European air quality information reported by EEA member countries, including all EU Member States, as well as EEA cooperating countries. The Pannonian region of Serbia was missing in previous versions and this has been corrected in the 2016 version. This database contains a number of climate change mitigation policies and measures (PAM) implemented or planned by European countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The dataset combines the Corine based MAES ecosystem classes with the non-spatial EUNIS habitat classification for a better biological characterization of ecosystems across Europe.
The dataset contains the tabular data as reported by Member States for the 2008-2012 period; this includes population sizes and trends (short and long term) for breeding and wintering populations, as well as pressures and threats for Special Protection Area trigger species.
Data on greenhouse gas emissions and removals, sent by countries to UNFCCC and the EU Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (EU Member States). The modelled suitability for the EUNIS habitat types is an indication of where conditions are favourable for each habitat type based on verified sample plot data (Braun-Blanquet database) and the Maxent software package. The European inventory of nationally designated areas holds information about protected areas and the national legislative instruments, which directly or indirectly create protected areas.
The concept of HNV farmland ties together biodiversity to the continuation of farming on certain types of land and the maintenance of specific farming systems.
For reporting on state and trends of biodiversity from an ecosystem perspective, information on the association of species and habitat types to ecosystems is required. The European Red List is a review of the conservation status of c.6,000 European species (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, freshwater and marine fishes, butterflies, dragonflies, freshwater molluscs, selected groups of beetles, terrestrial molluscs, vascular plants including medicinal plants and bees), according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines applied to the EU27 and to the Pan-European level. New in the 2015 version of the database is the inclusion of medicinal plants, bees, birds and marine fishes.
There is disagreement among researchers concerning the impact of weather on human mortality.
Thus, a most interesting finding relating to heat-related mortality which potentially has a profound influence on such deaths in a warmer world is the large degree of inter-regional response. Interestingly, a majority of studies have found that most of the excess deaths that occurred during periods of intense heat were not attributed to causes traditionally considered to be weather-related (such as heat stroke), but were attributed to a broad range of illnesses, accidents, and even adverse effects of medicinal agents.[15,16] In fact, heat stroke and heat exhaustion comprise a very small proportion of the increase in deaths which traditionally occurs during very hot episodes. Most research indicates that mortality rates during extreme heat vary with age, sex, and race. At present, we have some knowledge about the first of these issues and a lesser amount of information about the third. Assuming that people react to weather in a warmer world much as they do today (implying little or no acclimatization), it is quite likely that deaths from heat stress-related causes will increase dramatically (refer to Table 3a, b for the full range of estimates). Of course, a more likely scenario is that some degree of acclimatization will occur, as the gradual increase in warmth over the next 60 years would permit time for certain social and physiological adjustments. Employing this acclimatization procedure, new estimates were developed for the number of heat stress-related deaths in the mid-21st century, yielding very different results from the unacclimatized estimates. This wide variation has much to do with the technique used in this evaluation to account for acclimatization.
Assuming that people can physiologically adapt to the predicted increasing warmth, we can expect only a partial acclimatization to occur as it is highly unlikely that the architectural makeup of the urban area will change significantly over the next 50 to 75 years to account for warmer conditions.
An added shortcoming of the acclimatization procedure is underscored by the fact that the analog and target cities are also very different in their demographic composition, as the differential proportion of elderly (who are particularly vulnerable to heat-related mortality) and minorities has not been accounted for. Of course, skeptics contend that global warming will probably not occur, that the earth and atmospheric system have feedback mechanisms to prevent a human-induced climatic change from occurring, and that time and money may be wasted in developing mitigating policies for a possibility that may never happen. Argentina developed a National Strategy on Climate Change to serve as the framework for national and sectoral mitigation and adaptation measures. All involved actors (governmental and non-governmental) participated from the beginning in developing the Strategy.
Resulting public policies must promote the sustainable development of the country and take account of environmental, economic and social interests. Following these stipulations, Argentina’s Governmental Committee on Climate Change was formed with high level representatives and expert technicians representing twenty-three state organisms, including key sectors. The whole process has promoted collaboration between the actors and raised awareness on climate change.
