Michael Josephson is a noted radio commentator and the founder of the nonprofit Josephson Institute of Ethics and CHARACTER COUNTS!.
This chapter explains why you should read this book and how it can help you with any computer performance problem, now or in the future. Some have hundreds of pages of very difficult math that most people cana€™t do and most problems dona€™t require. There are so many different technologies in your transaction path; to read all the necessary books would take longer than the average corporate lifetime.
Almost all manuals about a specific version of a technology were written under tremendous time pressure at about the same time the engineering was being completed; thus the engineers had little time to talk to the writers. What Ia€™m about to tell you will work for any collection of computers, running any software that has ever been built. Whether you are studying the slow response time of a computer, the root cause of a traffic jam, or why you are always in the slowest line, understanding those forces gives you a big insight into why this is happening. Many parts of this book help you solve the diversity and complexity problems mentioned earlier by helping you quickly determine that large chunks of your computing infrastructure are not the problem. Once focused, a large fraction of everyonea€™s effort is spent working in the right place and on the right problem. If you can replace S with the number 2 and U with the number 0.5 and calculate that R is equal to (spoiler alert) 4, then you have all the math you need for a long career in performance. In the future, money will still be important, humans will still want to avoid risk, office politics will still matter, and there will be many ways that you can be right, but still fail because you did not pay attention to the people involved. Having worked many performance problems from problem discovery, through solution presentation to senior management, and then on to problem resolution, Ia€™ve made a few mistakes and learned a few tricks. If you are impressed with work experience, then read on as Ia€™ve spent the last 25 years teaching performance fundamentals, capacity planning, modeling, and performance testing of websites. If you are a person who is only impressed with academic qualifications then I have few to offer you.
Your business depends on a collection of computers, software, networking equipment, and specialized devices. All companies have an internal language and shorthand terms they use when describing the subset of the entire computing universe that determines their customera€™s experience. In performance monitoring you need to know three things: the incoming workload, the resource consumption and what is normal. You need to know the incoming workload (what the users are asking your system to do) because all computers run just fine under no load.
Expected problems are when the users are simply asking the application for more things per second than it can do.
Unexpected problems are when the incoming workload should be well within the capabilities of the application, but something is wrong and either the end-user performance is bad or some performance meter makes no sense. On any given day you, as the performance person, should be able to have a fairly good idea of how much work the users are asking the system to do and what the major performance meters are showing.
With rare exception Ia€™ve found the lack of easily available workload information to be the single best predictor of how bad the situation is performance wise. The data you collect can also be used to predict the future with the other three tools in your bag: Capacity Planning, Load Testing, and Modeling. Capacity planning is the simple science of scaling the observed system so you can see if you have enough resources to handle the projected peak load, but it only works for resources you know about. Capacity planning is like a pre-party checklist where you check if there are enough: appetizers, drinks, glasses, places to sit, etc. Capacity planning starts by gathering key performance meters at a peak time on a reasonably busy day. Now scale (multiply) the observed meters by the bossa€™s answer to get the projected peak utilization. In my experience, the application is rarely reengineered unless the inefficiency is egregious and the fix is easy and obvious.
Capacity planning can be that simple, but there are a few more things you need to consider. Even though you base your projections on one peak day, you should look at the data over a period of a few days to a few weeks. Capacity planning can show you how busy key resources are at peak load, but it cana€™t tell you about response time changes as the load increases. Load testing is the art of creating artificially generated work that mimics the real work generated by the real users.
Load tests depend on good performance monitoring to keep an eye on critical system resources as the load builds.
For a load test to be really useful it must test the entire part of the transaction path that you care about.
Load testing can also help you find where subsystems break, and isolate the effect of one transaction type. Load testing can tell you many interesting things, but it can only give you data on the computing infrastructure you have now. If you need to predict a future that is different from your present, then you need to model. When your boss asks you to predict future performance of some application, first see if you can do a simple capacity plan.
This model of Hurricane Irene is accurate enough for anyone with a house on the Gulf of Mexico and it looks hopeful for Floridaa€™s Atlantic coast as well. In a computer context, imagine your model shows that at peak load this servera€™s CPU is 20% busy.
Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont. If you respect these limits, modeling is doable, useful and has its place when you are asking questions about the future.
This chapter shows you how to gain confidence you will make it smoothly though a projected future peak load by scaling up your current observed load. This chapter gives you practical advice on how to load test an existing application to see if can really handle the upcoming peak. This chapter dispels the myth of modeling complexity and shows how modeling performance can save you a lot of time and money. This chapter teaches you how to present your results so that they are understood and are believable.
This book is concise, useful, and occasionally funny.A  It gives you the tools needed to explore, and discover the hidden truths about your computing world. Unfortunately, the above model of Hurricane Irene, at that moment, could not see far enough into the future to predict the devastating flooding Irene would cause in my home state of Vermont.A  All models have limits. China will have a "huge" demand for robotics professionals as the world's second largest economy is trying to upgrade its labor-intensive industry with technological innovation, said the chief of China's largest robot manufacturer by market value. A technician commands an industrial robot at the workshop of Ruihong Robot Ltd in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province.
Qu's comment came as China is planning to triple its annual production of robots used in the manufacturing sector to 100,000 in five years.
Currently, the country is already the world's largest market for industrial robots, accounting for a quarter of global sales, according to the International Federation of Robotics. Qu said China is in great need of world-level robot research and development teams as well as high-end technicians, as companies across the country are cranking up the automation of factories.
