Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.
Each autumn, salmon return to the rivers of their birth a€“ there to spawn and once again trigger a renewal of the eternal passion play.
Salmon that do eventually arrive at their destinations must once again compete a€“ this time for mates and to fight for access to the precious and very limited gravels.
The profligate expenditure of life and extravagant wealth of biology is there everywhere to behold, as Death dances lightly among the gathering throngs of fish, picking and choosing from among them; who from their number shall successfully spawn and who shall just be food for the gathering predators and scavengers. Spend a day in silence, walking among the spawning salmon, as they dig spawning redds, jockey for position and slash at competitors with those gaping, snaggletoothed, hooked jaws. Jan Bohuslav Sobota has died, while half a world away; I was preparing these etchings of Spawned Salmon and dedicating them to Jan, the lover of fish.
The book you hold in your hands has evolved from my simply giving these etchings a second life in book form, to my using them as a vehicle for honoring a friendship of three decades. In 1985, Jan and I had been corresponding for some months without ever meeting a€“ all quite distant and correct.
A short bit of background on Jan Sobota to begin, but fear not; Ia€™ll soon be spinning anecdotes and thoughts on books as art a€“ celebrating Jana€™s life of course, telling a few stories out of school, but also straying into the personal and speculative in search of the meaning to be derived from the life and death of a friend.
Jana€™s father was a serious bibliophile and collector of fine books, who nurtured that same love of books in his son a€“ an appreciation that steadily grew, until he was apprenticed to master bookbinder Karel A ilinger in PlzeA?. The pivotal event in Jana€™s early life as a book artist was the posthumous retrospective exhibition of fellow Pilsener, Josef VA?chal in 1969.
Jan supported a family, sponsored workshops, exhibited widely, did conservation work on rare historic books, ran a gallery a€“ and on it went. What Jan did for contemporary bookbinding, was to act as a bridge between the traditionally trained masters of the past and innovators of the present. America was a great place to be a book artist in the early 1980a€™s precisely because it was an active zone of hybridization and hotbed of creativity. An instructive contrast to the anything-goes US scene was the icy reception I got when I showed a wooden box containing loose sheets of poetry and etchings to a Prague publisher. Neither Jan nor I had much interest in the book-like objects that often sneak into the museums as book arts a€“ the carved and glued together things that sorta, kinda have a bookish aspect to them a€“ rough-looking a€“ perhaps chain-sawed Oaken boards or granite slabs, slathered in tar and lashed together with jute; but lacking text.
When Jana€™s books went beyond function, conservation or decoration, they were subtle statements about binding and the place of books, knowledge and art, as well as statements about the dignity inhering in the handcrafted - with a good dose humor. There are others who know their conservation and those, whose scientific contributions are far greater, but few of them are also artists at heart. It can sound so pedestrian, these eternal compromises between art and craft, yet what Jan represented was not at all common. There is an inflection point at which exceptional craft begins to make the transition to art and it is closely associated with surmounting the limitations inhering to the discipline. Visiting with Jan in his workshop you quickly realized, that he did what a professional must, but ultimately, he just loved messing about with books.
A curiously protean hybrid of artist and craftsman, ancient and modern, one cannot think of Jan without seeing an unabashed Czech patriot in a foreign land. Early on in their stay in Cleveland, the Sobotas experienced the quintessential American disaster.
Even after their medical debts were retired, money was still an issue for a family of immigrants with three kids a€“ two with special needs. Later on, when they were living in Texas, the massacre at Waco opened Jana€™s eyes to yet another difficult side of his adopted home. In 1979, I apprenticed with Jindra Schmidt, an engraver of stamps and currency, living in Prague. Schmidt had engraved stamps for Bulgaria, Iraq, Ethiopia, Albania, Guinea, Vietnam and Libya.
In 1992, Jindra Schmidt was honored for his contributions and depicted on the last stamp of a united Czechoslovakia, before it split into Czech and Slovak republics a€“ a fitting tribute. Unlike most children of immigrants, my destiny remained connected to that of my parentsa€™ homeland. My vocation as artist clarified itself in Prague while learning the increasingly obsolete skills of steel engraving. My first book was indeed, modeled after VA?chal, even to the extent of its diabolical subject matter.
Jan showed me a great deal in the following years about the tradition of books as the meeting place of art, craft and ideas a€“ where printmaking intergrades seamlessly with the worlds of language, typography and illustration. One can like these things just fine and admire them from an uncomprehending distance, or you can become engaged.
The book you hold was to have been a simple reprint of the Spawned Salmon a€“ something fun for Jan to work his magic upon. Nice sentimental reminiscences, but there is still the matter of getting the work accomplished and out before the public, organizing exhibitions, printing catalogs and paying for transatlantic flights. The Prague show was reconfigured and curated by Jana€?s longtime friend, Ilja A edo, for exhibition at the West Bohemian Museum in PlzeA?.
Quite predictably, I like seeing the kind of work I do honored a€“ the wood engravings and etchings made to shine in the context of crisply printed type and an excellent binding.
Ia€™ve heard printmakers lament that the surest way to devalue prints is to add excellent poetry, sensitive typography and a bang-up binding a€“ and then live to see the whole thing sell for half the price of just the unbound prints. Therea€™s nothing quite like seventeenth century Bohemia, the dead center of Europe, for particularly thorough violence a€“ with the Bubonic Plague stepping in afterwards as mop-up crew. The chapel at Sedlec was rebuilt after the major blood-letting of the thirty-years war as a memento mori a€“ reminder of death. What can you say about the mounds of dead, the ruined lives, destroyed nations and misery multiplied by millions that isna€™t trite or self-evident? But then I pan over to other fields a€“ not the kind where the grass is composting my fellow man, but to fields of endeavor where the ferment is of ideas recombining into ever more refined ways of thinking.