A NAMA in the transport sector is the modernisation of the Belgrano Cargas freight rail infrastructure. The Strategy is a framework that unites and multiplies efforts made by the key sectors with the overall objective of maximising results. NewClimate Institute (2016): After Paris: What is next for Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)? Local Level Complexities in Governance of Climate Change Mitigation Practices and Adaptation Measures in U. While global negotiations regarding climate change between nations are underway around the world, locally scaled policies and measures for climate protection and resilience are drafted and implemented by municipalities across the globe. The reduction of GHG emissions requires the adoption of abatement measures in the EU-ETS and non-EU-ETS sectors. For 2008-2012 the participation of installation in the implementation of the EU-ETS scheme is based on certificates acquired in compliance with the National Allocation Plan, document approved by the European Commission, and on open auction. For the period mentioned above there are 229 participating installations which received free of charge 349 671 593 certificates.
Since the 8% reduction commitment for 2008-2012 will be met with certainty, no additional measures have been adopted excepting those required in terms of economic efficiency. Usually, the GHG emissions trend reflects the main trend in the economic development of the country.
In Table 1, below, there are presented the values of different drivers indicators on climate change, for 2003-2007: the population, GDP, GDP growth, primary energy intensity, renewable electricity generation. As the international economy, our country is confronted with difficulties to sustain the economic growth and the current global economic and financial crisis poses the obligation to update the directions of development of our country to meet the EU targets included in the Lisbon Strategy, Sustainable Development Strategy and within the EU's climate and energy policy.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015.
The country assessments are the sole responsibility of the EEA member and cooperating countries supported by the EEA through guidance, translation and editing. We use cookies to record some preference settings and to analyse how visitors use our web site. The EEAa€™s air quality database consists of a multi-annual time series of air quality measurement data and calculated statistics for a number of air pollutants.


The EU ETS data viewer provides aggregated data on emissions and allowances, by country, sector and year.
Every year, each Member State shall submit to the Commission all the information related to their new registrations. It is an ecological network of protected areas, set up to ensure the survival of Europe's most valuable species and habitats. Some Arctic islands which do not belong to the European part of Russia and which were erroneously included in previous versions have been removed.
Most of these PAMs have been reported to the European Commission, the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the EEA.
As such it represents probabilities of EUNIS habitat presence for each MAES ecosystem type.
In addition, it includes the population status and trends at the EU level as assessed by the by the European Red List of Birds Consortium (under contract with the European Commission). This data set reflects the GHG inventory data for 2015 as reported under the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change. It provides a snapshot of air quality based on data from official monitoring stations (via Air Quality e-reporting) in the cities included in the Urban Audit project. The modelled suitability maps may be used as a proxy for the potential geographical distribution of the habitat types in given environmental and climatic envelopes. Over the next years more suitability maps of habitat types will be provided from this page.
The general goal of the data set is to enhance the European map of HNV farmland that shows the estimated distribution and presence likelihood of HNV farmland across the whole European territory.
The database contains those associations based on butterflies, mammal, reptile and amphibian species listed in European Atlases, all species and habitats considered for reporting under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive and all bird species considered for reporting under Article 12 of the Birds Directive. These data are not difficult to obtain for the United States or Canada, and they are much easier to interpret than most sources of general morbidity data, such as hospital admissions tallies or visits to the doctor.
For example, medical researchers have noted that mortality attributed to weather seems to vary considerably with age, sex, and race, but there is disagreement in defining the most susceptible population group. Mortality rates in the southern and southwestern United States do not seem to be affected by weather in the summer, no matter how high the temperature. The synoptic procedure is designed to classify days which are considered to be meteorologically homogeneous into air mass categories.
