary disguise in signing his "Hawthorne and His Mosses" review for the Literary World as "A Virginian Spending His Summer in Vermont.". The hard necessity to hide the truth, in order to protect it from a destructive society, was ever borne in upon Hawthorne. He seemed nervous, and every few minutes would rise to open and then to shut again the window opening on the court yard.
There is a certain tragic phase of humanity which, in our opinion, was never more powerfully embodied than by Hawthorne.
Quite possibly Judge Jaffrey Pyncheon has sought Holgrave out to be his spy on Clifford and a betraying informer---the judge believing that only the Maule could be so revengeful, and therefore predictable and trustworthy. Quite aside from being an informer, Holgrave is surrounded by allusions to Shakespeare's King Lear. Holgrave says, "I cannot help fancying that Destiny is arranging its fifth act for a catastrophe." He relates how his ancestor, Matthew Maule, was said to be able to regulate other peoples' dreams, "pretty much like the stage-manager of a theatre". Melville's review, "Hawthorne and His Mosses," must have reminded Hawthorne of seeing King Lear in Boston thirty years before.
In the stillness of summer afternoons, he, too, had heard the apples falling "out of the mere necessity of perfect ripeness. I don't know whether I told you that I bought some black velvet and put a new cover on my brother George's desk, and Kitty scrubbed all the brass bright, and I made the mahogany clean of ink and polished it, so that it looks very handsomely; and it was upon this desk that Mr.
Wellington Peabody, born on December 16, 1815, was Sophia Peabody Hawthorne's younger brother. Engaged to the Charlestown heiress Mary Boardman, Wellington travelled to New Orleans to work as a medical resident under Dr. Wellington was a popular worker---observing, lancing, dosing with calomel---but in trying to find a cure for yellow fever he examined with bare hands the intestines of a deceased sailor during an autopsy. His essays with an historical theme appear in the University of Utah's Western Humanities Review, the Ball State University Forum, and Counterpunch. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. The writer called this retreat "Moving their household gods from Salem," an allusion to Virgil's Aeneid, in which the Roman hero Aeneas follows an ancient custom, moving his household gods from the sacked and burning Troy, bearing his father, Anchises, on his back.
Salem means "peace," but after his sacking at the Custom House, and the furious response of the local newspapers, politicians and clergy to The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne thought otherwise.
Presented at the door, it would have been a symbol of his right to enter and be made acquainted with all the secrets of the house.

There, as he lay more than half-lifeless on the strand, the fragrance of an earthly rosebud had come to his nostrils, and, as odors will, had summoned up reminiscences or visions of all the living and breathing beauty, amid which he should have had his home.".
He was ever haunted by the feeling that his father had never been properly buried at home, in Salem.
Petersburg, Russia, captain of the East Indiaman "Mary and Eliza", the schooner "Neptune", and the "Astrea", and finally the brig "Nabby". Hathorne, who had left Batavia about the 15th June last, reports, that all the crop of Coffee was exhausted, and no more was to be had for the season. After a stay in the French Guiana, his ship "Nabby" arrived in Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, now Suriname.
In fact, the case is just as if a young giant were compelled to waste all his strength in carrying about the corpse of the old giant, his grandfather, who died a long while ago, and only needs to be decently buried. The question is often whether or not there will be a successful return to the true inner self. There is an early concern for proper burial in his ritualistic repetition of a favorite line from Richard III: "Stand back, my lord, and let the coffin pass!" The spiritual quests in his childhood favorites, John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene, became associated with his father's last journey.
Finally, only one month had elapsed from Margaret Fuller's drowning on July 19, 1850, to Hawthorne's measured sentence "In this republican country, amid the fluctuating waves of our social life, somebody is always at the drowning-point.". It "might so fascinate" Clifford as to induce him to hurl himself to his death from the arched window in a misguided effort to join the throng below. You are a kind of pet serpent, and must be allowed to bite now and then, that being the nature of the critter." Pondering the themes of the Aeneid in the Berkshire Hills, Hawthorne, still resenting being cast out of Salem, looked about for a Trojan horse. Two or three weeks after the publication of The House of the Seven Gables, Hawthorne wrote: ". But if the fragments of the execution story are detected, then taken from the misleading contexts into which they are placed and reassembled in proper order, a vastly different picture emerges in horrifying detail. The author concealed his true narrative, "to render it the more difficult of attainment" by the intolerant.
The presence of this brooding mariner, poetic soul such as Hawthorne's father had been, stirred the deepest memories---and doubts---of the older writer. On April 16, 1851 Melville wrote the Pittsfield "secret review" of Hawthorne's romance, "published by H. Melville's Ishmael is slowly drawn to the vortex of the whirlpool caused by the plunging ship: "Round and round, then, and ever contracting towards the buttonlike black bubble at the axis of that slowly wheeling circle, like another Ixion I did revolve. Ixion is tantalized in Hades with the riches of the world, so Hawthorne taunts "Governor Pyncheon" with sarcastic irony for a full chapter in The House of the Seven Gables. After ascending the heights, the party enjoyed a feast early in the afternoon, "well-moistened" with wine, at the home of David Dudley Field, an attorney in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
Even if Duyckinck did report to his wife that Hawthorne looked on placidly---which he may well have, at first--the publisher James T.
