Amenity grass seeds business British Seed Houses, a wholly owned subsidiary of Germinal Holdings Limited, has been re-named Germinal Seeds GB.
The change has been made to clarify its position as a part of the Germinal Holdings group and achieve consistency with other Germinal group companies throughout the world and does not impact in any other way on operations that run from the company’s Lincoln and Bristol units. Germinal Seeds GB (formerly British Seed Houses) is part of the largest family-owned amenity and forage seed business in the British Isles, a company based in Northern Ireland and dating back to 1825.
Concurrently with the change of British Seed Houses to Germinal Seeds GB, the Northern Ireland subsidiary Samuel McCausland Ltd has become Germinal Seeds NI.
In 1763 Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War (1754-1763) and the two combatants signed the Treaty of Paris in the same year. Weary of not only fighting the French in Europe, Great Britain was also weary of conflict with the native Americans. Contrary to British common law, violators of the Sugar Act were tried without due process and without civil magistrates.
In 1764 the British Parliament passed the Currency Act, which forbade the colonies from circulating their own currencies.
This heavy handed approach to governing the American colonies was simply a reflection of the British mindset. In 1764 Parliament also passed the Quartering Act, which required the colonists to house and feed the British troops--another cost saving decision, without consulting the colonists! The Sons of Liberty were formed in New England, a group dedicated to resisting i??British strong-armed tactics. The British Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, but at the same time, again to show who was boss, issued the Declaratory Act, which basically said, a€?We are Parliament and we can do anything we want to do, and you colonists have nothing to say about it. In 1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Acts which was an import tax on all imported tea, glass, lead, oil, paper, and paintersa€™ colors.
The kinga€™s governor in Virginia dissolved the Virginia Assembly because of its refusal to collect or pay British-imposed taxes. In 1773 Parliament passed the Tea Act in order to rescue the financially failing East Indian Tea Company--and to show the colonists who was the boss.
Now King George III played his heavy hand and ordered the military to enforce British rule. During the war the colonists in July 1776 braved British retaliation by declaring their independence in an official document signed and sent to the King.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.
Cited in a€?Does a State Have a Right to Secede From the Union?a€?, by Diane Rufino, November 12, 2012. In a confederation individually sovereign states have a voluntary association between each other.
The states were not willing to spill their blood in order to escape from the tyranny of Britain only to set up another strong federal government that would do the same thing! But they needed a united front in dealing with France, Spain, and Britain, which the Confederation provided. What did the Articles provide by means of defining what the new federal government could do? Each state retains its sovereignty -- federal government can only do what it is empowered to do by the states. What were the major flaws of the Articles that caused most of the Founders to see the need for a new and not amended Constitution? It did not provide for a balance of power between a judiciary, executive, and congressional powers. A Constitutional Convention was called for 1787 in Philadelphia to discuss revisions to the Article of Confederation. A committee was formed to attempt the task of creating something new, and to include all the ideas offered on the floor of the Convention. Major members of the committee to write a new Constitution: John Dickinson, Gouverneur Morris, Edmund Randolph, Roger Sherman, James Wilson, and George Wythe. The new Constitution was approved on September 17, 1787 and was sent to the states for ratification.
George Washington of Virginia and war hero was elected as the first president under the new Constitution.
There were a number of elements that finally culminated in Americaa€™s War for Independence. First, there were spiritual dynamics within the colonies that impacted the direction of the colonial leadership. The American War for Independence was heavily influenced by the preaching of the colonial ministers in New England. The a€?Presbyterian Revolta€? was also impacted by the Great Awakening, a spiritual revival that had swept through the colonies in two stages during the 18th century. If anything, such preaching and such a spiritual revival advocated submission and obedience to those in authority, but only when those in authority exercised their authority justly, impartially, and with the consent of those governed.
Second, there were also certain Christian documents that were very influential in shaping the actions of the Founding Fathers, that led them to taking the final step of declaring their severance from King George III. It was the incessant and continual refusal of the British crown to respond in a peaceful and understanding way to complaints and requests that were made by the American colonists that produced the declaration of independence of 1776. They were also influenced by a treatise authored by a Scottish Presbyterian minister, Samuel Rutherford, entitled Lex Rex. Fourth was the new treatise released in 1776 by Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, in which was advocated the free enterprise system--a system that grants the right to earn money spend money without government control. Fifth, they were influenced by writings of certain of the Enlightenment philosophes of the 17th and 18th centuries--Montesquieu and Locke in particular--who championed the idea of individual rights that are innate--given by God and not granted by governments. The colonists determined that for these reasons they had the biblical right to declare their independence from the English king--not from England itself. Note: An interesting question boils up again after elections and after various laws are passed to the displeasure of some. The war was in large part founded upon Christian and biblical principles, and the Founding Fathers looked to historical, biblical foundations for guidance and for their strugglea€™s legitimacy.