Thus, EPA has reported to Congress that we might expect a sevenfold increase in heat-related deaths by the middle of the 21st century if acclimatization does not occur.[12,24] This would render heat-related deaths as a major killer, rivaling the present number of deaths from leukemia. A satisfactory means to account for this acclimatization has alluded the scientific community, although an attempt was made in the EPA Report to Congress on the potential effects of global climate change.[24] Analog cities, which possess present day weather most duplicative of predicted mid-21st century weather for each evaluated city, were established to account for full acclimatization. Rather than the sevenfold increase developed for the unacclimatized model, less than a two-fold increase results when accounting for acclimatization. Since the change analogs for the northern cities are other cities located further south, and considering the southern populations respond much less dramatically to heat, it is not surprising that the fully acclimatized mortality estimates are so low. This is particularly true for dwellings of the poor, and it is unlikely that the tenements of northern cities will be leveled and replaced by other forms of housing, such as shotgun shacks, which are more amenable to hotter conditions. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to determine what these proportions might be in the target city in the mid-21st century. For example, the average annual number of days in Atlanta which exceed 32deg.C today is 17. The program will concentrate on the social and cultural adjustments expected to occur, including possible demographic alterations that could take place because of migration and other factors attributed to global warming.[28] Contacts have been made with the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences to help in the formulation and coordination of such a study. There is no claim in this essay that global warming will definitely occur, but the risks are high enough to support a program that attempts to estimate impacts and tries to develop mitigating action.
These measures reinforce the country’s commitment to join in global efforts to fight climate change. These include national and local governmental agencies, scientific and academic representatives, the private sector, civil society and unions. This leads to emission reductions in the most significant sectors of the economy: energy and agriculture. Bloch School of Management, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5100 Cherry St., Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. These political units, with their small contributions to the much larger issue at hand are unable to fully receive adequate gains of their policies for their local stakeholders, as theory states that local level administrators would find it difficult to reduce emissions for the benefit of the global citizenry.
This will determine the owner of the installations to refit and modernize urgently the existing technologies up to the European level, which requires important financial resources. According the last GHG Emissions Inventory submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat in April 2009, in 2007 the GHG emissions have dropped with 44.83% in comparison with 1989, considered the base year for our country in the development of climate change policy. The main drivers for GDP growth are the internal demand and especially, financial investments supported by governmental funds and by EU structural funds.
The actions to combat the national crisis have to bring support to meet the climate targets.
The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
It also contains meta-information on the monitoring networks involved, their stations and measurements.
In particular, the following details are required for each new passenger car registered: manufacturer name, type approval number, type, variant, version, make and commercial name, specific emissions of CO2, mass of the vehicle, wheel base, track width, engine capacity, fuel type and fuel mode.
It also shows the situation at station level in relation to the different European Union and World Health Organization air quality standards.
The species and habitat types are linked to the MAES ecosystems types, which are used under Target 2 of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy.
Other issues of contention exist, including the role of air conditioning in mitigating heat-related mortality and whether small, irregular aberrations in weather or very large fluctuations have a greater impact on mortality.
Most of this work concentrates on the United States, but results from a pilot study in China will be briefly presented. For example, the cities of Dallas, Atlanta, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, and even Phoenix show little change in mortality even during the hottest weather. Thus, the synergistic relationships that exist between numerous weather elements which comprise an air mass can be evaluated simultaneously, representing a significant improvement over an individual weather element approach. The San Francisco area, which experiences infrequent but sometimes persistent hot weather, is also associated with this group.


Thus, any estimates of the impacts of global warming on human mortality must be treated with skepticism. In fact, many cities actually show a decrease in heat-related mortality if the population fully acclimatizes to a climate change. The expected increase in the percentage of elderly people (greater than 65 years old) over the next 75 years might partially counter the dampening in heat-related mortality attributed to physiological acclimatization.
Thus, improved evaluations of the possible impacts of climate change on human mortality are needed to guide policy decisions and to foster the international cooperation that is vital to deal with the possible threats effectively. In other words, municipalities are concerned with the provision of locally-based public goods and services. This allocation of species and habitat per ecosystem is done for each of the nine terrestrial biogeographical regions (according to the Habitats Directive) and each marine region (according to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Second, and most important, the potential impact of a large-scale global warming on human mortality will be discussed, with allowances for possible human acclimatization to the expected increasing warmth.