I once lived at the Golem house in Prague a€“ at Meislova ulice, number 8, in the old Jewish ghetto.
Horoscopes might seem a curious basis on which to select ministers and diplomats, but it is also more common than youa€™d think. Picture the scene before you: Ita€™s a late night in Prague, before the Marlboro man dominated every street corner, even before the neon of casinos and the vulgarity of Golden Arches assaulted the nightwalkersa€™ eyes at all hours a€“ back when darkness, oh yes, that beautiful comforting velvety, all-enveloping and blessed dark, broken only by the moon, stars and late night taxis, still ruled the streets after the sun went down. The Golem was a mythic being of Jewish folklore, created from clay and quickened by the Shem, a magical stone engraved with an ancient Hebraic inscription, inserted into Golema€™s forehead. The maternal tongues of these small nations have miraculously survived all the invasions, floods, plagues and foreign occupiers to this day a€“ a gift preserved and delivered to them across the generations.
Minority languages, on the other hand, carry an emotional load that can scarcely be exaggerated. Ishi and his sister were the last of the Yahi tribe to survive the genocidal colonization of California. Those whose language and culture are not threatened can never know the burden under which the carriers of small minority languages labor a€“ nor how those in exile bring up their children to preserve that which is beyond their capacities to save. Jan was all about preserving traditions and the kind of ancestral knowledge that today is mostly enshrined in books. Today, the stories of our tribes are less and less passed on as oral tradition and most often read to us from the childrena€™s books wea€™ve learned to treasure a€“ illustrated by fine artists and produced with care for the highly discriminating purchasers of childrena€™s books a€“ for grandparents. A?epelA?k employed binders and typesetters to present complete suites of his work and in this too, he introduced me to a new world. Later in Prague I missed my flight back, due to the World Trade Center bombing and was delayed by a week.
The difficult thing to bear in acknowledging my teachers, models, heroes, suppliers and inspirations, is that these masters of the crafts and industries surrounding and supporting the book arts are mostly deceased. The fruit we seek is not fast food, but laden with full-bodied flavors, attained by slow natural processes. All of us come from grandfathers who once were wheelwrights, cobblers or instrument makers; men with a profound love of wood and leather, who knew the working qualities of every kind of obscure tree growing in their countryside a€“ men who knew when to reach for elm or hickory a€“ as well as for goat, dog or even fish-skins. Jan spoke fondly of his grandmother, who baked bread every week of the year to feed an entire estate a€“ farm hands, livery people, gentry, trainers and hod-carriers alike. Working consciously is the ultimate goal a€“ and that is the legacy youa€™ll find evidently contained within and upon the boards of every book bound by Jan Bohuslav Sobota. The etchings you see here first came to life as illustrations for the wedding anniversary announcements of MA­la and Jaroslav KynA?l. Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.A  He was an exceptional bookbinder, teacher and promoter of the book arts, but also an exile who successfully returned home after years abroad. No one thought the experiment would have any big problems – the participants were just playing a short game of prison. Zimbardo did attempt to make the prison more real with some degrading tactics to simulate a real prison. The guards were made to be quite intimidating – they went to a military surplus to get their khaki outfits and wooden batons. On the chosen start date, the prisoners were arrested for armed robbery and taken from their homes by the actual Palo Alto police, who cooperated with the project.
There were a few more rebellions from individual prisoners, but nothing so organized as the initial riot. There were many more abuses, as each day the guards became more controlling and the prisoners more disturbed. However, in the end the experiment was canceled when a woman named Christina Maslach came to visit the Stanford prison. The researchers’ overall conclusion in the study was that people fit their roles to institutions surprisingly well, despite their individual differences. If you wish to republish or repurpose the text from this article, you must gain permission. This reminds me of that expirement on authority where they told one person to electrocute the other person everytime they answered wrong. Unscientific and ethically dodgy as this infamous study was, it’s a valuable experiment (borne out by the fact that, to my knowledge, every psychology student studies it at some length fairly early on). Derren Brown, a UK psychological illusionist, performed the Milgram experiment in one of his recent shows. In order to find those suitable for the overall outcome of the show (to rob an armed bank security guard) he performed the experiment. There was a similar study done about the same time done on rats and the effects of overpopulation.
What’s most interesting about the Zimbardo and Milgrim experiments is the connection people have made between them and Nazi Germany. Thought this looked familiar… props to whoever read the email where I suggested this. I remember reading an article in a Scientific American Mind special issue from October of last year where they talked about the original Stanford prisoner experiment, and a second experiment based on it which was conducted more recently and was slightly more successful. Strangely, people tend to become more fanatical about something when rewarded meagrely than they are if rewarded generously. Having participated in a summer camp run by the Marines, I can assure you that even the most promising and motivated people fall into assigned roles with great gusto at short notice. What I found interesting is that because I work for a correctional facility, you see this behavior in some staff, however after reading a few files (we have a 80 percent csc (criminal sexual conduct) at this facility, and out of that 80%, over half are child mollesters) It is VERY difficult not to look at them like they are scum, and to maintain your professionalism at the same time. Has anyone else noticed the similarities between the experiment and the prison at Abu Ghraib?