These inalienable rights included the freedom of religion, the freedom of speech and thought, the freedom to own personal property, the freedom to assemble, the freedom of the press, and the freedom to manufacture, to sell, and to buy without government interference. Four Christian documents that guided the Founding Fathers of America were (1) the Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos from the French Huguenots in the 16th century; (2) Lex Rex from the Samuel Rutherford and the Scottish Covenanters in the 17th century, (3) the Code of Alfred--Alfred the Greata€™s codification of Peoplea€™s Law in the 9th century that found its fullest expression in the English Bill of Rights of 1688, and (4) the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1638). From the Vindiciae (1753) the colonists were able to answer the questions, a€?Is it ever biblically permissible to oppose the government?a€? The Vindiciae was written in the 16th century by French Huguenots who were in a desperate struggle with the Catholic monarchs of France.
From Lex Rex (1644) the Founding Fathers received guidance concerning the ancient biblical principles of governing. The personal liberties of free men, the right to own personal property, the concept of innocent until proven guilty, and representative government contained in Alfreda€™s Code were long embedded in the British mind.
In 1633 a new group of a€?non-conformistsa€? arrived in New England led by by their minister, Thomas Hooker. The treatment they had received in England at the hands of the Anglicans, was still fresh in their minds.
A fifth document well-known to the Founding Fathers was Adam Smitha€™s Wealth of Nations which was published in 1776 and gave the colonists a new view of economics and the free enterprise system. Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, gave rational support for the American quest for independence, and reflected the rationalism of the Enlightenment in Europe.
The American Revolution retained its spiritual heritage after independence was won as reflected in the individual state constitutions. Question: Does the very framework of the Constitution and the system of courts allowing for appeals prohibit any idea of a future cessation by a state from the American Republic?
We know from history that four states refused to ratify the Constitution unless there was the guarantee that if this new central government--even loose as it was envisioned and guaranteeing strong state governments--failed to turn out as expected, they could secede from the union. As soon as Lincoln was inaugurated in January 1861, he took a stand against secession and threatened invasion of the secessionist states. A final question centers around when a Christian individually has the right to resist an unjust law. The Sons of Liberty were formed in New England, a group dedicated to resisting British strong-armed tactics. In 1765, Massachusetts called for a Stamp Act Congress to meet in New York.A  The Congress formed a united boycott of all British goods, adopted a Declaration of Rights, and fired off a grievance to King George III. 2He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
3He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
4He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
5He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
6He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
7He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance. 8He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. 17For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. 18He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. 19He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. 20He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. 21In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.


1.The independence of the American United States was officially recognized by Great Britain. 2.The boundaries between the United States and British North America (Canada) were defined. 2.Each state retains its sovereignty -- federal government can only do what it is empowered to do by the states. In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.
A search of the 1901 and 1911 Irish Census records did not produce any members of this Tinman family.
Also, in the 1860 record of the Battlehill Methodist Church there was a Conway Tinman (Battlehill: A Local History, A Church History, by Valerie Ruddell and William Newell, Ruddell Press, Portadown, 2000 -- p. The only known child of Sarah Lindsay Tinman was her daughter, Sarah Tinman who married William Hinton and was the a€?niecea€? that Alexander met while on his mission, as referred to above. It is clear that they had another daughter, born about 1908, after Alexander returned home from his mission, and she was therefore not mentioned in his journal. This is all that we have been able to find for Sarah Lindsaya€™s and her daughtera€™s families. This Bible is now in the possession of Wilson Glass, Grandnephew of Fannie Livingston Lindsay. With William being married in Jersey in 1859, he seems to have remained in the military for the next several years, and was probably still serving as a soldier at the time that his parents died--mother in 1865, and father in 1866. Eventually William, Alice and Alex returned home where they took up farming on their old home site. In his role as a local farmer, and a leader in the Methodist Church at Battlehill, life continued until 20 Oct. In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh). In the 1911 Irish census we find the same William and Fanny (ages 73 & 72) still listed as Methodists and still in Ballintaggart (Aghory, Armagh). Between these two dates, William was visited at their old home by his brother Alexander who made many references in his journal to their discussions, including a variety of religious conversations. While the brothers loved each other, it seems apparent that Alexander took his LDS mission very seriously and wanted to convince William of the truthfulness of the restored gospel. William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one. She would have been about 25 years old when her father died in 1866, and so was old enough to be out on her own. There is a lot of missing information about her and her family, but the two census records give us a great deal of help in filling in some of the gaps. Shortly after their marriage they were posted to India, which was a part of the British Empire at that time and had a fairly large contingent of British soldiers stationed there. The family retuned from India about 1879, not long after Alexandera€™s departure for for New Zealand, and settled in County Armagh.