In February, Siasun bought Teutloff Training and Welding Education Non-profit Ltd Liability Company, a leading German mechanical engineering vocational school, for an undisclosed sum. The deal, which Siasun said is the first full Chinese acquisition of a German vocational institute, will give the company, based in Shenyang, Liaoning province, access to Germany's decades of experience in vocational training. It is also part of Siasun's broad efforts to compete with foreign heavyweights such as ABB Ltd, and KUKA Robotics Corp in China, where many corporate clients know little about operating robots and therefore extra technical training will help boost sales. On Tuesday, Boston Consulting Group Inc said in its latest report that China's efforts to boost manufacturing prowess will reshape the country's labor landscape, affecting around one million jobs in the near future. According to Du, China has already cultivated a big pool of efficient workers after three decades of rapid growth in the manufacturing industry. China's intensified efforts to promote the use of industrial robots also came amid a looming labor shortage, which has spurred a surge in labor costs in the world's most populous country. Christian Guse, principal at BCG, said cutting-edge products will make it easier for Chinese companies to nurture qualified employees. Upon completion of the acquisition, ICBC, China's largest commercial lender by assets, will become the first Chinese bank to have a vault in London, which is one of the largest precious metals vaults in Europe, the bank announced on Monday evening. By owning a precious metals vault, ICBC Standard Bank will be capable of providing a precious metals clearing service. ICBC will gain the ability to provide one-stop precious metals services across the entire process, which includes clearing, market making, pricing fixing, vaulting and risk management. Earlier in May, ICBC Standard Bank was approved to join a precious metals clearing system operated by London Precious Metals Clearing Ltd, becoming the first Chinese bank to provide clearing services for London's precious metals market. ICBC is the first banking group to be admitted to London Precious Metals Clearing Ltd since 2005, joining the other five members - Barclays, HSBC Holdings PLC, JPMorgan Chase & Co, the Bank of Nova Scotia and UBS AG. Apart from the clearing service, ICBC Standard Bank will have the opportunity to play an important role in providing precious metals commodity leasing and financing intermediary services, according to analysts. Since the start of its precious metals business in 2009, to the end of March, ICBC has recorded nearly 730,000 tons of total metals trading volumes with the value of transactions exceeding 7 trillion yuan ($1.07 trillion).
The bank has built a global investment management platform for precious metals and commodities while steadily pushing forward its business in core international financial markets. Barclays, meanwhile, has decided to exit the precious metals business in the wake of US and European Union regulators examining whether at least 10 banks, including Barclays, JPMorgan Chase & Co and Deutsche Bank AG, manipulated the prices of precious metals. The report shows Chinese buyers paid a higher price for condos, homes and apartments than other foreign buyers, according to figures from the National Association of Realtors, which recorded the average price paid by Chinese buyers in 2015 was $831,800, compared to $499,600 for other international buyers. Arthur Margon, one of the authors and a partner at independent real estate economics consultants Rosen, said: "This wave of investment is coming from diverse sources in China. The study also reveals China is the biggest foreign holder of mortgage-backed securities issued by US government-sponsored enterprises such as Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, with a total of $207.9 billion, up from $20 billion in 2000. Since 2010, the report claims nearly 20,000 Chinese, using an EB-5 visa for immigrant investors, generated at least $9.5 billion of capital and may have created or sustained 200,000 jobs. The visa program allows a foreign national who invests at least $500,000 in projects that create a minimum of 10 jobs to receive a US visa and, on completion of the project, a green card for permanent residency status.
Elsewhere, the study shows half the total $17.1 billion investment by Chinese since 2010 in existing office towers, hotels and other commercial buildings came in 2015, representing an annual growth rate of 70 percent.
Commenting on the findings, executive vice-president at East West Bancorp Inc Wendy Cai-Lee said Chinese buyers are becoming more knowledgeable about the US real estate market. A US exhibitor resorts to a Mickey Mouse cartoon to attract home-buyers at a property expo in Shanghai. Analysts said the mature market infrastructure and sound legal system of the US market, as well as the access to high-tech companies, were among the driving forces behind the trend. Xu Hongcai, director of the economic research department at the China Center for International Economic Exchanges, said the growing trend of Chinese investors making the US a popular investment destination would likely continue after official data showed a record $8.39 billion of Chinese ODI in the US last year.
A recent report by nonprofit organization the National Committee on US-China Relations and research firm Rhodium Group predicted that 2016 would be another record year for Chinese investments in the US. The economic slowdown, industrial overcapacity, as well as the uncertainty of the renminbi's exchange rate have accelerated outbound investment by Chinese companies. China's total nonfinancial ODI surged by 71.8 percent from the previous year to $60 billion in the first four months of this year, according to the Ministry of Commerce. Besides the US, Australia was another major destination for Chinese outbound investment, which jumped 188.1 percent year-on-year. Chinese companies also invested a total of $4.91 billion in 49 economies involved in the Belt and Road Initiative in the January to April period. However, Chinese investment in the European Union decreased 44.8 percent from the same period of last year, which analysts said may have something to do with the rising protectionism in the region. The district is home to Shanghai General Motors' Wuhan factory, which opened last year and assembles 1,300 Buick Excelles a day, at full tilt, supporting an ecosystem of dozens of auto parts factories.
A Chinese employee working on the Kadjar car assembly line of France's Renault and China's Dongfeng Group factory in Wuhan, Hubei province. Once China's biggest steelmaker and the pride of the city, Wuhan Iron and Steel (Group) Corp is now under pressure to cut excess capacity like many others. Thankfully for those about to be laid off, Wuhan is home to nine car factories, including joint ventures with Renault, PSA and Honda, plus dozens of auto parts-makers. The auto industry now supplies 20 percent of the city's industrial output and employs more than 1 million residents. A personnel manager with Dongfeng Peugeot Citroen Automobile said that the number of assembly workers is actually falling as robots take their jobs, but more jobs are opening up among parts-makers and at vehicle storage facilities. Apart from picking up the employment slack left by steel mills, the auto industry is a major customer of steel producers, and the city sees it as a stimuli to upgrading the steel industry. WISCO now supplies steel panels to local car plants, 70 percent of DPCA's panels in fact, along with other marks such as Volkswagen and Land Rover.
Li Minghuan, a director of the DPCA technical center, said WISCO began supplying low-end panels in 2000 and is now a strategic supplier of DPCA. A spokesperson for WISCO's sales department said it sells steel to dozens of automakers in Wuhan and the surrounding area, greatly aided by low-cost water transportation on the Yangtze River.
China launched catastrophe insurance on Tuesday, unveiling new rules to cover earthquake insurance.
Top regulators said the moves were part of the country's efforts to improve the insurance sector and work for disaster reduction and mitigation. By the end of 2017, finalized rules on earthquake insurance and an insurance fund for catastrophes will be established, according to a step-by-step plan that has mapped out for the catastrophe insurance system in China.
