Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. The NOE effect is the change in population of one proton (or other nucleus) when another magnetic nucleus close in space is saturated by decoupling or by a selective 180 degree pulse. Lines in multiplets of other nuclei coupling to the irradiated one show additional splitting of individual lines in the multiplet which can be used to determine the relative signs of coupling constants. When a proton is close in space to another proton (or any other nuclei with spin > 0), their magnetic dipoles interact (Dipole-Dipole interaction, DD).


False information is particularly easy to obtain when operating in the slow-motion regime, where both direct and relay NOEs have the same sign. To understand this effect, we have to first consider the consequences of applying a second radio-frequency during an NMR experiment (decoupling).
The most common experiment of this type is homonuclear decoupling in proton NMR spectra (HOMODEC), which is a simple and effective technique for establishing coupling relationships among protons. Unaffected peaks are absent, or show a small sinusoidal oscillation due to small chemical shift mismatches caused by the decoupling process, which integrate to 0.
It usually advantageous to take such spectra with pulse techniques that involve polarization transfer from proton to the heteronucleus to minimize the negative NOE.


Careful peak integrations were then used to determine which protons showed enhanced integrations, and thus were close in space to the decoupled one.



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