In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists. His journal contains a number of brief entries showing a warm conviviality and a joy to be reunited with his loved ones in his old home country.
Shortly after this experience Alexander was transfered to England and was only able to communicate with his family by mail thereafter. In the 1911 Irish census we find this family living in house 14 Union Street, Portadown, Armagh.
In addition to the above information, there is a note that Mary Ann had been married for only 9 years; had born 5 children, 3 of whom were still living. We do not know of Elizabeth or William ever marrying, and we do not know what became of little Sarah, but it is possible that she had a family of her own with descendants somewhere today.
Our family records indicated that Mary Ann died about 1910, but it is apparent from the 1911 census that she was still alive at that time. She was still a young woman at that time and one wonders what happened to end her life while just entering her prime. The three death dates always match, and in each one he says she was 31 years old when she died.
In the 1860 roll for the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, Dorothy Lindsaya€™s name appears as a member of the group that was led by her father, John Lindsay.
Dorothy grew up in the Lindsay home in Ballintaggart on the Loughgall Road with her other siblings. Dorothya€™s marriage may have taken place while Alexander was away as a soldier in the British Army, but he married and returned to this area in time to know Dorothya€™s two little boys when they were very young. Early on, the Holmes family moved to the townland of Clonroot, which is immediately adjacent to, on the west side of, Battlehill, which is adjacent to, and on the west side of, Ballintaggart, so they were very close to the rest of the family.
Upon his return to Ireland as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1904-5, Alexander Lindsay visited with his brother William, and his sister, Mary Ann, to get caught up on all the changes that had occurred while he was away in New Zealand, and in Oregon, over the past 26 years. While he was surely saddened to miss most of his siblings, he did get a chance to rekindle some relationships with the next generation, including his nephew, William Holmes.
Shortly after this last visit with William Holmes, Alexander was transferred to England for the remainder of his mission. In the 1911 Irish census we find William still living alone in the 19th house enumerated in Clonroot, Kilmore Parish, Co. Although William Holmes was still single in the 1911 census, he did eventually marry on 3 March 1920, in Ahorey, Co., Armagh, Ireland to Margaret Edgar, the daughter of Thomas Edgar.
As has been mentioned several times already, Alex was the youngest of eight children born to John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy. After returning to Ireland, and probably with the discharge of William from the Army, Alexander then enlisted for his own tour. So, in the fall of 1878, with their baby just a few weeks old, Alex and Mary set sail on an old sailing vessel, which went south around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, and then eastward to New Zealand.
They Lindsays homesteaded land in their new country and from time to time traded up for larger tracts until they eventually bought 640 acres of land near Towai, Bay of Islands, on the North Island.
In 1897 missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints came to this area and eventually the Lindsays were taught the gospel and were baptized into this church. After returning home to LaGrande, Alex and Mary had a wonderful life together watching their children grow up, marry and raise children of their own. From the eight children (four daughters and four sons) of John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy, they had about nineteen known grandchildren. In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.A  Much of this information comes from Alexander Lindsaya€™s Journal which he kept when he returned to the place of his birth on a two years mission (1904-1906) for the LDS Church and will be referred to as a€?ALJa€? {The Alexander Lindsay Journals 1903-1906, transcribed by Larry E. Sarah Lindsay--born 1837, was the oldest child of this family.A  She married Edward Tinman (date unknown but probably between 1860-64) {ALJ p. In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh).A A  In this census she said she too was born in Co.
