Leadership consists of opposing strengths, and most leaders have a natural tendency to overdevelop one at the expense of its counterpart.
Perhaps the focus on overdoing hasn’t been as sharp because its problematic aspects are not immediately obvious — after all, leaders often must go to extremes to meet tough challenges. The lack of balance in leadership, which is linked to the idea of overdoing and is well known to individual managers, has also not fully registered in the practice of management. Managing Tensions Between New and Existing Business ModelsStaying competitive may mean exploring new business models — but watch out for internal tensions. How Boards Botch CEO SuccessionResearch finds three key reasons boards fail at CEO succession planning. Equipping the Sustainability InsurgencyA peer-to-peer network developed jointly by HP Canada and WWF offers tools and guidance for sustainability insurgents.
Research has proven that projects with defined change management programs are five to six times more likely to meet business objectives than those with poor or no change management. These varying definitions often cause confusion about the value of Organizational Change Management (often called OCM), which is the focus of this point of view.
Organizational Change Management is critical to support transformation expected by the above-mentioned systemic and organizational restructuring, but it is also important for any initiative that has transformational characteristics, such as enterprise growth or mergers and acquisition activity. No one will argue that today's retail world is undergoing major changes a€“ from emerging technologies on both the consumer and enterprise sides, to dramatically changed consumer shopping patterns, to a global economy which has quickly broken down geographic borders and barriers.
If you are planning on investing your resources a€“ both people and capital a€“ in undertaking a major initiative, Organizational Change Management should also be a high priority and built right into the planning phase of the project.
Any major initiative will impact roles and responsibilities a€“ and smaller ones will likely as well. This means involving anyone even remotely impacted from the very beginning through a structured and well-executed communication strategy and plan. Your organization should no longer operate the way it did even five years ago or in other words not with a "but we have always done it this way" mentality.
Many retailers bring in outside consultants who are experts in the area of organizational change management; however, some organizations have internalized this competency. Organizations who understand the value of having a structured, disciplined and comprehensive Organizational Change Management mindset baked into their culture are well positioned to continually and effectively transform themselves and achieve or exceed the benefits expected with their initiatives. Definitions – content that provides a description of the meaning of an Implementation Science concept.
Key functions – content that provides an overview of the specific components and actions related to the Implementation Science concept. Implementation Drivers are key components of capacity and infrastructure that influence a program’s success.
This overview of the Implementation Drivers is designed to help you think about developing and sustaining the infrastructure you need to improve and sustain new instructional practices and behavior supports so that academic and behavioral outcomes improve. Implementation Drivers are the components of infrastructure needed to develop, improve and sustain the ability of teachers and staff to implement an intervention as intended as well as create an enabling context for the new ways of work. Leadership Drivers– focus on providing the right leadership strategies for different types of leadership challenges. Implementation Drivers represent the infrastructure needed to make use of effective and well-defined innovations.
Assessing fidelity also provides direct feedback regarding how well the other Implementation Drivers are functioning. Fidelity assessment, through an active implementation lens focuses on how well the intervention is being implemented and is not only about the fidelity of the educator, but also is about the quality of the selection, training and coaching systems. Fidelity is not the burden a teacher bears, but rather a product of a thoughtful recruitment and selection process, effective training, and supervision and coaching systems that focus on strengths and build competence and confidence.
This means that fidelity assessment processes and fidelity data help to inform and engage everyone from district staff, to instructional coaches, to building administrators and teachers as new skills are implemented and refined. Now, let’s look at the Competency Driver, Selection, through an active implementation lens. From an active implementation perspective, the selection process is critical to program success. The selection process is an important opportunity that allows new hires and reassigned staff to clearly understand the job requirements and ways of work and to make their own decision about whether the programs, practices and continuous improvement processes are a good fit for them. We know from implementation research that training alone does not result in changes in instructional practices and improved outcomes.
Coaching is a necessary component for promoting teacher confidence and ensuring competence. A 2002 meta-analysis by Joyce and Showers makes a compelling case for the need for skillful coaching. These findings move supervision, monitoring and support to active coaching processes that are embedded in the learning environment and that support adherence to effective practices and quality instruction. Most skills needed by successful educators can be introduced in training sessions, but really are learned on the job with the help of a qualified and skilled coach who passes on wisdom and knowledge related to the implementation of the program or innovation.