Each household purchasing catastrophe insurance covering earthquakes in the policy may be compensated by up to one million yuan ($153,300) if an quake causes asset losses, under the plan, jointly released by the China Insurance Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of Finance. Analysts said that China needed integrated data on catastrophe forecasts, records and monitoring to help insurers write policies covering a variety of situations in a vast land which may be hit by future natural disasters. He said that for residents who were exposed to the risk of earthquakes and other catastrophes, it was important to raise their awareness of buying insurance covering those disasters.
Currently reconstruction work after natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, typhoons, mudslides and fires, is mostly financed by the government as well as by charities and through donations. Under the planned pilot program, the risks of catastrophes will be shared between governments, insurance and reinsurance firms and individuals, which analysts say will help the country better leverage its resources and financial tools, strengthening its capacity to handle risks. Between 2017 and 2020, catastrophe insurance will be promoted nationwide, covering a wide range of disasters, as a part of the country's system for disaster prevention and mitigation. Analysts said catastrophe insurance will supplement the current insurance system in China, taking advantage of financial vehicles to strengthen the country's risk management capacity. As many as 45 asset insurers will be engaged in the pilot program for catastrophe insurance covering earthquakes.
According to a CIRC report, the local governments of some cities and provinces, such as Ningbo in Zhejiang province, Sichuan province and Yunnan province, have piloted using government funds to buy commercial insurance for residents. Shares of insurers listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen put in a mixed performance on Tuesday after the plan was released. At a time when electronic forms of communication are taking over, the number of premium stationery boutiques is growing in China, catering to those consumers looking for sophisticated products that spell tradition and refinement.
The transformation of stationery products from practical tools to lifestyle accessories is opening up a new world of opportunity for high-end foreign stationery firms in China. For instance, Campo Marzio, which started as a small family-owned leather goods shop in central Rome in 1933, is now known for its soft Italian leatherette business accessories in bold colors and sophisticated writing instruments with scented inks. The Italian stationer entered China in 2005 with a flagship store and an office in Hong Kong. Last year, the premium stationer registered annual retail sales of 30 million yuan ($4.6 million), reflecting a strong appetite for the brand in the country. Campo Marzio, which already has 20 stores in China's largest cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Xi'an expects to open this year an additional 20 retail stores and special boutique kiosks across China.
The expansion of its brick-and-mortar stores will be complemented by an online store to be launched in September, a strategy that is expected to increase the company's sales in China by 30 percent this year.
For Di Giorgio, the success of the brand in China reflects that Chinese consumers are becoming less brand-conscious and are opting for craft products with a personal touch instead. Nonetheless, because high-end stationery firms are aware that the use of electronic media is affecting the way we communicate and the writing materials we use, Campo Marzio will introduce a new line of pens that can be used to both write on paper and to register messages on a computer or smartphone, allowing users to always have a digital and a physical copy of their writing. The introduction of technology settings is one of the reasons why the company will soon relocate its Asia office from Hong Kong to Shenzhen, one of China's busiest technology hubs. Even though imported stationery remains a niche market, representing just 3 percent of the total domestic demand of $11.6 billion, premium products have a loyal clientele among Chinese consumers. Imports of stationery products reached $352.7 million in 2015, helped by the use of technological advantages and solid brand reputation, according to a market report by business intelligence firm IBIS World.
Imports of stationery products are forecast to grow to $384.5 million in 2020, as more leading foreign enterprises will enter the Chinese market over the next five years.
Milan-listed Moleskine Spa came into being in 1997 with the idea of reviving the style of the iconic pocket-size black notebooks used by legendary artists and thinkers like the US writer Ernest Hemingway and Spanish painter Pablo Picasso. In early 2013, the Italian company opened its first Chinese store in Shanghai and in a period of just two years, the brand inaugurated 21 directly operated stores across the country, with a flagship store in central Beijing. Given the high demand for premium stationery products, Moleskinew expects to open six new stores in China this year. Moleskine notes that writing instruments, particularly pens and pencils, limited-edition notebook collections dedicated to the literary icon The Little Prince, and cartoon character Doraemon are among the most popular items in China.
As technology evolves towards a paperless world of electronic devices, the brand is also improving its products. Moleskine has been recently focusing on digital services, particularly in developing applications for smartphones and tablets. China is the world's biggest market for fountain pens, with sales of the writing instrument being higher in the country than in the whole of Western Europe combined, providing high-end stationery manufacturers with lucrative opportunities to expand their businesses. Last year, sales of fountain pens rose to $341 million, an increase of 7 percent from 2014, according to Euromonitor International. Two visitors stand in front of the Parker pen's billboard at an international gift fair in Beijing.
Parker Pen Co, one of the world's largest producers of writing instruments, first entered the Chinese market in the 1980s. Atlanta-based Newell Rubbermaid Co, owner of Parker, expects sales of the writing instruments brand to register an 8-10 percent growth in 2016. What were luxury pens in the past are now affordable lifestyle accessories that fit well with China's gift-giving business culture.
Parker, which was established in 1888, sells its complete portfolio of products in China, with the high-end Sonnet and the IM range pens being the preferred choices among Chinese consumers, particularly as a gift choice in urban areas. This year, Newell expects to inaugurate three Parker flagship stores to meet increasing demand for its writing instruments.

The brand has now 400 franchises in 50 cities across China, particularly in department stores and shopping malls.
While sales volumes of premium fountain pens are expected to contract in mature markets like North America and Europe, they are expected to keep growing in China in the coming years. China's austerity campaign initiated by President Xi Jinping in 2012 has had a significant impact on the gift-giving culture. Chinese internet giant Baidu Inc is set to gain a big advantage in its race with US tech leaders in the driverless vehicle sector after a local government in Anhui province gave the green light to the setting up of a center to test the vehicles. Baidu, which has great ambition in driverless vehicles, signed a cooperation agreement on Monday with Wuhu municipal government to jointly build a trial operation zone for fully autonomous driving vehicles. A man records an ongoing autonomous driving test by taking a picture with his mobile phone. The trial zone, the first of its kind in China, will allow Baidu to become the only company to test autonomous driving in public transportation in Wuhu. He added that artificial intelligence will be the core technology of autonomous vehicles and it will change the entire layout of the auto industry. The establishment of the trial zone is seen as an important step for Baidu to meet its goal of "commercializing driverless technology in three years and achieving mass production in five years". The Beijing-based company, which runs China's largest search engine, has placed great emphasis on artificial intelligence and autonomous driving, as it is keen to diversify its business.