A similar phenomenon is noted in China, where Guangzhou, with a summer climate similar to New Orleans, demonstrates much less day-to-day variation in mortality than Shanghai, which is located at a higher latitude.[13] In fact, threshold temperatures for these hotter cities are virtually impossible to define.
For many of these cities, a single offensive summer synoptic category was noted, which possessed a much higher mean mortality than the other categories (refer to Table 1; St.
For example, the number of heat-related deaths which occur in an average summer today in Los Angeles is 84.
First, the only similarities drawn between the target and analog cities relate to climate alone, with no consideration of possible urban structural or architectural disparities. Presently, cities such as Memphis, Jackson, and Birmingham experience three such days during an average summer. The relationship between weather and mortality in ten major metropolitan areas in the United States, 1962-1965. Patterns of urban heat wave deaths and implications for prevention: Data from New York and St. One possible explanation may involve the variance in summer temperatures between the two regions. Thus, this inter-regional disparity in response is supported within the synoptic evaluation.
If residents in Los Angeles fully acclimatize to the increased warmth expected in the mid-21st century, the number of heat-related deaths is estimated to drop to virtually zero.[24] Astoundingly, if residents of Los Angeles don't acclimatize at all, the number of heat-related deaths estimated for an average summer in the mid-21st century rises to 1570!
For example, much of the low income urban population in the South, who are especially vulnerable to heat stress due to a lack of air conditioning or other amenities, reside in small frame houses often referred to as "shotgun shacks".[26] Although far from luxurious, these residences are well-adapted to the rigors of the southern summer, as they are often light colored with metal (reflective) roofs and well-ventilated with windows or doors on four sides. This will increase to about 20 days with the expected temperature increase.[27] Considering similar increases in the number of very hot days in Phoenix and other southwestern cities, it is possible that certain areas might simply become uninhabitable in the warmer world of the mid-21st century. Weather and human mortality: An evaluation of demographic and inter-regional responses in the United States. On the other hand, local level leaders have an advantage as they control many of the factors related to emissions, such as land use decisions, residential and commercial regulations, transit options and solid waste disposal.
In the northern and midwestern cities, the very hot days or episodes are imbedded within periods of cooler weather. Similar disparities between acclimatized and unacclimatized estimates are noted for many northern and midwestern cities such as Detroit, New York, and St.
In contrast, most northern urban poor live in tenement dwellings constructed of dark-colored brick, black tar roofs, and windows often on two sides associated with a row house motif. Of course, this is highly speculative, as no examples presently exist to support this notion. Detection of climatic change in the western North American arctic using a synoptic climatological approach.
This is perhaps fitting due to the nature of the place-based vulnerability where impacts are experienced in the forms of inundation, heat waves, bushfires or rising sea levels. Louis occurs with approximately the same frequency as a maximum temperature of 32deg.C in Detroit. Thus, the physiological and behavioral "shock value" of a very high temperature episode is quite high. Louis was only slightly cooler than category 9, it appears that category 9 alone exceeded an oppressive threshold associated with very high mortality. During very hot conditions, these northern dwellings suffer from poor ventilation and absorb considerably more radiation than their southern counterparts. Characterization of Information Requirements for Studies of CO2 effects: Water Resources, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests and Human Health.
Additionally, due to their structure, it is comparatively easier to implementing such policies successfully than many international policy makers who have struggled with such goals or milestones due to added complications.
This strongly suggests that the notion of a "heat wave" is relative on an interregional scale, and is dependent upon the frequency of a given maximum temperature.
This point is further substantiated by the fact that most of the high mortality days occur during hot weather early in the summer season. These types of factors might partially explain the differential mortality response between northern and southern populations. In: Potential Effects of Future Climate Changes on Forests and Vegetation, Agriculture, Water Resources, and Human Health, EPA Science and Advisory Committee Monograph #25389. This essay will explore the rudimentary complexities at the city level and observe the paradox of participation and engagement in sustainable addressing global climate change. Thus the first or second heat episodes of June or early July are much more critical than a comparative episode in August. In the southern cities, the hottest periods are less unique, as they do not vary as much from the mean.
This seems to play a role in diminishing the impact of a very hot episode on human mortality.



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