Coaching ensures that the fragile, uncomfortable new skills are actually tried in practice. Map the levels of quality and effort being applied to Competency Drivers for a current program or innovation.
The Decision Support Data System (DSDS) is a system for identifying, collecting, and analyzing data that are useful to the teacher, school, district and other implementing environments. DSDS reports and access can be made available at multiple levels throughout an educational system. Celebrating success through data is critical to the adoption, use and sustainability of a DSDS. The Facilitative Administration Driver focuses on the internal processes, policies, regulations, and structures over which a school, district or implementing organization has some control.
The primary function of Facilitative Administration is to create and maintain hospitable environments to support new ways of work. Video Vignette: Implementation Drivers, Selection and What Can I Do If Staff Are Already In Place? Karen Blase from the National Implementation Science Network (NIRN) explains Implementation Drivers and what to do if you already have staff in place.
The Systems Intervention Driver is focused on the external variables, policies, environments, systems or structures that influence or have impact on an implementing organization. The goal of systems intervention is to identify and eliminate or reduce such barriers, or to enhance and sustain those policies, procedures, and regulations that facilitate the work at hand.
Ron Heifetz and his colleagues at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government identify the importance of technical and adaptive leadership strategies. Technical challenges are those characterized by pretty clear agreement on a definition of the dimensions of the problem at hand. This does not mean that technical challenges are easy nor does it mean that there won’t be adjustments to the plan.
Technical challenges respond well to a more traditional management approach where problems are defined, solutions are generated, resources are garnered and tasks are assigned, managed, and monitored. Viable solutions and implementation pathways are unclear and defining a pathway for the solution requires learning by all. These types of challenges require a different type of leadership and often require leadership at many levels. Getting on the balcony - Stepping out of the fray to see the key patterns and the bigger picture. Regulating distress - Creating a safe environment for challenges to be discussed, and creating a space for diversity of opinion, experiences, and values as well as the opportunity to challenge assumptions. Maintaining disciplined attention - Being aware of patterns of behavior that indicate that there is a purposeful or unconscious attempt to avoid disturbing or difficult issues. Giving the work world back - Creating conditions that help people take greater responsibility for the work of change, including defining and solving the problems. Protecting all voices - Relying on others to raise questions about adaptive challenges and provide support and protection for employees who identify internal conflicts in the organization. In too many human service programs, typical selection, training, supervision and fidelity assessment processes are not integrated. To what degree do you have control and responsibility over Implementation Driver resources, personnel, or processes?  The purpose of this activity is to help you quickly assess locus of responsibility in your system, then develop action plans to improve the quality, access and integration of Implementation Drivers. The bottom line is, when you begin to think about letting go of entrenched ways of work, where the implementation math is not adding up for students, families and communities, you are leading yourself and your organization toward Active Implementation and improved outcomes.
Using content from Module 2 and the Implementation Drivers diagram, try summarizing Implementation Drivers and their components in a few short sentences. BRIDGE was a 6-year behavior change HIV prevention project implemented in Malawi from 2003 to 2009 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs (CCP), in partnership with a number of Malawi-based organizations, and with funding from USAID. At the time of the project, Malawi was one of the ten countries worldwide most affected by AIDS. To address the need for a coordinated, comprehensive, scientifically sound approach, BRIDGE coordinators developed the consensus-based National Behavior Change Intervention Strategy.
With funding from the United States Agency of International Development (USAID), the Malawi BRIDGE project was initiated to address the growing problem of accelerating HIV infection rates in the country.
A logic model was created that illustrated the activities and interventions, initial outcomes, intermediate behavioural outcomes and, finally, sustainable outcomes.
Initial outcome objectives at the individual level also included influencing perceived risk and stigma, and establishing a demand for the program’s services. A literature review suggested that several psycho-social factors were associated with people’s unwillingness to get tested for HIV. Ten focus groups were held in two of the eight districts to investigate perceptions, beliefs, norms and practices, identify the key motivators and barriers, and determine the most credible sources and channels of information.
The focus groups were followed up by one-on-one interviews conducted through simple random selection. Additional information came from the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS), which found that awareness of how to prevent HIV was high. Focus group participants felt helpless in the face of poverty and HIV while recognizing the impact that HIV had on their community in terms of lost adults who could work and care for children and the elderly. Participants expressed pessimism about the effectiveness of condom use and were fearful about HIV testing.
The general population was first broken into four groups based on two factors: perceived risk and self-efficacy.