When I first saw this movie, I was moved to the core for the events are so realistic and would undeniably happen to anyone put under the condition. It is amazing to me how people fall into roles they are assigned so easily and in such a short amount of time. Another real life example, would be camp or social groups…as a group they act in a certain way but individually they might never behave that way. Doesn’t it seem strange that a psychologist’s major scientific study is cut short because of the objections of his girlfriend?
MikeyToo said: “Has anyone else noticed the similarities between the experiment and the prison at Abu Ghraib? Can you say that if a year+ of your young twenties was sucked out of you for a war that you wanted no part of you wouldn’t do the same? Doesn’t it seem strange that none of the other observers thought the experiment was out of control???
The saddest thing about all the follow-up research to the Milgram and Zimbardo experiments? ALL the focus is on the common pathology, and NONE on the minority of participants who did NOT abandon their humanity and their morality and their ethical sense. If we spent a fraction of that budget in money time and energy on understanding what makes people remain human beings under such conditions, whether artificially induced in experiments or horrifically experienced in concentration camps, battlegrounds and prisons, if we cared a bit more about what makes some seemingly ordinary people capable of NOT behaving like monsters, perhaps our world would be a better place. When I was working in San Jose California in 1979 I saw a story on I believe it was 60 Minutes on CBS covering this experiment. Another study was done like this at Harvard, I believe, some years later where they tried to basically recreate this same experiment in a more controlled situation. The funny thing about both of these studies is that both prisoners and guards were given the option of backing out at any point. Now that you have read about this experiment and the Milgram experiment, do you think that in the future, if you were made a guard in another such experiment, or even in real life, you would act like these guards did? I ask because I think that being forewarned has a preventative effect on such behavior (for many). Unless someone actually evaluates the individuals involved in the experiment, it’s hard to tell.
The Marine Corps has a stringent filtering process to weed out all non-hackers from entering my beloved Marine Corps. My first thoughts were about the Nuremberg trials and how the Allies dealt with the concentration camp guards; were we too harsh with them?
I do not wish to make light of the Holocaust at all or in any way; but should the guards really have been held accountable?
To the former Marine who posted earlier – Semper Fi from another, and a Vietnam Vet as well! If we treated others as we would like to be treated ourselves it would be a far better world. For a modernized take on the Lord of the Flies theme, Infinite Ryvius is an interesting series to watch. Does anyone seem to think this is the way our government is against all of their “subjects”?
I have read of more recent studies that show that when required to carry cameras to record their actions, and that they cannot control, police officers become very far less likely to use force or other abusive behavior. DESCRIPTION: These images show 19th and 20th century reconstructions of the world-view of the Greek philosopher Strabo who wrote his famous geography at the beginning of the Christian era and compiled his map from travelersa€™ reports and the a€?writingsa€? of ancients. The contribution of Strabo as a scholar of great stature as philosopher, historian, and geographer, epitomizes the continuing importance of the Greek intellectual heritage - and contemporary practice - to the development of cartography in the early Roman world. Strabo claimed to have traveled widely to bring together an enormous amount of geographical knowledge. In many ways the most interesting passages relating to cartography in Straboa€™s Geographia are those that, although they contain no maps, give an account, for the first time in a surviving text, of how a description of the known world should be compiled.
In order to avoid the deformational problems of flat maps, Strabo stated that he preferred to construct his map on a globe large enough to show all the required detail.
As with all Greek world maps, the great impediment to study for the historian of cartography is that we have only these verbal descriptions, not the images themselves. It is not clear how we should interpret these familiar graphic similes Strabo employed to describe to his readers the land areas and other features on the world map.
Strabo was a lengthy and discursive writer, but demonstrated good critical power in assessing earlier geographical writers and has given us a verbal picture of the known world of the time.
The most detailed examination of a term arising from Homeric geography (#105) is in respect of Ethiopians. The function of geography, according to Strabo, is to be an interpreter, not of the whole world, but of the inhabited world.
He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?a€?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Strabo has summed up for us the knowledge of the ancient world as it was in the days of the Emperor CA¦sar Augustus of the great Roman Empire, as it was when in far-off Syria the Christ was born and the greater part of the known earth was under the sway of Rome. Strabo begins his book with a detailed account of southern Spain where he tells of her two hundred towns. Large quantities of corn and wine are exported, besides much oil, which is of the first quality, also wax, honey, and pitch . But if anyone disbelieves the evidence of reason, it would make no difference, from the point of view of the geographer, whether we make the inhabited world an island, or merely admit what experience has taught us, namely, that it is possible to sail round the inhabited world on both sides, from the east as well as from the west, with the exception of a few intermediate stretches. Despite the extension of the geographical horizons of the inhabited world since the time of Eratosthenes, Straboa€™s oikumene [inhabited world] was smaller. He goes on to suggest that the quadrilateral in which the Atlantic lies resembles in shape half the surface of a spinning-wheel, and that the oikumene [inhabited world] resembles a chlamys, a Greek mantle. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and seas; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are Cordova and Cadiz.
He grows enthusiastic over the richness of this part of southern Spain, famous from ancient days under the name of Tartessus for its wealth. It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos (#113), a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic school of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe, and that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B.


35 36 37 38 39 40 year old technologist who lives just South of Boston, MA in a small town named Scituate. Kevin is currently employed as CTO at DebtX, the largest online marketplace of buyers and sellers of commercial debt. Early obsessions included Star Wars, making Super8 stop-motion movies, computers, listening to and performing music, American history, science fiction and fantasy books, video games.
Spent two years (1985-86) playing keyboards in a band called Facade which played the Western New York club circuit.