William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one.A  He passed away on 30 Dec. Mary Ann Lindsay--was born in 1841 (no actual date specified).A  At age 19 her name was listed as one of the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, of which her father, John Lindsay, was then the Group Leader [Battlehill Church History p.
In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists.A  Mary Ann was listed as being a widowed house keeper, aged 60 and the three children between ages 18-22 with the two girls as a€?Drawer in Factorya€? and the son was a weaver.
Managing director William Gilbert, a direct descendant of the founder, says the move is a reflection of the group’s progress and is particularly relevant to the global positioning of the group. It fully funds the only UK based amenity seed grass breeding programme, based at IBERS (Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences) at Aberystwyth University. As a result, France was required to give up all its holdings in Canada and all areas surrounding the Great Lakes.
Frequently warfare was the result of the native Americans simply responding to increasing encroachment into their traditional lands by English colonists. It further required that all goods imported from Europe had to first be shipped to Great Britain, loaded onto British ships, and the cost was borne by the American importers.
The government was financially burdened by the expenses incurred by the French and Indian War (the American chapter of the Seven Years War).
Can a government tax without the consent of those being taxed, or by a parliament not elected by the colonists? They maintained that government should be FOR the people, OF the people, and BY the people. But after all, reasoned the Parliament, were not the troops required to protect the peace in the colonies and to put down the frequent riots? Their concluding agreement was they were citizens of Virginia, loyal to the British king, but refused to pay any taxes to a far-off British parliament. When they walked Bostona€™s streets they were taunted by Bostona€™s youth, had snow balls i??thrown at them, and on one occasion an unruly crowd assembled. When British troops marched from Boston to Concord to confiscate stored militia weapons, an armed confrontation took place on April 19, 1775, known as the Battle of Lexington and Concord. The colonists responded with armed resistance under the leadership of General George Washington of Virginia. In good Vindiciae format, Thomas Jefferson clearly delineated the just causes brought against King George III in his preface to the Declaration.
A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Their first product was the Articles of Confederation, which was ratified by the 13 colonies in 1781. It could request but could not require.That was a right reserved only for the sovereign 13 states. When Rhode Island refused to agree to give power to establish tariffs, the nation was at a stand still. Thomas Jefferson led a group call for a weak federal government.This would prove to be a major battle, which is still a major issue American politics today. Most were either first or second generation ministers who had recently emigrated to the American colonies and many for religious freedom. Citizens and government officials alike were viewed as a€?sinners in the hands of an angry God,a€? to take a key phrase from a sermon by Jonathan Edwards bearing the same title. The Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos, for example, cautioned Christians in any attempt to oppose those who govern. Each time he responded with either silence, or with new taxes, or upon the third appeal, with additional troops.
In that treatise Rutherford maintained that biblically the law applies equally to everyone, the king included. There were as many people and leaders in favor of NOT declaring independence as there were those in favor of it. The colonists interpreted the blockades against American ports, the taxes levied on commerce, and the forced conscription of American sailors while at sea by British vessels to be a violation of their rights to a free economy. This was not a war created by rioters in the streets or by power-hungry men attempting to overthrow the English monarchy.
Those principles laid at the heart of the conflict in 1215 between the nobles and King John which produced the Magna Carta, and the conflicts of 1689 between Parliament and King James II, which resulted in the English Bill of Rights. Known as a€?Hookera€™s Gang,a€? these had long struggled in England against the attempts by the Anglican Church to force conformity on all churches. Likewise, in Massachusetts the same spirit of required conformity seemed to be present among the Pilgrims and Puritans.


Paine left America for France, feeling more affinity for the French philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries than he did for the heavily Christian orientation of the new American nation.
This question arises from time to time when a particular election disappoints some, or when certain laws are passed or court decision rendered that are not popular. Two of the four were large, influential states--Virginia (ratified the Constitution in June 1788, two months after the Constitution was ratified by the required nine colonies), and New York (July 1788).
After all, the colonies had just seceded from the English crown in 1776, a secession still celebrated every July 4th. President Buchanan (1856-1860) believed that secession was illegal, but on the other hand believed that the federal government had no power to prevent a state from seceding and had taken actions to alienate the southern states.