The goal of the first phase of the campaign was therefore to reinforce feelings of confidence and self-efficacy among Malawians in their ability to prevent HIV & AIDS.
The formative research conducted by BRIDGE showed that men perceived their HIV risk to be lower, were more likely to have multiple partners, typically had more control in relationships, and were highly susceptible to social norms that placed them at a higher risk of exposure to HIV. Once the levels of self-efficacy had been sufficiently increased, the campaign could then focus more strongly on risk reduction. The Tisankhenji radio program targeted pre-adolescent girls (10-14) and aimed to instill self-confidence and self-efficacy and to promote resilience in making decisions about their health and future. The Hope Kit assisted community organizations in conducting local outreach and mobilization by providing a package of ready-to-use discussions, activities and demonstrations that modeled prevention behaviours, challenged myths and assumptions about HIV transmission, and provided an opportunity for frank discussion to address stigma and discrimination. BRIDGE also developed the Have a Healthy Baby PMTCT Hope Kit Update Supplement, which highlighted actions that women and couples could take to prevent passing HIV on to their unborn child. The Radio Diaries helped people overcome some of the stigma that prevented them from getting an HIV test, or discussing HIV prevention with their partners. The Radio Diaries featured a variety of voices of men and women, from different socioeconomic, religious and age groups.
BRIDGE developed the idea of youth and girls congresses with the goal of building youth skills in HIV prevention and implementing behaviour change activities, in addition to sharing best practices to strengthen self-efficacy and leadership skills among Malawian youth. Held at the national level, the first Youth Congress in 2004 brought together those aged 15-25 throughout Malawi. The major method used to gauge the effectiveness of the BRIDGE program involved a series of household surveys, using carefully matched non-intervention groups for comparison. The survey design comprised a series of cross-sectional data waves, with participants selected at random during each wave.
One significant difference in the design at baseline, as compared to subsequent waves, was that, at subsequent waves, sampling was stratified according to high-exposure areas (where the BRIDGE project operated) and low-exposure areas (where the BRIDGE did not specifically operate). For example, survey participants were asked how strongly they agreed or disagreed when asked if people living with HIV or AIDS should be avoided, or if teachers who have AIDS should be barred from teaching. Self-efficacy to carry out prevention behaviors was measured by asking survey participants to say how strongly they agreed or disagreed with related statements.


If I am not in a long-term relationship with someone, I am confident that I can remain abstinent.
There was a steady increase from baseline to end-of-project in people’s ability to reduce their number of sexual partners. With respect to the use of condoms, ability to talk to partners about condom use and to remain faithful to one partner, there was a significant association with exposure. BRIDGE’s research also found that other programs at the national level were having a significant impact on some measures, such as knowledge and testing rates.
Evaluation of the Tisankhenji radio program revealed that students in the treatment schools, compared to the comparison schools, were significantly more likely to have greater career aspirations, higher self-esteem, and to engage in meaningful discussions with their teachers and parents about topics relating to their future careers. Positive outcomes were observed for both boys and girls in the treatment schools, even though the program specifically targeted girls. Results indicated that participation in Hope Kit activities was associated with higher community efficacy, more favourable gender norms and a greater likelihood to use condoms.
Participants in the Girls' Leadership Congress reported having acquired critical thinking skills as a result of the program. All messages, materials and tools included input from local HIV, communication, development and government partners, as well as from residents in the eight districts.
Exposure to BRIDGE programs was positively associated with education, suggesting that better-educated individuals, relative to their less-educated counterparts, derived greater benefits from the program. EY refers to the global organization, and may refer to one or more, of the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity. Download LSD Scale, which provides you with a Leadership Style Diagnostic (LSD) Scale to complete. Although it is generally acknowledged that effective leaders must possess a number of sometimes seemingly contradictory qualities and skill sets, the idea that a strength taken to an extreme can be a weakness does not seem to have registered fully in the practice of management.1 The notion that inadequate performance results from underdoing any of the requisite skills — delegating, giving direction, communicating, cooperating with peers and so forth — is well established and reflected in most formal systems designed to assess managers for selection or development. It is difficult to draw the line, however, between making the serious effort required to get things done and going too far.2 A problem commonly seen in recently promoted senior executives, for example, is their difficulty in adjusting their skill sets to the requirements of their higher-level jobs.