Was questioned by the Secret Service while in college, ultimately "released" and told by an agent that he was a credit to his country. Movies: Godfather I and II, The Right Stuff, Goodfellas (as well as most Scorsese films), Brazil, Star Wars, Empire Strikes Back, Blade Runner, Tarantino's movies, Moonstruck, This is Spinal Tap, the collected works of John Hughes, the Coen Brothers, just about anything with De Niro. This site is a place for Kevin to post interesting (or not so interesting) stuff -- mostly computer related. I had spent quite a bit of time in the WTC at IDD's offices, as well as Cantor Fitzgerald's.
Todd Beamer, to fellow passengers aboard United Airlines Flight 93, moments before they stormed hijackers on their plane.
Originally many people thought the pictures (from Reuters) were doctored, but it turns out that the posters really do have Bert's image.
Well, I'm sure many of you are familiar with the classic Bert is Evil page (archived as a PDF here), which features the sordid life of the cranky Muppet. A print shop in Bangladesh needed pictures of Bin Laden for a poster they were creating for a protest, and simply grabbed various photos from the Internet. Over the past few weeks, the craze of doctoring this photo in new and exciting ways has started on the Internet.
If you're paranoid and living in NYC (wait - just about everyone in NYC is paranoid), you'll like this web site. The transition was very easy, and I've managed to get the Perl-based Movable Type package integrated into my PHP-based web site. RealOne, and at first glance, it looked like Real started charging for the player, or at least required a valid credit card number before they would allow the download.
After poking around the site for awhile, I found that they had buried the free download page deep in the bowels of the site. My tool of choice for ripping has always been MediaMatch, but for some reason I just cannot get it to run under Windows XP Professional. I had read that Windows Media Player 8.0 finally supported ripping to formats other than WMA.
Start up Windows Media Player and select Tools->Options and click on the "Copy Music" tab. I'll make an MP3 file of the conference replay and post it here ASAP (with John's permission, of course). MKS toolkit back in the days when I was a PC device driver programmer (wow - 11 years ago).
Microsoft, believe it or not, also sells a product called Windows Services for UNIX that gives you many UNIX tools.
Cygnus also sponsored a software project where they were writing a DLL for Windows that would provide many of the standard UNIX library calls.
David Walend and myself have started a new Open Source project named Presentation Builder for Java (PBJ for short). There they encounter resident trout and bass a€“ even sunfish, chubs and dace, all keyed into the increasingly plentiful and highly nutritious bounty of salmon eggs. Situated 90A km south-west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers, PlzeA? is first recorded in writings from the tenth century. That vision was about innovation and creativity within the context of an historical tradition. This is what youa€™ll see in a Sobota binding a€“ exceptional attention paid to context and relationships, using materials and technical means that do indeed function and last. He knew his work was valuable and documented it fastidiously a€“ confident that it would be last.
There was, however, nothing about his nationalism that demeaned anybody elsea€™s traditions or origins. That smallish incident within the parade of American fringe politics elicited an insanely violent level of suppression.
Masaryk a€“ and the cute little girl with a bouquet of flowers, is my mother Eva, at the age of three. Schmidta€™s income from the federal mint far exceeded anybody elsea€™s in the extended family and supported a network of cars, cottages and rent-controlled flats. Schmidt, as he preferred to be called, was a man of conservative demeanor who preferred polite and reserved forms of speech and address. While visiting their unassuming engraver and extending my tourist visa 30 days at a time, I was quietly becoming qualified for life as a counterfeiter a€“ a vocation within which, one is set for life, however it may eventually turn out.
Jan allowed several binders to have their way with it a€“ amo boxes for slipcases with shell casings for hinges and so forth. This next incarnation of our exhibit in PlzeA? was all just a bit more prosaic and provincial.
Is it the binding we consider and exhibit a€“ or is the binding there to conserve a text, which is ultimately the point? There are also binders to whom everything else is merely the text block, who care little if it is an offset trade edition or a book made by hand. The tales therein recorded reflected the accreted wisdom and wit of a people as they retold them across the highlands in modest log cottages after the harvest was in. The way of working belongs to the Sobota vision I addressed earlier a€“ the honor and soul to be found in conscientiously made handcrafts.
I dona€™t feel that accomplished or ready to assume their mantle and yet with every generation that is what must happen. Gravels, with just the right flow of fresh water running up through stones of the right size are but a tiny portion of the riverbed.A  The salmon must struggle past cities and sewer pipes, farms and irrigation systems, dams and turbines, fishermen and waterfalls a€“ just to reach the streams of their birth.
Yet in less than a week the prisoners were becoming psychologically disturbed, and the guards disturbingly sadistic. The original twenty-four volunteers were picked for their stability of mind, out of a group of seventy. Each prisoner was given a number that was their identification for duration of the experiment. Their arrival at the pseudo-jail was as nasty as in any prison – they were stripped naked and deloused, then given their uniforms and numbers. When asked if they’d sacrifice their payment in the study to get out early, most said yes.
One participant that entered the study later, as a stand-by prisoner, quickly started a hunger strike upon hearing the terrible conditions in the prison. Despite all of this, visitors to the study did not seem to see any serious problems with the experiment. After seeing the crazy state that the prison had fallen into, she was outraged at the terrible conditions of the whole situation. This argument was enough for Zimbardo to end the study early, after only six days of the prison.
Much of it was filmed, and it regularly makes appearances to late night Open University TV shows for psychology students.