When union troops invaded Virginia, which the Virginians held to be a sovereign territory, the war was on. Frequently warfare was the result ofA  the native Americans simply responding to increasing encroachment into their traditional lands by English colonists. They organized resistance to the Stamp Act.A  Through intimidation and threats of personal violence, they forced a number of Stamp Act agents in Boston to resign.
The colonists responded with armed resistance under the leadership of General George Washington of Virginia.A  War broke out was to last for six long and hard years, ending with the Peace of Paris in 1783. 10, 1905 --This morn after dressing I went to meet my Niece [this would be Sarah Tinman Hinton, who was then living in Belfast, and was the daughter of Sarah Lindsay Tinman] at the 9 Oa€™c train and her two children, bringing them home to breakfast, and then went on to M. 9, 1905 -- Accompanied by Elder Scott I paid my promised visit to my new found Niece [Sarah Tinman Hinton].
14 May 1905 -- This morning my companion and I went out as far as Clonroot to pay our promised visit to Willie Holmes. 11 June 1905 -- Another Saboth [sic] day, going out as far as Clonroot, and I may say we all spent a very enjoyable time.
Keelya€? and had this girl--born about 1906.A  Remember too that Alexander referred to his niece as Mrs.
In an attempt to bring a measure of peace, in the Proclamation of 1763 the British government drew a line down the middle of the Adirondack Mountains and forbad any settlement of lands west of that line.
The British military had to fight the French and their Indian allies for the safeguarding of the colonialists. The resounding response was, a€?No!a€? The colonies maintained that their elected colonial legislatures were the only lawfully constituted parliaments to whom they owed allegiance. The Parliament was composed of the House of Lords whose members were appointed by hereditary, and the House of Commons elected by districts in England.
The defiance of the colonialists made the British Parliament all the more intent on making them submit.
It was written in the summer of 1777 and approved by the Second Continental Congress in November 1777. Nothing acknowledges this more than by how the English Parliament referred to the war--they called it the a€?Presbyterian Revolt.a€? The ministers in the New England colonies were in the majority Presbyterians. The colonists did not appeal to the Parliament because they believed that the English Bill of Rights of 1688 granted them the right to live directly under the king and under their own colonial legislatures.
At one point Samuel and John Adams, who were viewed by radicals by many, A and their few friends, had very little support. To guarantee these rights--especially to prohibit the rise of a dictatorship or a rule by tyranny--were the ideas of a separation of powers, a system of checks and balances, and a written, enduring constitution. Peoplea€™s Law elevates law over ruler--in other words, the law applies to the king as well as to the lowest servant. These were outlined by traditional Anglo-Saxon principles of law and by Alfreda€™s Code, which stemmed from his earlier Libre Ex Lege Moises. In Connecticut suffrage (the right for all to vote) was granted to all adults, no matter their church relationship. Nevertheless, Common Sense did give to Jefferson and Adams a logical way of ordering and presenting their appeals to the king.
A Even if the required number of states ratified the Constitution, it would not work without the cooperation of these two very crucial states.
He further ruled that the federal government had the right to maintain federal properties contained within the secessionist states.
It is to be noted that this was not a civil war, for the secessionists did not intend to overthrow the central government.
Peter states the principle in Acts when he declared that if ever the government requires a Christian to violate a biblical principle, the Christian must obey God rather than man. 1920.A  His widow, Fannie, continued to reside in the old Lindsay home until her passing on 7 Aug. 207].A A  She may have known him in her earlier years and may have married when he was on leave from the Army, as we believe he was a soldier. Nugent, and her two daughters, Lizzie and Sarah.A  Sarah was already married by this date, and she was the a€?Mrs. 10, 1905 -- This morning found all the Elders ready for Con[ference].A  Roy went and met Sis.
It further stipulated that no iron, potash, or silk could be directly imported from Europe. The Sugar Act would be the vehicle to allow the colonials to pay their fair share of the war, and would help cover the expense of governing them. Furthermore, did the British Parliament have the authority to confiscate the personal property of those who violated the Sugar Act?
They also maintained that their colonial legislatures were peers of and equal to the British Parliament. This was a tax on all paper products, playing cards, official documents, books, pamphlets--and, hitting home personally the pocketbook of editor Benjamin Franklin, the Stamp Act placed a tax also on all newspapers. And in Boston a group of colonists dressed like Indians bordered a ship loaded with tea and threw the tea overboard--the famous Boston Tea Party!