When presented with two opposing approaches, people in general have a tendency to polarize, placing a high value on the approach in which they have greater faith and competence while overlooking or demeaning the value of the other.
The concept that overused strengths can become weaknesses is not entirely absent from the field of leadership assessment, though it is rarely reflected in the design of standard tools. Research on derailment has shown that the strengths that propel managers up the corporate ladder can become liabilities. Prior studies of this basic distinction, by whatever name, have shown either a negligible or, most often, a sizable positive correlation between the assertive, task-oriented side and the participative, people-oriented side of leadership. We fully recognize that so-called “contingency theorists” have considered the idea of versatility since the 1960s. The three nonversatile patterns — lopsided toward forceful, lopsided toward enabling, and disengaged — correspond to the three basic leadership styles identified in Kurt Lewin’s seminal research from the 1930s — authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire; see K. For a recent description of the changes in perspective and values required when advancing upward in the management hierarchy, see R.
We mentioned in a previous point of view that over 60% of change initiatives fail, due in part to the absence of organizational acceptance. There is definitely a trend towards building in-house change management capabilities, but there are pros and cons to both approaches. This module provides an overview of the Implementation Drivers, one of the five Active Implementation Frameworks.
In this presentation we will be discussing the key functions related to Implementation Drivers and examples of their use in education. They are the core components needed to initiate and support classroom, building, and district level change. In short, Drivers are the common features of successful supports needed to make full and effective use of innovations that will benefit students and their families.
These leadership challenges often emerge as part of the change management process needed to make decisions, provide guidance, and support organization functioning.
Competency Drivers are the activities to develop, improve, and sustain educator and administrator ability to put programs and innovations into practice, so students benefit. Fidelity assessment refers to measuring the degree to which teachers or staff are able to use the intervention or instructional practices as intended. Are results poor because we chose the wrong intervention or because the intervention is not yet being used as intended?
Fidelity data and information, as well as intervention outcomes, are a direct reflection of the how well the Competency, Organization and Leadership Drivers are working together to support teachers and staff as they attempt to use interventions or innovations.
Department of Education found less than half (44.3%) of research-based prevention programs examined met minimal fidelity standards. We can do better by developing organizations that support effective practice and use performance assessment as a positive tool to connect infrastructure supports to outcomes. In addition to providing feedback to teachers, measures of fidelity also provide useful feedback to principals, district superintendents, evaluators, coaches, and purveyors regarding implementation progress. That is, the school or district is deciding whether or not to select an individual to join them and the process allows the applicant to understand the expectations related to the position. These processes allow interviewers to observe how applicants respond to feedback and how able and willing they are to learn new practices. A detailed and realistic overview of the position helps the applicant decide if they are up for the challenge.
But, training is still an important process to provide background information, introduce skills and major concepts, theory and values of the evidence-based programs and practices. During training, teachers are introduced to new concepts and strategies before they are expected to use them in their classrooms.
The authors noted that even very good training that included demonstration, practice, and feedback resulted in only 5% of teachers using the new skills in the classroom. This coaching approach also supports the development of judgment needed to differentiate instruction, use data for decision-making, and engage in evidence-based and evidence-informed instructional and intervention practices. As new educators get better and better at using their new skills, they become more artful and confident.
These are the organizational, administrative and systems components that are necessary to create hospitable community, school, district, and state environments for new ways of work for teachers and school staff.
To be useful, data need to be collected, analyzed, and reported over time and across actionable levels. For example, teachers can access data to monitor student progress, make educational decisions, and to see how their own practices are improving through the fidelity assessment lens.
A DSDS is more quickly embraced when the information readily highlights improvements and supports the work of educators at all levels. Building or District Leadership and Implementation Teams are often responsible for activating this Driver. Administrative systems are accountable for creating an organizational context that is supportive, engaged in learning, and continuously improving based on best practices and the use of data. Building and district leaders and teams identify barriers that are beyond their level of authority and work to bring issues to the attention of those who can address such barriers. The purpose is to create and sustain an environment and conditions that support the new way of work. Volumes have been written about the importance of leadership and the many traits needed by leaders to make change, support staff, and sustain outcomes. He says that one of the biggest mistakes leaders make is incorrectly identifying the type of challenge they are facing. And there is agreement that the problem would be defined similarly by the groups impacted by it and engaged in addressing it. Leaders also need to recognize the patterns of work avoidance and the potential for conflict. It also involves recognizing the challenges to and uncomfortable changes that may be required in values, practices and relationships. That is, selection processes may not tap into the skills and attributes needed for a particular position or practice, training and professional development opportunities may or may not be related to on the job expectations and actual skills needed to improve student outcomes.