Baidu's autonomous car, which successfully completed road tests last December on combined road conditions - city roads, ring roads and highways - can run at a maximum speed of 100 km per hour. Qian Wenying, director of automobile research at Beijing-based consultancy Analysys International, said that the trial zone could provide Baidu a safer place to test its autonomous driving technology in all kind of weather and road conditions. According to the Wuhu government, road tests of the city's first driverless bus route, about two-kilometers from local carmaker Chery Auto's plant to its research and development center, will start in June. In the pilot period, substitute human drivers will still be needed, but they will not operate the vehicles unless a technical breakdown is reported.
Mao, former vice-president of real estate giant China Vanke Co, who left the property company more than a year ago, said that the traditional property market has been growing too rapidly in recent years, with buyers using high financial leverage to cope with skyrocketing house prices.
He said the current excessive growth in property stock could undermine the future potential for growth and had led to an increasing overall social cost.
Mao said that compared with the traditional property market, office-sharing businesses were not only providing cheaper rentals, but also handy services to startup companies from Wi-Fi to marketing and even legal firms. The business model of Mao's company is much like the New York-based startup WeWork, which rents office space to entrepreneurs, nongovernment organizations and individuals. The Beijing-based company leases office buildings and locations from landlords on the outskirts of big cities such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shenzhen and Shanghai, and then redesign it and sublets it to tenants in smaller rental units. This year, the company - which has raised about $31 million - is on track to lease more than 150,000 square meters with about 15,000 desks in 7 cities across the country.
Eighty percent of the office space already has been booked, about half by internet companies and others by financial companies and sometimes even global top 500 companies.
It is also teaming up with Woospace, also a Beijing-based sharing office company, for equity cooperation.
Currently the company's major focus is only in Beijing, aiming for nine or 10 locations in the city.
CWT said on Monday that its controlling shareholders, the founders of the group, who own more than 30 percent of the equity, are discussing with the Chinese conglomerate on selling the company's equity. The negotiations between HNA and CWT shareholders have been ongoing for several months, and are now close to a conclusion. According to Singaporean regulations, if the acquisition of a company reaches more than 30 percent of its equity, it will trigger a mandatory purchase of the entire firm. Shanghai-listed HNA Group said it is inconvenient to comment now as the project is under negotiation.
Shares of HNA Group stayed flat on Monday, and closed at 3.40 yuan (52 cents), following its surging performance last week. The move is part of the ongoing trend of HNA Group acquiring overseas equities to recombine and step up its domestic and global expansion.
The deal would add to a string of overseas acquisitions of privately owned HNA Group, whose assets are now valued at more than 600 billion yuan. HNA recently agreed to buy Swiss airline catering firm Gategroup Holding AG for $1.5 billion in cash.
In April, HNA agreed to acquire Minnesota-based Carlson Hotel Group, one of the largest in the world and the owner of the Radisson and Country Inns & Suites chains. Li Xiaojin, a professor at Civil Aviation University, said: "One of the reasons that the government proposed the Belt and Road Initiative is to find outlets for domestic overcapacity.
Officials at the film offshoot of e-commerce giant Alibaba Group said on Monday it was rebranding the unit into "Tao Piaopiao", and that it would now handle ticketing for concerts, sports events and other entertainment events it organizes, as well as provide promotional and distribution services. Tao Piaopiao, previously known as Taobao Dianying and launched at the end of 2014, already claims a 20 percent share of China's online movie-ticketing market.
Kong Qi, the general manger of Tao Piaopiao - which translates as "hunting for tickets" - said its ultimate goal is to become the country's largest entertainment marketing platform. The expansion plan was met with analyst approval, at a time of fierce competition within China's online movie ticketing sector. He said the current cash-burning practice by many firms of offering subsidies to cinema goers is unsustainable long-term.
Kong said the company's upgraded platform will be able to tailor-make specific movie promotions, based on big-data-led technology. By leveraging Alibaba's huge resources, he said the platform will also provide financing services to cash-thirsty moviemakers. Apple Inc may not need to wait that long before it reaps the benefits of investing $1 billion in Chinese car-hailing service Didi Chuxing.
Didi is targeting an initial public offering in New York next year, according to industry sources.
The timing will depend on how its battle with Uber Technologies Inc in China plays out, they said. China's biggest ride-hailing app, Didi is in the process of raising about $3 billion of funding, including Apple's $1 billion contribution, which has swelled it's valuation to about $26 billion, sources have said. Already backed by Alibaba Group Holding Ltd and Tencent Holdings Ltd, Didi has reached break even in about half of the 400 Chinese cities it operates in as Uber spends heavily to win both drivers and riders.
Formally known as Xiaoju Kuaizhi Inc, Didi declined to comment on any potential IPO in an e-mailed statement. Apple Chief Executive Officer Tim Cook posted a picture on his Twitter account, showing him using Didi's taxi hailing service together with Didi President Jean Liu. At Didi's current valuation, a US IPO could be the biggest by a Chinese company since Alibaba's record offering in 2014.
The company is among a list of ride-sharing apps including Uber and Lyft Inc that could conduct a public offering. Didi was created last year when separate apps backed by Tencent and Alibaba merged after brutal competition drove up losses.
At a recent Starbucks shareholder meeting in Seattle, Washington state, 11 baristas from Chengdu, 6,300 miles away, performed bian lian, a dramatic, operatic art of Sichuan province. More than 2,800 admiring partners, shareholders, invited guests and Starbucks board members watched in rapt attention as the artists in bright costumes and multiple masks performed, changing from one mask to another in the blink of an eye. A barista from Chengdu, Sichuan, performs bian lian, a 300-year-old, traditional face-changing Sichuan opera dance, in Seattle, US.