Especially for the Milgrim experiment, it illustrates very well how an entire society of people would be willing to carry out such atrocities when told to do so from an authority figure. As I posted in another commentary, I had a poli-sci instructor discuss nazi germany on how they could go from the top to being what they became in so short a period. I dont know if anyone from michigan is in here, but if they are and they remember the case where the father went into the daycare to shoot his child and mother.
Individuals saw others acting in a certain fashion, so they felt similar actions were appropriate and acceptable. I believe that he is the guard in the first picture at the top of the page with the mutton chop sideburns and sun glasses.
I have seen child and teenage behavior that makes me realize that Lord of the Flies behavior is an inch below the surface for many people, possibly especially young men and teenage boys, but I think that inciting a rational appraisal of our instincts and temptations helps to activate the beter part of our nature. This study, however, went horrible in far less time; out of a several week experiment, I think they ended up cancelling it in 2-3 days. Had they considered that the problem might have been from the personal biases of the people participating in the experiment? Perhaps in a fight-or-flight mode, in the midst of panic and confusion, they would’ve forgotten, but had the situation been so perilous or horrid as to make them irrational? Then again some people were just raised to cause trouble so detaining them from the general population isnt neccessarily a bad idea. The result of that would be the oppressors would oppress differently or more so than before (ie longer time permitted in solitary).
For as long as you are in the situation, and for reevaluating it you need to (mentally) take a step back. The now lost map by Strabo represented the sum total of cartographic knowledge before the Christian era. It is generally accepted, however, that he must have compiled much of this information in the great library at Alexandria, where he had access to many earlier texts now lost. His motives for writing such a geography (so he tells us) were that he felt impelled to describe the inhabited world because of the considerable strides in geographical knowledge that had been made through the numerous campaigns of the Romans and Parthians. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited.
And, as to these stretches, it makes no difference whether they are bounded by sea or by uninhabited land; for the geographer undertakes to describe the known parts of the inhabited world, but he leaves out of consideration the unknown parts of it - just as he does what is outside of it. Although PythA¦s, Eratosthenes, and perhaps Posidonius had fixed its northern limit on the parallel through Thule [Iceland ? He recommended that it be at least ten feet (approximately three meters) in diameter and mentions Crates (#113) in this regard. Nevertheless, apart from the reduced size of the inhabited world, the map Strabo envisaged was similar in its overall shape to that drawn by Eratosthenes (#112). He treats Homer (#105) as the first writer on geography, and defends the Homeric picture of the known world as substantially true. Thus he says that the legend of the Golden Fleece brought back from Colchis by the Argonauts reflects the search for gold by early Greeks in areas of the Black Sea.
What did Homer mean by saying they were a€?divided in two, some where Hyperion rises and some where he setsa€?? Thus, accepting Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of 252,000 stades for the circumference of the earth, the geographer ought not to include the equatorial zone, since that in Straboa€™s view is uninhabitable. This suggests that the eastern and western extremities of the oikumene were thought of as tapering and convex.
But one needs a large globe, so that the section mentioned, being only a fraction of it, may clearly show the appropriate parts of the oikumene, which win present a recognizable shape to users. But his seventeen volumes -vastly important to his contemporaries - read like a romance to us today, and a glance at the map laid down according to his descriptions is like a vague and distorted caricature of the real thing. A wall-map had already been designed by order of Augustus (#118) to hang in a public place in Rome - the heart of the Empire - so that the young Romans might realize the size of their inheritance, while a list of the chief places on the roads, which, radiating from Rome, formed a network over the Empire, was inscribed on the Golden Milestone in the Forum. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!a€?But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail.
Some had told him it was a third of the whole habitable world, some that it took four months to walk through the plain only. 21, and a century passed before Pliny wrote An Account of Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances, and Peoples who now Exist or Formerly Existed. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. He shares his house with his wife Heather, sons Thomas and Peter, daughter Isabelle, and Bart the English Setter. King Crimson, Porcupine Tree, Tangerine Dream, Jean-Michel Jarre, Yes, Pre-1980 Genesis, Djam Karet, middle-period Rush, Max Webster, Pink Floyd from 1973-1985, Crystal Method, Marillion, Allan Holdsworth.
This widely beloved stamp was re-issued in 2000 and mother continues to receive philatelic fan mail to this day.
He died the day I was composing a colophon for the Spawned Salmon with words of praise for his lifea€™s work. There were riots, hunger strikes, and abusive treatment – all in the mock-up jail cells created in the halls of the Stanford psychology department. As for clothing, a prisoner only got one ill-fitted Muslin smock, an uncomfortable pair of rubber thong sandals, and a nylon pantyhose cap (which was put over the head, as though they had a shaved their hair off).
They took off their stocking caps and numbers, as well as barricading their cells with their beds. Regular head counts were made into hour-long ordeals with torment and forced physical exercise.
However, at this point the guards started taking their roles very seriously – they thought he was trying to get out of his time by acting crazy.
Of course, her concerns might have carried more weight due to the fact that she and Zimbardo were dating at the time. However, this study has been highly criticized due to its unethical nature as well as its generally unscientific nature (can you imagine tracking all the variables?). The guards were vigilant and kept the prisoners from escaping, despite their disturbed states. His moral was: do not think it could not happen again, and do not think it could not happen here. He seemed like a pretty nice guy at the time and some of us talked about it but I don’t recall him having a great insights about the experiment.
However, what I think of is the prisons around the world today, and the States holds one of the highest prison rates per capita in the world.