Have teachers been given enough support, training, coaching and time to gain the competence and confidence to use evidence-based programs and practices?
Rather, each person hired brings what they can to the educational environment and is offered modest support. As you think about your past work, you can probably now recognize why some of those hard won successes occurred.
The number steadily increased throughout the campaign, rising to more than 50% by the end of the project. The country had an HIV prevalence rate of 15% among 15-49 year olds, and AIDS was the leading cause of death among adults, with life expectancy reduced from 54 to 39 years. Once implemented as part of a comprehensive program of prevention, services and care, this strategy was designed to contribute to a decline in new HIV infections. BRIDGE was implemented with local partners in eight focus districts (Balaka, Chikwawa, Kasungu, Mangochi, Mulanje, Mzimba, Ntcheu, and Salima), while mass media campaigns had national reach.
No specific targets were set for the changes in behavior (Tools of Change recommends setting specific targets i.e. Besides gender and education, these included lack of awareness, stigma, low perceived risk and low self-efficacy.
There were 8-10 participants per group, except for the two groups with elders which had only 4-5 per group.
The questionnaire was pre-tested, adjusted to improve clarity and flow, and then translated from English into Chichewa and Tumbuka. The survey found that 85% of women and 92% of men knew at least two of the major ways to avoid HIV infection, with the most commonly cited responses being reducing the number of partners and using condoms.
For example, in the same MDHS, 10% of married men responded that they had engaged in extramarital sex in the last 12 months, and approximately 25% of non-married men had had multiple partners during the same time period. Fears about HIV testing included feelings that a positive result would invoke, such as depression, suicidal tendencies, anxiety and reactions from others, including insults, teasing, and isolation.
The formative research had identified several key audiences at particularly high risk who could have a strong impact on the future of the epidemic if their behaviors changed.
Each story centred on how a young girl overcame life's challenges and achieved her future goals.
Parents also began listening to the weekly episodes and used them as a starting point to talk to their children about their health and their future. The diarists were people who knew their status and were willing and able to talk about their situations honestly, openly and with genuine emotion.
The diversity of radio stations, (government, commercial and religious) enabled the program to reach a broad cross section of the population. Sports integrated HIV prevention themes into constructive recreational activities, including sports and traditional games for youth.
Sports was implemented at school and community settings through active collaboration with local government departments, NGOs, faith-based organizations, school authorities and youth clubs. Following the success of the National Youth Congress, BRIDGE and its partners implemented a series of regional congresses in all three regions of Malawi, followed by congresses in all eight districts. However, BRIDGE found that many of their teachings were putting young girls at increased risk of HIV infection. Across all the data waves, sampling procedures and survey methods were kept as similar as possible in order to make them comparable with each other. This enabled the program to estimate the portion of observed changed that were due to these other campaigns, and how much could be attributed to BRIDGE activities. Stigma was broken down into various components and each was measured by asking survey participants how strongly they agreed or disagreed with a number of statements.
Again, those who were exposed to more activities and channels had higher levels of efficacy. It accounted for this in its analysis and still found that exposure to the BRIDGE campaign was a significant and strong predictor of knowledge and testing rates. They also had more discussions about their career plans with their friends, teachers and parents.
Qualitative studies done with girl participants revealed that they were aware of the barriers they would encounter in their pursuit of career goals, but they also had higher levels of self-efficacy to overcome them, indicating that their beliefs were based on a careful appraisal of existing hurdles. However, the analysis also found that non-participants who interacted with Hope Kit participants did not gain much knowledge despite their social ties.
Sports reported having undergone positive changes in their attitudes, beliefs and behaviours with regard to sexuality.


This, in turn, helped them solve problems on their own, thereby increasing their ability to deal with the challenges of facing negative gender norms. This ensured that communication products were community-based, had local ownership and would be sustainable beyond the end of the project. BRIDGE actively participated in the National AIDS Commission's Behavior Change Intervention Technical Working Group and Youth Technical Working Group and contributed to the development of the National HIV Prevention Strategy and the National Action Framework. This suggested that future programming should take special steps to reach those not currently being served because of their low literacy levels. Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. But leaders who work to guard against such lopsidedness can increase their versatility and their impact. However, the idea that performance problems can just as easily spring from taking a given behavior to an extreme has received far less attention. What had, in their previous positions, been a seemingly inoffensive, even useful, tendency to get heavily involved in operational detail can become a big liability in their new roles, resulting in the misallocation of time and attention away from strategic considerations or getting in the way of direct reports’ ability to do their jobs.