The template that they used to guide them in their work was the New Jersey Constitution of 1776. After its ratification the first ten amendments, called the Bill of Rights, were amended to the Constitution and ratified by the states in 1791. Some of the motives for seeking independence from Britain were godly and some were not.A But overall, this was a quest for independence that was founded upon biblical principles that had been inherited through centuries of English history. All men were viewed as being in need of redemption, all created in the image of God with no a€?biga€? people and no a€?littlea€? people.
It was only after multiple appeals were made to King George III of England, and only after he responded with sarcasm and a military show of force did they take up arms and declare unilaterally their independence from the English throne.
First, one must determine that the one ruling is, in fact, ruling unjustly--ruling in a way that denied one's God-given rights. If the ruler fails to listen, then an appeal should be made to the governing body to whom the ruler is accountable.
Hooker later was a major player in the formation of the United Colonies of New England (1643) which was the earliest form of federal government in the colonies. Residing in Paris, Paine became a major contributor to the French Declaration of the Rights of Man. They determined simply to withdraw from the federal union, as they had 100 years earlier from the king of England.
For some at the present time that issue might arise if abortion is granted as a right to be funded with tax dollars.
Furthermore, did the British Parliament have the authority toA  confiscate the personal property of those who violated the Sugar Act? Nugentsa€™s [Mary Ann Lindsay Nugent--another sister of Alexandar Lindsay who was then living in Portadown], talked some time and then proceeded out as far as Wma€™s [Alexa€™s older brother, William Lindsay] calling in on the way to see Mr. Little Eddie Hinton [age about 10] just alls in on me just now.A  Hea€™s on a visit to his Aunt Mrs. In Pennsylvania the Paxton Boys revolted against the Proclamation and against what they considered to be excessive taxes.
They would answer only to the king and not Parliament, they would answer to the king directly and not through Parliament, and the maintained that the king had no power to levy taxes on them, according to the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Several appeals in the form of grievances sent by the newly formed Continental Congress to King George III went unheeded. If man was created in the image of God, they maintained, then he possessed certain inalienable rights that were granted to him by God--not by the government. The distance between the rich and the poor, the old and the young, between males and females, was bridged by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The same principle was maintained by ancient Anglo Saxon law and codified by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century. The English consider their catalogue of judicial and parliamentary acts as their framework.) America was a model in codifying a foundational constitution upon which all judicial and governing actions were to be judged. Some consider the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut to be the nationa€™s first written constitution that guaranteed representative government. The British response was to send 10,000 additional troops to the colonies, send more British bureaucrats to enforce the laws and taxes, and to increase taxes to pay for it all. These rights were inalienable, meaning, that they were innate and could not be given out by governments or withdrawn by governments. Therefore, the king did not have the right to waive the rights granted to colonists by the English Bill of Rights--namely, no taxation without representation and no governance without representation. Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could. Hinton asking me to bring Eddy with me to Belfast tomorrow, so I got supper and went out into the country to tell the folks, and they treated me fine and asked me to call as often as I passed.
Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could.A  {ALJ p. Elder Lindsay of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and I may say that we had a spiritual feast.A  The Lord has greatly blessed me in all ways for which I am truly grateful.
He rejected their appeals and responded to the third appeal by sending a large force of British troops to the colonies. The first steps prior to attempted secession, it seems, are to attempt changes through elections, passage of amendments to the Constitution, appeals to the Supreme Court through the lower courts, etc.
1877, after living with her husband for 18 years, two months, and sixteen days, aged 36 yrs. If this fails, then people have the right to correct the unjust behavior by overthrowing the ruler. By denying their rights to self-governance and by blocking their attempts to exercise free speech, free assembly, a free economy, and then shutting down their duly elected colonial legislatures, the king was denying the very principles of the English Bill of Rights, and therefore lost his legitimate rights to govern the colonies. We then bid them good bye coming on with their invitation ringing in our ears to be sure and come again which we promised to do if possible.
1848 date for her birth, which means that she would have been just past her 33 birthday at the time of her death on 14 Feb. Hewitt and family good bye, we started on our return to Portadown Accompanied part of the way by Mr. Willie Holmes my Sister Dolliea€™s Son, arriving here about 11 Oa€™c pretty tired but highly elated at the successful termination of my first meeting with the people of Conroot.



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