In later years he wrote, "What a terrible thing it is, to try to get off a little bit of truth into this miserable humbug of a world!". When Julian Hawthorne visited Melville in 1883 in New York City on East Twenty-sixth, "a quiet side street.
We mean the tragicalness of human thought in its own unbiassed, native, and profounder workings. This Maule, concealing his identity, comes to the Seven Gables two months before Clifford arrives from the prison. Hawthorne had seen Edmund Kean's performance of King Lear in Boston on March 5, 1821, and had written: "It was enough to have drawn tears from millstones. Melville had been especially moved by Hawthorne's description of the orchard at the Old Manse and saw it, in an allegorical fashion, as "the visible type of the fine mind that had described it. He dropped out of Harvard College and shipped aboard a New Bedford whaler about March 1832 for a two year cruise. Hawthorne could not be seen, and intimated that the boy was not American, but was trying to steal a passage.
John graduated from Drew University in Madison, New Jersey and lived in Bloomfield, New Jersey, Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Brattleboro, Vermont.
6 or 7 ships had been obliged to leave the port for Bengal and other places, without procuring any.
The inductees were in the processional parade through the streets of Salem, and honored with a formal dinner.
Just think, a moment; and it will startle you to see what slaves we are to bygone times---to Death, if we give the matter the right word!". In the hand-printed Spectator---a newsletter of his own devising--in 1820, in answer to the question "What then is Benevolence?" he gives "It is to protect the fatherless, and to make the Widow's heart to sing for joy." In an essay entitled, "Autumnal," he asks, "Must we slumber to awake no more?". In these inventions, we see the child who, in the years following his father's death, made up stories for his sisters and ended them with "And then I'll go away and never come back.". Holgrave mentions "the drama which, for almost two hundred years, has been dragging its slow length over the ground, where you and I now tread"---the drama of the Pyncheon-Maule vengeance. Hawthorne's memories of politics in Salem were still painful, so he describes the procession as "trampling". In order to accomplish this without being detected---except by the very alert---Hawthorne broke this execution tale into pieces and scattered them throughout his romance.
Melville's talk of the sea, of time, eternity, death, myth, and literature, his metaphysical leaping, struck Hawthorne's own particular woe. Oliver Wendell Holmes began by praising English authors, apparently with little reservation, and by taunting Cornelius Mathews--the chief editorial writer for Edward Duyckinck's Literary World---for his literary chauvinism in promoting the movement known as Young America. Fields recalled that Hawthorne "rayed out in a sparkling and unwonted manner" and "stoutly" opposed Holmes's comparison of English and American authors. This would not only have betrayed Hawthorne's desire to keep his secret only for those who had earned a right to it; but it also would have deprived Julian of the freedom to discover the secret of The House of the Seven Gables for himself. We think that into no recorded mind has the intense feeling of the visible truth ever entered more deeply than into this man's.
Hepzibah, who "had gnashed her teeth against human law," senses that Holgrave is a kindred lawless spirit and tells Phoebe, "I suppose he has a law of his own!". In a rare moment of honesty, he tells her that he lives at the Seven Gables so "that I may know the better how to hate it". Returning to New York City in June 1834, Wellington was among the crew that was beaten, starved, and forced into jumping ship without pay. The boy had left home to seek his fortune, but evidently hadn't found it yet, although he had crossed the sea in his search.
But in each event -- in the living act, the undoubted deed -- there, some unknown but still reasoning thing puts forth the mouldings of its features from behind the unreasoning mask.
Show freely to the world, if not your worst, yet some trait whereby the worst may be inferred!" In order to resolve this, Hawthorne resorted to multiple narratives and levels of meaning.
By visible truth we mean the apprehension of the absolute condition of present things as they strike the eye of the man who fears them not, though they do their worst to him.
This tale of an ancient British royalty hopelessly divided by property and power offers a parallel to the American story. And in commenting on the fall of the aristocratic Hepzibah to becoming the huckstress of a cent-shop, Hawthorne says: "The tragedy is enacted with as continual a repetition as that of a populur drama on a holiday, and, nevertheless, is felt as deeply, as when an hereditary noble sinks below his order. There is not even a grave, not a heap of dry bones, not a pinch of dust, with which I can claim connection.
Methinks that in looking at things spiritual, we are too much like oysters observing the sun through the water, and thinking that thick water the thinnest of air. Melville had felt the nerve-trembling "shock of recognition" when first discovering Hawthorne's deeper meanings. He says he is an American, but I know he isn't." Hawthorne came out of the room and looked keenly at the eager, ruddy face of the boy.
It was characteristic in him to imagine so; there were many secrets untold in his own career.
And therefore three cheers for Nantucket; and come a stove boat and stove body when they will, for stave my soul, Jove himself cannot.

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