Their stunning performance took up a major chunk of the entire duration of the event, underlining the significance of the Chinese market to Starbucks. The world's largest coffee chain had a 73.3 percent share of the top-end cafe chain market in China in 2015. Kevin Johnson, president and chief operating officer of Starbucks, said China is now the company's second-largest market in terms of the number of stores outside of the United States. Earlier this month, Johnson unveiled Starbucks' plans to extend the Teavana brand into its retail stores in China and Asia Pacific by the end of this year. Michael Conway, president, global channel development, Starbucks, sees potential for strong growth in the ready-to-drink segment in China. In addition to convenience stores, hypermarkets such as Wal-Mart will offer Starbucks ready-to-drink beverages. The partnership with Tingyi has enabled Starbucks to make its drinks more relevant to local tastes and make them available in a timely manner. Besides manufacturing in China, local leadership talents and innovation have powered Starbucks' rapid expansion in the country over the past 17 years. Over the last four years, that approach has led the company to focus on how to strike a balance between being a local company and a global brand. That is expected to hold Starbucks in good stead as it seeks to exploit the growth opportunity presented by the expected doubling of Chinese middle class to 600 million by 2022, said Culver, who has been working in Asia for nine years. He said when Starbucks cafes opened in China 17 years ago, tourists and expatriates were the main customers.
Elizabeth Friend, senior food service analyst of Euromonitor International, said last year and the first quarter of this year have been eventful for global cafe chains.
While regions worldwide will see strong growth, Asia Pacific will likely record the largest sales rise, with over $3.7 billion in new value growth from this year to 2020. As much as $2.2 billion of this growth will come from China alone, where Starbucks is leading the charge for a rapidly growing, Western-style tradition of drinking premium takeaway coffee and socializing in coffee shops, she said. Friend said coffee players are seized of the growth potential in China, although there has not yet been any significant shift from tea to coffee beverages in this market. At this stage, it is important to identify which products might best meet consumers' tastes and develop the suitable channels to distribute them, she said. For, new consumers are being continually attracted to support the ready-to-drink or RTD coffee and coffee pod machines, they said. Hope Lee, senior analyst of Euromonitor International, said increasingly, coffee beverage players are looking beyond younger consumers and white-collar workers in big cities to expand the market.
In terms of channel development, food service sales of RTD coffee are still limited as consumers are habituated to drinking tea and other beverages.
However, Euromonitor International's hot drinks database shows that sales of hot coffee have started to take off and outpaced retail sales in volume growth terms. With RTD coffee expected to record a net sales increase of around $1.6 billion for 2015-20, this huge potential has attracted a great deal of investment from major players. In terms of flavor, the most popular one is latte, accounting for over 54 percent of off-trade volume sales in 2015. Freshly brewed coffee at specialist shops is tempting consumers to seek the same pleasure at home. Paul Bulcke, CEO of Nestle Group, said the company is targeting long-term growth in the country. The company invested 50 million yuan in setting up the Nescafe Coffee Center to promote the development of China's coffee industry. Despite Nestle's dominance, it was You Ji Jia (Shanghai) Food Trading Co Ltd that posted the strongest sales growth in 2015, underpinned by specialty coffee mixes, including instant cappuccino and cafe latte. Instant coffee is, and will continue to be, the mainstay of the coffee market in China through 2020, according to Euromonitor International. Chinese of Miao ethnicity in Guizhou's Taijiang county, in which 97 percent of the 168,000 residents are Miao, concluded the annual event on April 19-23, with tens of thousands of locals donning traditional attire in parades, musicians playing the reed-pipe lusheng, and performancers presenting drum dances. According to folklore, a Miao couple were not given permission to be together by their parents and tribe leaders. The occasion, which reportedly reflects the ancient lives of the Miao people during the transition to patriarchy from matriarchy, drew more than 50,000 tourists this year. Wu Dongxiong, who operates a silverware store on Sisters' Street in the county, said tourists swarmed his store to buy souvenirs. The local government named Wu an "inheritor of intangible cultural heritage" to encourage him to pass on the craftsmanship to the next generation and to attract more young people to the industry.
In the first three months of 2016 alone, Qiandongnan Prefecture, which administers Taijiang, has welcomed more than 14 million tourists, a year-on-year increase of 57.6 percent, according to official statistics.
To take Taijiang's tourism to the next level, the local government decided to bring in more investment, with 13 projects worth almost 1.2 billion yuan already inked at this year's event. The projects will help develop tourism, agriculture and health recovery industry, according to the government.
Li Feiyue, Qiandongnan's Party chief, said events like Sisters' Day are not just about boosting economic growth. Caravans of camels carrying silk, jewels and spices along the Silk Road are long gone, but cargo trains linking Chinese cities with Europe are taking the ancient road into a brand-new future. China now has three rail channels to Europe - a western route through the Alataw Pass in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region to Kazakhstan, a middle path via Erenhot to Mongolia, and through Manzhouli in the northeast to Russia.
Such train networks have flourished since the launch of the Silk Road Economic Belt in 2013 to improve cooperation between countries along the ancient Silk Road. According to the Ministry of Commerce, trade between China and "Belt and Road" countries totaled $995 billion in 2015, about a quarter of the national trade volume. The Changchun-Manzhouli-Europe line has transported cargo worth more than 35 million euros since August, and in return the trains have brought novel, cheap goods like vodka, tiramisu and wild Siberian honey. An increasing number of Chinese tourists are visiting Egypt following President Xi Jinping's recent visit, reviving Egypt's tourism industry. Tourism in Egypt was dealt a heavy blow following the Russian airplane crash in North Sinai last October, after which several countries, including Britain and Russia, suspended their flights to Egypt. This further augmented the recession in the country's already ailing tourism sector which is a major source of its national income and foreign currency reserves. However, even before the plane crash, Egypt suffered a sharp decline in tourism due to three years of political turmoil, including two mass uprisings which toppled two presidents, forcing several countries to ban their citizens from visiting Egypt for safety reasons.
Luxor, once an Ancient Egyptian capital, suffered similarly as with Egyptian tourist cities. However, the industry has recently improved as hundreds of Chinese tourists visit the city daily. He added that Chinese tourists also frequent restaurants, coffee shops, bazaars and malls nearly as much as American and European tourists did, though they've recently stopped visiting Luxor. Egypt, the most populous Arab country, with its rich culture, now pins immense hope on China and is eager to tap into the China's tourism market.
During a recent interview with Xinhua, former Egyptian Tourism Minister, Hisham Zaazou, said that Egypt received 35 percent additional tourists from China immediately following president Xi's visit to Egypt.