When considered, it tends to be treated as an afterthought rather than integral to the design of the measure. Bass, “Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications,” 3rd ed.
Shipper, “Mastery and Frequency of Managerial Behaviors Relative to Sub-Unit Effectiveness,” Human Relations 44, no.
These theorists argued that the most effective leadership behavior depended on circumstantial factors.
Blatt, “The Destructiveness of Perfectionism: Implications for the Treatment of Depression,” American Psychologist 50, no.
Competency, Organization, and Leadership Drivers are in service to Fidelity to achieve improved outcomes. An active implementation lens helps us focus on best practices for these components based on the best research and evaluation evidence from Implementation Science.
We need to know the answers to these questions in order to create a functional improvement plan.
Likewise, results can help responsively guide a staff and organizational development plan for improved practices and skills. Department of Education Office of Planning Evaluation and Policy Development and Policy and Program Studies Service. The process also provides the opportunity to select for specific traits or characteristics – ones that may be challenging to support through training and coaching. In short, training is necessary for building teacher competency, but it is not sufficient if used alone. They are also introduced to the reasons the practices have been selected and how they benefit students.
Only when training was accompanied by coaching in the classroom was there substantial use in the practice setting. That is, data need to be available from the classroom, grade, school, and district levels so progress can be celebrated, needs identified, and improvement plans generated. A school principal or a building leadership team can look across a grade level or curriculum area data to detect systemic issues that need to be broadly addressed.
Schools and districts within a state that are all implementing the same intervention, can pool their knowledge and recommendations and develop collaborative approaches to identifying and addressing barriers as well as sharing facilitative practices and procedures. The use of the Leadership Driver in the context of active implementation focuses on leadership approaches related to transforming systems and creating change. Giving the work back to the people also requires instilling and expressing confidence in others so that they will take risks, and backing them up when they make mistakes. For example, one time professional development events place an undue burden on teachers and staff to make changes in their classrooms and schools in the absence of coaching, student data systems, and fidelity feedback. Likewise, you might recognize what you might have done to improve your school or district’s track record in using best practices effectively. BRIDGE coordinators recognized the need to operationalize this strategy to link it with concrete actions. The focus group discussions were non-directive and participatory, using self- projection images and games to generate open discussions. These two versions were then back-translated into English to establish semantic equivalence. This indicated a very real danger that the program would be unsuccessful if it could not first increase self-efficacy. The project’s third phase targeted these specific audiences with messages to help them assess their specific risk factors and develop plans to minimize them. You could scratch off the circle covering the answer, yes or no, revealing a thumb up or a thumb down.
All of these activities gave participants the skills to enable them to make informed, positive health choices.
The program presented positive yet realistic role models and actions for men to emulate, while encouraging men to spend more time with their wives and children, learn about HIV, and get tested. Based on the overwhelmingly positive results, BRIDGE scaled up the activity to the remaining seven districts.
The program encouraged positive mentoring of young adults by the community, built youth leadership skills by encouraging decision making, and empowered and validated youth involvement in community activities. Beyond the training aspect, BRIDGE also provided sports materials and activity guides for the Nditha! The congresses were designed to specifically address the unique social, cultural, and biological challenges faced by Malawian young women and girls that render them particularly vulnerable to HIV. Agogos were trained to continue carrying out their important role by passing on advice that would help young people avoid HIV. Risk perception was clearly enhanced from baseline to end-of-project and monumental gains were made in the areas of self-efficacy with regard to abstinence, faithfulness and condom use. By the first midterm survey, that number had increased to close to 25%, to more than 35% at the second midterm, and to more than 50% at end-of-project. Girls also reported that their social network had been greatly expanded after participation in the program. All collaborating and interested parties were also given copies of the tools and the opportunity to participate in training on how to use them. BRIDGE’s Leadership in Strategic Health Communication workshop trained key Malawi HIV and behavior change professionals in state-of-the-art communication and prevention approaches.