The prisoners were being actively abused in horrible ways, being seriously whipped and beaten. If the guards thought that those in prison are nothing more than scum, and forget that the “experimental scum” are actually not real criminals, would that have something to do with the abuse getting so carried away? Self-confidence might stabilize someone, normality in the environment might be what stabilizes someone, social interaction might stabilize someone, the presence of loved-ones and familiar faces might stabilize someone … it depends.
So eventually it would be a vicious cycle whereby the guards and the prisoners would escalate until neither or one was no longer willing to escalate further. In view of this, and other experiments like it, I have more compassion for those guards than I may have formally. The community is very sensible to these topics and have mechanism to not let it get out of hand. All his writings were firmly set in, if not direct extensions of, the work of his predecessors. The world map had to be adjusted to take account of these facts, and thus Strabo almost certainly proceeded by taking Eratosthenesa€™ map - and the criticism of it by Polybius, Crates, Hipparchus, and Posidonius - as the basis for his own work.
Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides.
And it will suffice to fill out and complete the outline of what we term a€?the islanda€? by pining with a straight line the extreme points reached on the coasting-voyages made on both sides of the inhabited world. 66A° N], Strabo, like Polybius, refused to believe that human life was possible so far north, and he blamed Pytheas for having misled so many people by his claim that the a€?summer tropica€? becomes the a€?arctic circlea€? at the island of Thule. On the other hand, if a globe of this size could not be constructed, Strabo was familiar from Eratosthenes with the transformation necessary to draw it on a plane surface. In describing its detailed geography, however, Strabo did not employ, at least overtly, Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into irregular quadrilaterals or sphragides, but he often used geometric figures or comparisons to everyday objects to describe the general outline of a country. In some cases, where alternative descriptions are provided, he may have been attempting to collate the outlines of more than one map. But within the Homeric chapters he has a section in which he attempts to analyze navigation of the oceans over the ages.
When Homer made Hera say: a€?For I shall see the bounds of fertile earth and Oceanus, father of the godsa€?, what he means, says Strabo, is that the Ocean touches all the extremities of the land.
Instead he should start his analysis with the Cinnamon Country [near the mouth of the Red Sea, Somaliland], about 8,800 stades north of the equator, in the south, and with Ireland in the north. Again, he estimated the length of the oikumene as 70,000 stades and its width as less than 30,000. He tells us of a people living north of the Tagus, who slept on the ground, fed on acorn-bread, and wore black cloaks by day and night. It seems to have been Cratesa€™ idea that the eartha€™s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions.
That being said, he doesn't own a gun, he thinks Ayn Rand was a bit wacky and he doesn't run around calling Liberals "Socialists".
O'Rourke, Neal Stephenson ("Zodiak" through "Cryptonomicom" - "Quicksilver" sucked), Bill Bryson, Cory Doctorow, Terry Pratchett, China Mieville, John Varley, Tom Wolfe, Stephen King, Christopher Moore, Matt Ruff. The development tools require a 80386 or newer computer to run, as do the programs they produce. The engraving was masterfully done by Schmidta€™s long-dead colleague, Bohumil Heinz (1894-1940). The state security apparatus was surely aware of my presence, but if they kept tabs on me, I never knew. The study had to be canceled early, leaving one critical question – how could a fake prison situation become real so quickly?


If that wasn’t bad enough, each had a chain on their foot, its constant clinking specifically to remind them that they were not free.
The participant soon became convinced that there was no escape from the study and went into a rage, an action that was finally enough to prompt his release from the study.
Even though they had no incentive to continue in the study, they went with it anyways – as though they were really stuck in prison. At the same time, the other prisoners were offered an opportunity to get him out – if they sacrificed their own blankets. Though a few made small protests to the participants’ treatment, no one insisted upon the end of the study. Perhaps, Wiliam Golding was more acurate with his opinion on human nature then I wanted to believe. The sad part is he met a women through a prison posting inside of a month and she is visiting, knowing who and what he is. Zimbardo should be ashamed of this experiment, and his failures both as a researcher and as a human being. Even a simulation of a prison will have stripped away the aforementioned, and even more that I might have missed. Many of them were truly perplexed at their own behavior, blaming it on orders and having no choice, yet at the time they were doing what they were doing, there was little enough hesitation or rebellion from those very guards.
Unlike the experiment where armatures were involved, or Nazi guards, where their behavior was not only sanctioned but was encouraged by their society and their superiors and so the group psychology had free reign, the guards at Abu Ghraib were professional soldiers with standing orders and rules of engagement. Especially some unwritten rules and those Stopwords – but mostly that they are good friends or loving partners, not some random people thrown together in an experiment for which they could lay ethical blame on the organizers.
Every day life is similar… you COULD just quit your boring job with the mobbing collegues at any time, couldn’t you? I think fear has a main role in this too just because we accept our place and we would not know what would happen if we ever got out of line.
Thus his Historical Memoirs in forty-seven books, now lost, was a continuation of Polybius. For a graticule, Strabo adopted the straight forward rectangular network of parallels and meridians. It is also probable that students were expected to consult the text of the Geographia with the help of maps, so that the shapes thus enumerated may have served as a simple mnemonic. Or again, when Homer describes Odysseus as seeing land as he was on the crest of a great wave, he must have been referring to the curvature of the earth, a phenomenon familiar to sailors. He categorizes regions from south to north according to greatest length of day in equinoctial hours.
If one cannot make it as big or not much smaller, one should construct a map of the oikumene on a plane surface at least seven feet long. He does not think Britain is worth conquering - Ireland lies to the north, not west, of Britain; it is a barren land full of cannibals and wrapped in eternal snows - the Pyrenees nun parallel to the Rhine - the Danube rises near the Alps - even Italy herself runs east and west instead of north and south. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us. In most cases, the programs it produces can be sold commercially without license or royalties.