To encourage more tourists to visit the country, Egypt exempted Chinese tourists from visa requirements, allowing for visa-upon-arrival if they are sponsored by a tourist agency and are financially comfortable. Apparently, these measures as well as Luxor's charm attract Chinese tourists looking for tranquility surrounded by breathtaking ancient ruins scattered throughout the city.
Luxor is home to Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Kings and its magnificent sunset at the majestic Karnak and Luxor temples are a perfect choice for culture-based tourism. Helen is visiting Egypt with her family for the first time, but she said it will not be her last. Helen's mother also said visiting Egypt is much cheaper than neighboring countries such as the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon or Jordan, therefore it is more attractive to Chinese tourists.
Chinese and Egyptian tourist agencies promote Luxor to Chinese tourists as a great city to visit in Egypt.
Yang said Chinese tourists were very scared to visit Egypt at first due to the country's political and security situation, but they were encouraged following the Chinese president's visit earlier this year. Investors may have to bear with short-term pains of greater volatility in the Chinese stock market as the securities regulator stepped up the effort to rein in the speculative bubble, analysts said.
A Chinese investor walks past an electronic display showing prices of shares at a stock brokerage house in Hangzhou city, East China's Zhejiang province, May 9, 2016.
Technology companies and startups in segments like online finance, film and television, gaming and virtual reality, as well as the shell companies that fit into the investment theme of overseas-listed Chinese companies seeking to delist abroad and list in China, were among the stocks hit hardest by the top securities regulator's intention to subject suspected speculative trading to greater scrutiny. But the regulator said on Friday that the current policy on refinancing and mergers and acquisitions by listed companies remains the same and it will make an official announcement if there is any adjustment to the rules. The China Securities Regulatory Commission has also been taking a closer look at the listing of the hitherto overseas-listed companies on the A-share market through backdoor listing, also known as reverse merger, a typical practice of taking control of an already listed shell company to avoid the lengthy process of an initial public offering.
Analysts said that other factors that could weigh on the stock market are investors' concerns over the sustainability of the economic rebound in the first quarter and the possible tightening of the monetary policy to rein in credit bubbles and reduce financial leverage. Some economists have scaled back their forecast on credit easing by the People's Bank of China, the Chinese central bank, for the rest of the year after the People's Daily quoted an "authoritative person" as saying that China should avoid using strong stimulus to pump up investment growth in the short term and should not support growth by adding leverage. Jiang Chao, an analyst at Haitong Securities Co, said the absence of massive credit easing could mean that the Chinese economy and the capital market will experience short-term pain. This suggests they are selling such equities now with the expectation that their prices will likely fall, when they would buy them back at a lower price.
This cautious approach follows the benchmark stock market index's lingering below 3,000 points. According to data of Heng Tang Wealth Ltd, a financial services information provider, equity funds in China have been stripping their portfolios of A shares. Data released by Royal Flush Information Network Co Ltd showed among the 639 equity funds it monitors, 259 have reported losses by May 11, and 77 reported a zero yield. Many factors have influenced the A-share market sentiment, including some negative forecasts on currency exchange rates, and weakened anticipation of an equity market recovery, following a surge in February that boosted share prices of some growth-oriented companies by as much as 50 percent. The runaway rise left little room for them to grow further, according to a research note from Golden Eagle Fund Management Co Ltd. According to Wang Zhe, investment researcher with Golden Eagle Fund Management Co Ltd, the economy needs more drivers given the current slowing growth. Despite equity funds' propensity to go short, some sectors in the A-share market are still able to attract some investors. Among these sectors, electronics, healthcare and pharmaceuticals are supported by the nationwide campaign to accelerate supply-side reforms.
For investors of open-ended equity funds, growth opportunities may lie in some sectors that benefitted from a recovery in economic growth in the first quarter, particularly those related to day-to-day consumption, such as food and beverages, said analysts. According to Shanghai-based WIND Information Technology Co Ltd, 14 companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen, which have been included in the "Chinese white liquor (baijiu) sector", reported average share price growth of 2.01 percent last week, with the best-performing ones gaining more than 5 percent. Sectors at the top of the cyclical growth pattern, such as pork, dairy and other agricultural products, may also show a great potential for growth. As many as 16 companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen, which have been included in the "pork and meat processing sector", reported average share price growth of 5.03 percent last week, with the best-performing ones gaining more than 10 percent.
A report from Shenzhen-based Bosera Fund Management Co Ltd recommended investors buy shares of white liquor (baijiu) makers. When Rob Bevis launched Roque Fine Wine, an importer and wholesaler of fine wine, in China three years ago, he was told the country's wine market was nearing a tipping point.
The government crackdown on corruption had led to curbs on officials' extravagant, taxpayer-funded banquets. So, sales of high-end and expensive imported wines, which were common at lavish banquets, fell in terms of both volume and revenue.

What's more, consumers in China have broadened their ken and developed a taste for fine wines. In value terms, 2015 sales reached $1.87 billion, up 37 percent year-on-year, according to data of China Customs. Leading the pack of foreign wines in China are the French varieties, followed by some New World wines, particularly those from Australia, Chile, South Africa and Argentina, which are fast grabbing market shares from popular brands. Market researchers said Chinese consumers are also buying more and more of relatively expensive wines imported from New Zealand. Subscribers and regular visitors to this blog will find written and audio versions of radio commentaries, plus printable posters, observations and videos. Your responses will form the basis of a report to be published soon by Josephson Institute.
Everything (hardware, operating systems, networking, applications, users, corporate goals, org charts, priorities, and budgets) changes over time and with change comes new performance challenges. It will continue to be useful 100 years from now when todaya€™s technology, if it runs at all, will look as quaint as a mechanical cuckoo clock. They help you make sense out of the performance meters you do understand and help keep you from making big mistakes.
It shows you how to use the scientific method to decipher what they mean and how to find patterns in the raw data.
This rapidly focuses your companya€™s full and undivided attention on the small part of your computing world (System Z) that is causing the performance problem. Now, the right experts can be consulted and business decisions can be made to fix or work around the problem.
