Trepanized skulls with evidence of healing have been found at many sites, suggesting that the subjects of these operations survived. If you try to make a list of the things you did in the last 15 years, it would probably look like this: three years in junior-high, 20 months with your boyfriend, a year of study in Italy. While adults spend about one third of their time sleeping, babies and toddlers sleep away half of their early childhood. Over the past decade, new findings that may lead to the resolution of this conundrum have been accumulating. Giraffes, on the other hand, spend no more than 20 minutes a day sleeping, and don't even bother to recline their cumbersome bodies. Though Alzheimer's is a disease and not a natural result of aging, the risk does increase with age -- nearly half of everyone over 85 has Alzheimer's disease. Finding a treatment for or, better still, a way to prevent Alzheimer's would clearly be a tremendous medical, social and humanitarian boon.
Efforts to find a way to prevent or treat Alzheimer's are proceeding along many different avenues. On the neural level, a healthy neuron (top) and a neuron with the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer's (bottom). When researchers earlier in this century dissected the brains of deceased Alzheimer's patients, they noticed that the brains were full of two kinds of obviously abnormal structures: what are now referred to as plaques and tangles. For a long time, researchers have struggled to understand whether plaques and tangles are causes or results of Alzheimer's disease, and which of the two is the more significant pathology.


In an exciting development, the Irish drug company Elan and Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories in New Jersey, working jointly, announced in July 2001 that they are about to begin human testing of a new Alzheimer's "vaccine" that could halt or even cure the disease. Meanwhile, other teams of researchers are looking for ways to block or prevent the production of amyloids in the brain in the first place.
Andre Fenton is a neurobiologist who believes that the brain may not be eternal, but it is spotless.
Andre’s meditating has taught him to focus like a laser beam in all areas of his life.
We give Andre Fenton 30 seconds to describe his science and he tells us that he studies how we organize our thoughts. Andre Fenton is Professor of Neural Science at the Center for Neural Science at New York University. This week, NASA announced that it will partner with the European Space Agency to send a 4,760-pound spacecraft into space to peer out over billions of galaxies in an effort to map and measure the universe. Original funding for "The Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers" was provided by the Alfred P.
In South America, pre-Incan civilizations performed trepanation using surgical tools made of bronze and sharp-edged volcanic rock.
Hundreds of promising discoveries have been made in the past few years, and at least one group of researchers may be on the brink of a finding a viable treatment, or at least a greatly improved understanding of what causes the disease. Plaques are abnormal build-ups, in the spaces between the afflicted brain's nerve cells, of a kind of protein fragment called beta-amyloid.


The new human tests, set to begin in the fall of 2001, should show whether it works to treat people with Alzheimer's. The radio pulse makes some of the "uncancalled" atoms spin at a particular frequency and in a particular direction, depending on the type of tissue they make up. He is also a part-time Associate Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center. The sheer number of trepanized skulls found at such sites indicates that this surgery was commonplace. Tangles are abnormal collections, inside neurons, of twisted threads made up of a protein called tau. When the pulse shuts off, the atoms return to their natural alignment and release energy, giving off a signal that the MRI machine picks up. But look i am just an average person, but i do believe i can ask my brain thosand things having usually a good response.
The reason for the frequency of trepanation is not known, but archaeologists suspect that it was used for both spiritual and magical reasons, as well as to treat headaches, epilepsy and mental illness. According to some estimates, the annual total cost of caring for Alzheimer's patients in the U.S.



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