Using JavaBeans lets the user create a compelling, interactive presentation that can pull information and media from beyond a static document.
Everything is just so wonderful and everybody so creative, but suspending judgment long enough to actually look at some artwork and then giving it a chance isna€™t so bankrupt, is it? Human body parts are again flying and the Baron is at his best defeating Turks and evading friendly fire from buffoonish generals. Farmers would occasionally find their possessions and take them as souvenirs, unaware that the last Indians still lived in their midst.
Damn the cost; ita€™s who we are and the last material vestiges of soulful encounters with our elders a€“ onea€™s whose stories are slipping inexorably away, thinned by each passing year and generation. Their kids were grown and they were by then slipping into that last, reflective phase of life a€“ done competing. The idea was to create a controlled environment in the Stanford halls to simulate a prison.
In the end, they used fire extinguishers to blast the prisoners away from the doors, then rushed in, stripped them naked, and sent the ringleaders into solitary confinement.
Instead, prisoners had to do their thing into buckets in their cells, which the guards sometimes refused to throw out.
He was not the only one who was released from the study early, and many others who stayed suffered from uncontrollable crying and disorganized thought.
Not that the guards would have let them free– as time went on the guards became more involved with their end of the study as well. A rather crude tactic, but it caused the others to turn against this lone rebel (and stay warm at night). Later, a chaplain came to visit with each of the prisoners, and he also voiced no objections.
As a result, there is a code in all psychological studies that now prevents treating subjects in any sort of inhumane way, even simply psychologically damaging.
It made their stories unconvincing to the jurors at the time; but I wonder, if these types of experiments had been done prior to those trials, would the guards even have been tried? That behavior was not sanctioned by our society nor the UCMJ (Uniform Code of Military Justice) and so they not only knew better but they knew and understood that what they were doing was wrong.
If we were all to stand up and say screw this it would be a different story, but only a couple would do that, a few would think that, and the rest would never ever think to do that because of fear.
The Geographia is of key importance to our whole knowledge of the history of Greek cartography as well as to the history of science in general. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere. He defended his projection on the ground that it would make only a slight difference if the circles on the earth were represented by straight lines, a€?for our imagination can easily transfer to the globular and spherical surface the figure or magnitude seen by the eye on a plane surface.a€? The dimensions of this flat map were also to be generous. Similarly, Strabo compares the shape of Iberia to an ox-hide, the Peloponnese to a plane-leaf; and the northern part of Asia, east of the Caspian, to a kitchen knife with the straight side along the Taurus range and the curved side along the northern coastline. Yet if such suggestions must remain speculative, there can be little doubt that by the early Roman period world maps and globes drawn by Greek scholars were encouraging a distinctively geographical way of thinking about the world. The problems of the armchair geographer are revealed in the journalistic trick of quotes from quotes on an important exploration: a€?Posidonius, says Herodotus, thinks that certain men sent by Neco completed the circumnavigationa€™. Some of this was polemic against Eratosthenes, who would not have if that early epic poetry could contribute anything to scientific theory. Cratesa€™ view was based upon an unorthodox view that the division was north-south rather than the obvious interpretation of east-west. This list, starting at Meroe with thirteen hours and ending at an area north of the Sea of Azov with seventeen hours, is similar to that given by the elder Pliny. A vast number of people dwell along the Guadalquivir, and you may sail up it almost a hundred and twenty miles from the sea to Cordova and the places a little higher. Through the formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great transoceanic discoveries. But he gives us a fuller account of Great Britain, based on the fresh discovers of Roman generals.
This wish is warranted to perform as expected within the usual application of good tidings for a period of one year, or until the issuance of a subsequent holiday greeting, whichever comes first, and warranty is limited to replacement of this wish or issuance of a new wish at the sole discretion of the wisher. Additional tools let a user show the presentation (along with an outline on a multihead system), and record audio and video for playback later. These scraps turned out to be a deck of medieval playing cards - the second oldest such cards known.
A book is so much more than the sum of its parts a€“ and yet each of us tends to have our own bailiwick in which we shine and to which we look first. There would be participants recruited to play both the prisoners and the guards, and the experiment would last for two weeks.
The prisoner was eventually taken out of solitary confinement by Zimbardo himself, since the rule was that no prisoner spend more than one hour in solitary.
All subjects are required also to know of any potential danger to themselves and to have the ability to back out at any point. Armando CortesA?o states that as a source it was a€?second to none in the history of geography and cartographya€? of this period. In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly. He estimated the latitudinal extent of the inhabited world as less than 30,000 stades (compared with Eratosthenesa€™ 38,000 stades) and reduced its length to 70,000 stades instead of Eratosthenesa€™ 78,000 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by various authors]. Strabo envisaged that it would be at least seven feet long and presumably three feet wide, which would suit the length of the inhabited world (70,000 by 30,000 stades), one foot being equivalent to 10,000 stades.
India, with two adjacent sides (south and east) much longer than the two others, he described as rhomboidal; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, he saw as being like a boat drawn in profile, with the deck on the Tigris side and the keel near the Euphrates. And it is likely, among the educated group at least, that an increasingly standard image of the inhabited world had come to be more widely accepted through the use of these maps. This is all he reports, so that we have to beware of using all his work as scientifically worthy material. As mentioned earlier, in the extreme north, Strabo denied the existence of a Thule Island [Iceland?]. A considerable quantity of salted fish is exported, not only from hence, but also from the remainder of the coast beyond the Pillars. That Strabo, at a later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Cratesa€™ globe. These plates have been inked and wiped by hand, employing methods that woulda€™ve been familiar to Rembrandt. Prisoners were forced into humiliating and degrading circumstances, through nudity and forced acts. Many of the earlier treatises that touch upon maps are known to us only through Strabo, while the interest of his commentary on these writers is in its critical handling of their theories, albeit he sometimes fails to advance truth by this process.