I spent about 15 of those years also doing performance work on live systems and critical applications for customers around the world. Ia€™ve had plenty of practice in my standup teaching as well as when working with customers. Back in the 70a€™s he wrote this wonderful little book about repairing literally any bicycle.
It usually includes dealing with immediate performance problems or collecting data that will be used by the other three tools to plan for future peak loads.
Without these three things you can only solve the most obvious performance problems and have to rely on tools outside the scientific realm (such as a Ouija Board, or a Magic 8 Ball) to predict the future.
If you have a good sense of what is normal for your situation, then any abnormality will jump right out at you in the same way you notice subtle changes in a loved one that a stranger would miss.
Your meters should be running all the time (like bank security cameras) so that when weird things happen you have a multitude of clues to look at. Assuming you know how many guests will show up and have a reasonable understanding of what they will consume, everything you checked should be fine. Almost any day will do, as long as the system load is high enough to clearly differentiate it from the idle system load. In most situations, people tend to value application stability more than the money they will spend to solve the problem with more hardware.
This gives you a clear picture where the usual daily peaks are and if there are things going on at odd times that you have to factor into any changes you propose. Even if you had perfect metering, doing the math would be a staggering challenge and, even, then youa€™d be gambling the business on reams of calculations.
These resources take a little more work and creativity to capacity plan for, but this is completely doable. It can be done in a few days, presented in a few slides and prepared with few additional costs or risks. The overall load starts off low and then increases in stages to the point where you achieved your goal or you fail because some resource has hit a limit and has become a bottleneck. For any test you need to know how much work you are sending into the system, the throughput and response time for the completed work, and how the system resources are responding under that load.
If your product is your website then you need to test from where your users are: all the way in and all the way back to where they live.
If you only got half way to your goal before you hit a bottleneck, then every measured resource is going to be doing twice the work once you fix the current bottleneck. Imagine your workload is an even mix of Red and Blue transactions, but it is the Blue transactions that really exercise some key component of your computing world.
To use a metaphor, running a race tells you about your current aerobic capacity, not the capacity you will have after six more months of training. To model, you are going to need the data you collected with performance monitoring and maybe some data from load tests. Everyday, in companies all over the world, regular people build simple models that answer important business questions. If circumstances change so much that you lack confidence in that prediction, then try modeling.
Either you can directly measure the performance of a live system under load, or you have to guess about a theoretical future situation.
It doesna€™t take a genius to understand that your model could be off by a lot and the server would still have plenty of CPU power left. This chapter gives you the keys to understanding all computer performance problems and provides an important foundation for the next four chapters. With it, and some work on your part, youa€™ll be able to solve performance problems and to walk into the CIOa€™s office with confidence.
There are utilization meters that tell you how busy a resource is, there are count meters that count interesting events (some good, some bad), and there are duration meters that tell you how long something took. A useful answer is: accurate enough to answer your question with a reasonable margin of safety.
The vault can store 2,000 tons of gold and other precious metals such as silver, platinum and palladium.
It will offer customized services including supply and inspection of precious metals, according to ICBC. The bank will be able to carry out both retail and wholesale business on precious metals, whether they are paper or physical. It was approved access to the gold price mechanism of London Bullion Market Association as a gold fixing pricer in April.
It said this was driven by the desire to gain access to the explosion of technological innovation, as well as the urge to tap the growing spending power of domestic middle-class consumers by investing in tourism and hospitality.
People introduce their hometown as "China's Motor City", and many young people expect to work in the automotive industry when they leave school or college. Wuhan attracts foreign investment partly through ease of water transit and proximity to the inland market.
Board Chairman Ma Guoqiang has said that as many as 50,000 workers "will need to find another job". They have worked in car businesses in other cities and returned to Wuhan with experience and skills. Dong Yang, executive vice-chairman of the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, cites low car ownership-only around 30 percent of Chinese families have a car-and anticipated future economic growth as mitigating factors against oversupply. Technically speaking, it is essential to collect enough data for modeling and actuarial studies, which are really important for insurers when they write policies," said Tony Chung, Shanghai-based insurance consultant with Heng Tai Wealth Management Ltd.
Small wonder, Parker generated 400 million yuan ($62 million) in sales revenue in China last year. Consumers now prefer to gift top-quality pens in place of luxury watches and high-end spirits.
Two driverless cars took part in the 2,000-kilometer test between Chongqing and Beijing last month. If the technology is proven to be workable, the local authorities in Wuhu are even considering replacing all of the city's buses and part of its taxi fleet with driverless vehicles in another five years. Instead of being defined by traditional technologies and performance, automobiles in the future will be defined by software," said Wang Jin, head of Baidu's autonomous driving business unit. It will also help the cars "speed up their learning process", therefore pushing the development of the technology. Google, which has clocked up 2.4 million kilometers with its self-driving cars, has faced restrictions in its home state of California, and therefore has to keep those test trips very local. Two models of electric cars developed jointly by the two companies will also be ready for road tests soon," said Zhang Dong, deputy secretary-general of the Wuhu municipal government.
There is no certainty that the negotiations will result in a definitive transaction, according to the company's announcement. This February, it bought US-listed electronics distributor Ingram Micro Inc for $6 billion.
They combine the advantages of the Western market, including international experience and advanced regulations, as well as the advantages of Eastern culture, which makes it easy to cooperate with Chinese companies, Li said. Now the group mainly covers logistics around Southeast Asia, so acquiring the Singaporean company will help HNA expand its global logistics coverage," Li said. Such a move may put the Chinese app ahead of its US rival in going public, with Uber having said it wants to hold off as long as possible. Eleven dancers, all employees of Star-bucks China, staged the opening performance at the Starbucks meeting of shareholders.
It built an emotional connect with its local staff and stakeholders through regular meetings. For, demand for specialist coffee grew consistently, leading to rapid innovation and growing competition among the players.
