1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul 3. This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct".
They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Senor or "Friends in the Lord," because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). Evergreen students work with faculty to set their own academic goals, chart their progress, evaluate their achievements and shape their studies to explore specific areas of interest.
Faculty at Evergreen have transformed traditional education into an unmatched learning experience. Instead of taking four or five separate, unrelated classes each quarter, you'll take one program that unifies these classes around a central theme, taught by two or three faculty from different academic disciplines. Because your learning is too important to be reduced to an arbitrary number or letter grade, you'll receive narrative evaluations from your faculty. Whether you are destined for graduate school or if your educational goal is career-oriented, it's always best to seek assistance from your faculty, from the Academic Advising counselors and from the Career Development specialists. Studying and learning in the field is central to every Evergreen program, not just science programs.
Academic Advising offers assistance to students who wish to develop an individual contract. At the end of every quarter you will meet with your faculty member to discuss your progress one-on-one. Evergreen's noncompetitive atmosphere fosters collaboration and allows students to truly reflect on what they have learned. The entire learning community-the faculty and staff, who are dedicated to your academic success and growth, and students, your peers who are likewise committed to collaborative learning-support narrative evaluations as an integral of your educational experience.
The Academic Statement will enable you to critically reflect on and assess your decisions, experiences, and accomplishments at Evergreen.
Evergreen is fully accredited as a baccalaureate and graduate degree granting institution by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. Rick Retzlaff’s assignment for students in his second-year Introduction to Engineering Design class this term is giving them real engineering experience, but it could also change the life of a man who uses a wheelchair. The instructor and class co-ordinator came up with the assignment after connecting with the Tetra Society of North America, a volunteer organization dedicated to developing assistive devices to enhance the lives of people with disabilities. Through Tetra, Retzlaff was teamed up with Eric, a young office worker in Vancouver who is looking for a device that would enable him to easily access his backpack while in his wheelchair.
The students, who were universally enthusiastic about the challenge, were divided into 17 teams and given the task of coming up with possible backpack retrieval devices, evaluating them, doing drawings and then building a prototype in the college’s fabrication lab. As the designs developed and the prototypes took shape, Retzlaff spent a lot of time shopping for the bits and pieces the students needed for their projects with support from the various sponsors of the “fab lab”—the potash company Mosaic, Rona and The Bolt Supply Company. In addition to being an exciting project for both instructor and students—“if this is not fun, we’re doing something wrong,” said Retzlaff—the class has a point to prove. By mid-March, the rush was on to complete the prototypes because Eric was scheduled to visit the college March 25 to meet the students, hear their presentations and test their prototypes. No matter what the outcome, Retzlaff believes the partnership with Eric and Tetra has had an enormous benefit for the students.
Comment Comments and responses are welcome but they must not contain inappropriate or insulting language, must not advertise services or businesses, and must not include false information. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Ignatius of Loyola, who after being wounded in a battle, experienced a religious conversion and composed the Spiritual Exercises to closely follow Christ. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743. A public, four-year liberal arts and sciences college located in the Pacific Northwest, Evergreen offers a dynamic curriculum that focuses on solving problems, themes and experiences in the world. When they graduate, Evergreen students understand how their studies relate to people, events and issues. Since you do all of your academic work in one program, your faculty team will know how much work is being assigned to you, so there's no possibility of two tests on the same day or having to choose between a field trip and a conflicting class.
This allows you to build specific skills to produce highly sophisticated work, even in introductory offerings.
Your background, ethnicity, social class and preferred lifestyle will add to the multicultural perspectives here. Faculty will detail your accomplishments, list subject areas you studied and assign the credits you earn toward your bachelor's degree. When you work with your faculty and an academic advisor, you develop an educational plan that fits your needs, interests and future goals. Typically, 45 credits will be in a broad coordinated studies program-like those programs offered to freshmen. Reviewing The Expectations of an Evergreen Graduate with an academic advisor will also assist you in designing your education. Undergraduate students regularly get involved with faculty research projects and creative efforts, providing a wide range of opportunities usually reserved for graduate study.


Faculty and students regularly leave the classroom to explore the environment and build their knowledge of communities, cultures and issues. You will be expected to speak the language as well as develop your study objectives prior to travel.
In this case, you will need to define your study objectives and contract with a faculty member before you leave on your journey. Faculty will prepare written comments for the evaluation discussion, and students will also deliberate on their achievements.
The faculty member may describe your achievements as superlative, or as mediocre, or as needing marked improvement.
You will write an Academic Statement about your Evergreen education and revise this statement annually with support from the faculty that you're currently working with. This ongoing work of critical reflection and assessment is meant to foster thoughtful work that will help you better develop creative and fruitful academic pathways, and write a compelling Statement. Nathan Schuur's 2012 statement (PDF) and Asheem Rai's 2013 statement (PDF) were selected as contest winners. In January, Retzlaff and his students watched a video about Eric and then met him via Skype for a question and answer session.
Retzlaff observed that “the majority were thinking of some kind of swing arm,” but there were also ideas involving ropes, pulleys and even drawers under the wheelchair seat. Retzlaff said a senior design group at the University of British Columbia took on Eric’s challenge but was unable to come up with a solution. There will be independent judges on hand to rate the student presentations but “nobody has quite as much stake in this as Eric does,” said Retzlaff.
Most engineering students “are not very good at broad creative thinking so when they have blinders on or are thinking in a linear way, I encourage them to think about chickens.” What Retzlaff means is they should come at a challenge from a totally different angle, and that imagining chickens as part of the solution stimulates creative thinking. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. The faculty is dedicated to teaching and working closely with students-in the classroom, the lab and in the field. You will find that attention to diversity, in the broadest sense, runs throughout the curriculum. Narrative evaluations give graduate schools and employers a comprehensive picture of your undergraduate education. You have the entire curriculum from which you may make your academic selections and you aren't limited to fulfilling graduation unit requirements. Your sophomore year may be more focused and you may select a program from a specific fields of study.
You will find that field studies are embedded in the Programs for Freshmen as well as in intermediate and advance level programs.
At the end of the program, your learning culminates in the Faculty Evaluation of Student Achievement (PDF). And because you may expect one- to two-pages of comments, this transcript is most certainly not at all like receiving a 'P' or an 'F.' For students who do not complete assignments or miss lectures and seminars, the faculty member may determine that a reduction in credit is necessary and will include comments to this effect. Faculty and staff assist graduate school admission committees or future employers who may not be familiar with narrative evaluations. You will decide how best to document how you are earning a bachelor's degree from The Evergreen State College. Nancy Koppelman, Project Director for the Academic Statement and Member of the Faculty, narrates this short video on the power of the Academic Statement.
Eric explained to the students his physical limitations, the problem he needed solved (he cannot get his backpack onto his shoulders and when it is there, he cannot retrieve it) and how much he was willing to spend. Retzlaff said their grade will also factor in how well they use the design process, a written report, a presentation and a question period about the design.
Site administrators reserve the right to delete and remove comments, edit comments or close the comment forum. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
And, you are preceded by over thirty years of Evergreen alumni who are successfully employed or who have attended graduate or professional schools all over the world. The final version must be submitted to the College as a condition of graduation, and this statement becomes the cover page of your official Evergreen transcript where it will introduce your undergraduate career to an outside audience. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Finally, during your senior year you may select another advanced program or conduct independent research or participate in an internship. Were you able to integrate lectures, reading and lab assignments and demonstrate this learning in the writing assignments?
It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.


Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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