Still, even in executive positions there are situations that require the individual to get deeply involved. They may be too task-oriented and not sufficiently people-oriented, too tough and not responsive enough to people’s needs, too big-picture-oriented with not enough emphasis on planning and follow-through.
For instance, some instruments provide prescriptions for leadership development by comparing ratings of “how often” the manager does a particular thing to an “ideal amount” that is estimated using a statistical formula.
Kaiser, “The Turbulence Within: How Sensitivities Throw Off Performance in Executives,” in “Leading in Turbulent Times,” eds. Theory X managers, who believe that people are motivated to do just enough to get by and are basically lazy, tend to be too forceful and do not enable enough. For example, characteristics such as seeing parents as partners in the education process or willingly being accountable for outcomes. Coaching is related to fidelity because in many ways, fidelity is one of the important outcomes of quality coaching. In addition to process, fidelity and outcome data, data also can be captured related to the effectiveness of the other Implementation Drivers. District teams can identify masterful teachers who can support their colleagues by demonstrating excellence in instructional practices. Above all, the Facilitative Administration Driver uses data and proactively solicits feedback to look for ways to make the day to day work of teachers, school staff and administrators more effective and less burdensome. That is, we can be reasonably certain that given the agreed upon problem and the dimension of the problem, if we engage in a relevant set of activities we will arrive at a solution – not necessarily quickly or easily but the challenge and path to a solution are largely known.
Likewise, supervision is more likely to be focused on timeliness of reports, general work ethic and general professionalism than on adherence to effective practices. Administrators and leadership teams need to ensure that each Implementation Driver is playing a role in supporting the implementation of evidence-based practices and programs that can improve student outcomes. Yet only 14% of men and 5% of women reported condom use during their last sexual encounter. Any thumb down indicated a risky behavior, and the back of the card contained suggestions of actions you could take to minimize the risk. It also encouraged young adults to set goals and place value on their lives, building their sense of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Project staff also provided technical assistance to a number of other partners including I-Life, Peace Corps, and the Umoyo Network. For senior managers, then, effectiveness hinges on the ability to appropriately gear their leadership qualities and skills to the circumstances at hand. Using other instruments, respondents rate how often the manager engages in a number of specific behaviors, indicating whether the manager should do more, less or the same amount of each of several sets of behaviors — not each specific behavior.
White, “Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Climates,” Journal of Social Psychology 10 (1939): 271–301. Believing that people are basically motivated to work hard and will do so if given the right conditions, Theory Y managers are inclined to be too enabling and not forceful enough. Prevalence and implementation fidelity of research-based prevention programs in public schools: Final report (pp. Information gathered through the selection process can be fed forward to trainers and coaches to help them understand the strengths of the person and more quickly focus on areas that may need attention. Supervision and coaching are integrated with selection and training because the educator will continue to build on what was described in the interview process and what was covered during training.
Again, all DSDS data and information need to be reliable, valid, and timely, as well as provide measures at actionable units (e.g.
When used in an integrated and compensatory manner with an eye toward active implementation, the Implementation Drivers can ensure that educators become increasingly competent and confident, have a supportive administrative environment, access to functional data systems, and the support of transformative leadership. 90,000 of these cards were printed to be distributed at community events and through local NGO partners of the BRIDGE Project. From 2003 to 2008, there was an approximately four-fold increase in the proportion of people who reported testing for HIV.
White, “Mastery, Frequency and Interaction of Managerial Behaviors Relative to Subunit Effectiveness,” Human Relations 52, no. For a quantitative review of more than 200 primary studies that examined the correlations between these two dimensions of leader behavior, refer to R.F. These patterns also correspond to the three counterproductive interpersonal orientations that Karen Horney, the psychoanalytic theorist, formulated.
And coaching helps to compensate for the skills and abilities that were not present at the point of hire or that were not mastered in training.
The leader can form a team, make a plan, make decisions, hold people accountable and execute the solution.
We frequently hear similar reactions as people acquire this new knowledge related to effective implementation. McCauley, “The Dynamics of Management Derailment” (Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership, 1988). What she called “moving against others” corresponds roughly to forceful, “moving toward others” to enabling and “moving away from others” to disengaged; see K. Ilies, “The Ohio State Studies: Consideration and Initiating Structure Revisited” (presentation at the 17th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, Florida, April 11–13, 2003). Both reviews concluded that a strong and positive relationship exists between the two, and both acknowledge that this is inconsistent with how the two dimensions are conceptualized.



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