RTD coffee is not the most suitable complementary beverage for Chinese taste buds, he said. For example, Chinese consumers migrated to mobile phones despite very limited availability of land lines. They continued their romance regardless and when they met in secret, the girl would give her lover a bowl of glutinous rice, known as Sister's Rice. Liu said she usually collects handmade embroidery from local women and sells it during Sisters' Day. A direct freight train linking Wuhan in central China and Lyons in France began running last week. Many cities now have freight trains to European cities including Hamburg, Lyons and Madrid. In northeast China, where a freight train began running to Europe last year, Russian imports are all the rage. In a Russian store in Changchun, a bottle of vodka costs only 45 yuan ($6.9), while fresh tiramisu costs only 30 yuan. Luxor's 7,000 year-old history attracts Chinese tourists who single out Egypt for its rich history, and they also want to learn more about its local culture," said Yang Lili, a Chinese leader of a tourist group during a tour of Karnak Temple. The latest regulatory shift could mean that they may face greater correction pressure," said Shen Zhengyang, an analyst at Northeast Securities Co Ltd. That's why, the market reacted so negatively when the regulatory stance changed," Shen said. The situation may persist until the A-share market sentiment improves to signal a recovery. The latter are going against the general trend as they think some sectors still have great potential for growth, said a research note by Xin Hu Wealth Management Ltd. For, of the some 160 sectors, they have been among the top 10 sectors that saw the highest growth rate in share price for three consecutive weeks.
The clean-up heralded long-term benefits for the society, but had an immediate adverse impact on wine consumption in the country. Diners who used to spend 2,000 yuan on a bottle of wine, were spending only 600 yuan," said Bevis. In the last three years, China's wine market has steadily recovered the path to a healthy and sustainable growth.
They are in the mood to try more varieties sourced from different wine regions of the world. In volume terms, sales of imported bottled wines in 2015 have rebounded to a three-year high of 395 million liters, up 37 percent year-on-year. Varieties such as Blanc Sauvignon from Marlborough are gaining in popularity, despite their average price being among the highest in imported wines, according to a latest research note by Rabobank, the Netherlands-based provider of food- and agriculture-related financing and research services. 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant. There are always things to do, things to learn, things to prepare for, and experiments to run. These patterns can tell you useful things about whata€™s going on inside the giant black box that is your computing world. I had three majors (Wildlife Biology, Botany and Computer Science) but I have no degree as I left college when I ran out of money and got my first job in the computer industry. Mostly Ia€™ve learned from other performance wizards, programmers, system administrators and a few generally smart people Ia€™ve known. Clarity is essential when explaining to senior management that they need to spend large amounts of money.
There are many other parts that you dona€™t control, cana€™t meter, and have no clue how they do their work. Expected problems are no fun, but they can be foreseen and, depending on the situation, your response might be to endure them, because money is tight or because the fix might introduce too much risk. This could be a simple case of them not caring about doing a good job, but my more charitable assessment is that he had no idea what a€?normala€? was, so everything the register told him had to be taken at face value. This can save your bacon because if you spot the unexpected utilization before the peak occurs, then you have time to find and fix the problem before the system comes under a peak load. You will want to search this data by time (What happened at 10:30?), so be sure to include timestamps.
However, even if you miss something, you are still better off having planned for reasonable amounts of the key resources. Ia€™m very sure the CIO looking at all this complex math would feel very uneasy betting his or her job on these calculations. If you need more confidence in your plan, or you need to hold the response time down to a reasonable level, or if the future you are planning for includes significant changes to the transaction mix or vital systems, then you need to do either Load Testing or Modeling.
When that happens, throughput stops increasing, response times climb to an unacceptably painful place and things break. If you (and your boss) only have responsibility for a small subset of the entire transaction path then thata€™s all you really need to test.
So take all the peak measurements and double them to get a good idea of what you are likely to run out of as you push the test to the goal load.
Create a load test that sends in all Blue transactions and you can collect the data you need without the interference of the Red transactions.
Examples of big changes that preclude simple capacity planning might be things like, large application or middleware changes or a big change in the incoming workload.
The closer to the utilization limit (or the projected storm track), the more precise you have to make your model.
As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€?A  Please dona€™t wait for perfection. The city was founded on steel and the car industry is seen as away of weaning the city off its over-reliance on a declining industry. I came back because I saw the potential here," said Kang Mansheng, 35, who works at a parts-maker in Jiangxia. Home to Changan Automobile and a new Beijing Hyundai plant, the southwestern city is working toward an annual capacity of 4 million cars by 2017. Nestle's Nescafe, a strong category leader, hired Chinese actress Angela baby for TV advertisements, which boosted sales. Some buy one during their overseas trips while overseas versions of local e-commerce websites sell imported machines. Pod sales are expected to account for over half of fresh ground coffee sales by 2020, suggesting that some consumers may choose to "leapfrog or skip" the standard format and directly trade up to pods. So, Nestle is planning to launch new products to meet local Chinese consumers' needs, such as chocolate milk tea. Now, with a new train route linking Europe and Wuhan City where his company is based, it takes just two weeks.
Booming entertainment and services sectors are a natural result of shifting economic growth patterns, the research note said.
For another, they were not very knowledgeable or well-informed about wines, hence got easily confused by a plethora of brands that had entered the market. Increasing number of consumers buy wines for their own consumption or to share with families and friends.
I can take the next thing that comes along.” You must do the thing you think you cannot do. I would arrive knowing almost nothing about their business and their problems and leave having given them a clear path to follow.
An engaging style is essential when teaching multi-day classes, especially just after lunch. Furthermore, there are limits placed on you due to politics, time, budget, legal restrictions, and the tools you have available. Modeling is the only way to project the performance of an application in the design stage where there is no performance data to scale. Start somewhere, collect something and, as you explore and discover, add this to your collection. Kang spent eight years as a driver and mechanic in eastern China but came back in 2015 with his wife and many colleagues as local salaries improved. Other cities producing more than 1 million cars annually include Shanghai, Beijing, Changchun and Guangzhou, but overcapacity concerns are rising as the car market becomes saturated. Starbucks and Ting Hsin (PepsiCo's local distributor and bottler) agreed to jointly produce and distribute RTD coffee. I like people and if I couldna€™t make my classes useful, interesting, and relevant, then I would have stopped teaching a long time ago. As the commemorative plate infomercial says: a€?Collect them all!a€? Please dona€™t wait for perfection. Ignorant consumers would buy such high-cost wines assuming they must be good varieties hence expensive. And, conversely, even if good-quality wines carried promotional lower price-tags, consumers would not buy them thinking they must be of poor quality hence cheap, said Bevis.

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