Strabo repeats that the river Nile was described by Eratosthenes as a reversed N, and that its mouth was named after the Greek capital letter delta. Perhaps because he is drawing on an account at second hand, he is afraid to support what may have seemed like science fiction. To him the most northerly inhabited area was Ierne [Ireland], itself a€?only wretchedly inhabitable because of the cold, to such an extent that regions beyond it are regarded as uninhabitablea€?. Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles.
The eye is also delighted with groves and gardens, which for this district are met with in the highest perfection.
Formerly they exported large quantities of garments, but they now send the un-manufactured wool remarkable for its beauty. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find in use at the present day. They crashed with my wife Jana and me in Kalamazoo, while taking the a€?orientation coursea€?nearby.
I can confidently report back to my English reader, that Jan would only grow in stature for you, if you could have fully understood the subtlety of his thoughts in his own maternal tongue.
Guards would become more abusive during the night as well, when they thought the cameras were turned off. He does not deal extensively with Hanno the Carthaginian, instead spending much effort on questioning the explorations of Eudoxus of Cyzicus, who must have added to the accumulation of knowledge about the remote parts of Africa.
Straboa€™s own view is that there were two groups of Ethiopians, one living in Asia and one in Africa; and that Homer thought likewise, though not to the extent of placing the eastern group in India, of which he had no knowledge. Likewise, if one were to go not more than 4,000 stades [500 Roman miles] north from the center of Britain, one would find an area near Ireland, which like the latter would be barely inhabitable.
For fifty miles the river is navigable for ships of considerable size, but for the cities higher up smaller vessels are employed, and thence to Cordova river-boats.
He thought that a globe to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood, for what at that time was really known of the eartha€™s surface was small indeed in comparison with what was unknown. Perhaps right for those who shouldna€™t have sharp objects, for fear of hurting themselves. That show was purchased whole by Special Collections at Western Michigan University and constitutes the largest collection of Sobota bindings and the most complete archive of my work. However, this idea of eastern Ethiopians living in some area of India and resembling Indians in appearance and customs persisted throughout antiquity. These are not constructed of planks pined together, but they were formerly made out of a single trunk. There is a superabundance of cattle and a great variety of game, while on the other hand there are certain little hares which burrow in the ground (rabbits). Should one not make use of a sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions, in comparison with the eartha€™s entire surface, would occupy but small space. Few people would have cast a second glance at that glued-up mess of moldering old papers before pitching it, nor would they have recognized what they had in hand or known how to restore or sell it. Officers are being written up if they have not completed this at the appointed time, regardless of the reason (ie, difficulty with the fence or not getting a response to it) Thia also allows no time for the officers to properly search the visit room as it takes a full 30 minutes to do zone checks and our shift starts a 1400 hours. A chain of mountains, rich in metal, runs parallel to the Guadalquivir, approaching the river, sometimes more, sometimes less, toward the north. These folks were a profound blessing to a family facing some truly rough sailing a€“ a Godsend. Schmidt had worked was signed with warm dedications to him and thus worth real money to collectors.
He wanted to see the printmaker in me come to full fruition and I wanted to be worthy of his attentions.
The family has dwelled within sight of the seats of power, pushing copper plates through a press and outlived the Hapsburg Monarchy, First Republic, Nazis and Communists.
The intact packages were still there on their shelves, all duly graded, labeled and priced, awaiting an owner who was never to return. Surprisingly, though, it seems not to have been read in Rome in the first century, judging from the fact that it is not even mentioned by the elder Pliny. Whoever would represent the real earth, he says, as near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of geography is to be placed. Back home, their Czech neighbors would have envied them and accused them of theft or worse, but people here seemed to be pleased as punch to see them prosper a€“ genuinely happy for them. Those items too, kept trickling out the door, until there came a sad, sad day, when the golden eggs were all gone. It is said that formerly the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca sent a deputation to the Romans requesting that a new land might be given them, as they were quite driven out of their country by these animals, being no longer able to stand against their vast multitudes. For this purpose however a large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those ho wish to consult it. They bashfully admitted their foolishness and went back to making beautiful books a€“ and their American friends were so relieved to see them regain their sanity. You take time to grieve and then pick yourself up by your bootstraps (by God a€“ get a grip) and get on with it (Rome wasna€™t built in a day you know).
StrejA?ek was still working, but it was all coming to an inevitable end, as he grew shaky of hand and hard of seeing.
But it should have a diameter of not less than ten feet; those who cannot obtain a globe of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet. Enriched by my days of being nurtured by Prague, Matkou MA›st (Mother of Cities), I moved on to meet my destiny with art. They feed on the fruit, of stunted oak, which grows at the bottom of the sea and produces very large acorns. We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to he that is spherical.
So great is the quantity of fruit, that at the season when they are ripe the whole coast on either side of the Pillars is covered with acorns thrown up by the tides. The meridians of each country on the globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to converge. The tunny fish become gradually thinner, owing to the failure of their food as they approach the Pillars from the outer sea.
A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now? A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience?
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?



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Comments to «Human mind interesting facts»

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