The life in the Southern ocean, especially the life that is found on the bottom of the sea, the benthos, and close to the land mass, is very unique. In the Antarctic, we find giant sea spiders not seen anywhere else.  These are creatures looking like a cross between a spider and a crab, but are neither. Maybe a few crabs at a remote and cold place most of us will never visit do not seem like a scary event, but science sees it as the warning it really is.  As our planet changes with the climate change caused by human pollution, the effects will be hard to predict and fundamental.
This paradoxical phenomenon was thoroughly studied by a team of scientist working out of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute.  What they found is not exactly as heartening as “sea ice expansion” sounds, but it is fascinating nonetheless.
The team of scientists analyzed satellite data and buoy observations for how much salt was in the water, along with how warm it was for the period 1985 to 2010.  They then compared that data to the output of a coupled global climate model that simulated how losing 250 gigatones of melt water from the Antarctic ice sheet each year would effect conditions in the surrounding area. The USGS Sea Level Rise project comprises an approach for determining how multiple drivers of environmental change would interact to change ecosystems targeted for restoration. The USGS is a science organization that provides impartial information on the health of our ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten us, the natural resources we rely on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help us provide timely, relevant, and useable information. The Pacific Institute is a nonpartisan research institute that works to advance environmental protection, economic development, and social equity. These layers represent areas around San Francisco Bay at risk of inundation, and correspond to varying amounts of long-term sea level rise (varying over decades) in conjunction with various return levels corresponding to shorter-term variability (hours to years). These layers represent CoSMoS coastal flooding projections for the San Francisco Bay area due to the combination of sea level rise and storms, including waves, tides, surge, steric effects, and fluvial discharge. Bay Area Inundation: We have overlayed the "100 years" recurrence interval data for 0, 50, 100, and 140 cm Sea Level rise.
The Legend displays the range of values visible on the map overlay for the variable being displayed (temperature degrees, inches of rainfall, area burned, etc). Using the Area Selection Type Menu to the left, edit types of selection areas: grid cells, where each cell is an area of 12km x 12km predefined county boundaries Then click anywhere on the map to automatically change the area described in the chart. To edit the first chart again, either directly edit the dropdown menus, or click on the Location Name and then click on a new location on the map. Click "Predefined boundaries" in the Area Selection Type Menu to the left before clicking on an area of the map, if you'd like to compare counties to one another.
For reccomendations regarding planning for sea level rise, please consult State guidance documents from the California Coastal Commission and the Ocean Protection Council. Although climate models are powerful and effective tools for simulating the climate system, there is some uncertainty inherent in any projection of the future, and climate model projections are no exception.


Another source of uncertainty in climate projections is the fact that different climate models—the tools used to simulate the climate system and produce future climate data—may produce different outcomes. Many of California’s beaches may shrink in the future because of rising seas and increased erosion from winter storms. For the first time, an American President has enlisted the federal government to take action to prepare for future flooding.
California's economy, including foreign and domestic trade, relies heavily upon its transportation infrastructure.
In short, this study presents observations indicating that melt water from Antactica’s ice shelves accumulate in a cool and fresh water surface layer, shielding the surface ocean from deeper waters that are melting the ice shelves from below.  With a relatively thick top layer of cool water, the sea ice around Antarctica is now increasing quite rapidly without the hindrance of warming water that is seen elsewhere in the ocean thanks to climate change.
Most of these areas are currently behind levees or other protective structures, and would only be inundated if those structures were to fail.
These data are available for comprehensive visualization and download from Our Coast, Our Future (OCOF). In addition to choosing a decade to view, one can choose the specific average values depending on Month, Scientific Model (CCSM3, CNRM, GFDL, PCM1, or All averaged), Temperature (High, Low, or Average), or Emissions Scenario. You can drag the magnified map or the magnifying glass on the larger map to explore the region.
After creating the new chart, click on a new area of the map to view a chart for the same options in another location. These data are currently avaialble for the Bay Area and outer coast from Bodega Head to just south of Pillar Point Harbor in Half Moon Bay. Users of this information agree by their use to hold blameless the State of California, and its respective officers, employees, agents, contractors, and subcontractors for any liability associated with its use in any form. For example, climate model projections illustrate how the climate system is expected to behave under specific scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. There are more than 30 global climate models developed by climate modeling centers around the world, and they have different ways of representing aspects of the climate system.
The state’s important role in the world economy makes its transport systems vital to people inside and outside its borders. Large isopods, reminiscent of giant pill bugs, find their place in a, usually, crab and lobster free environment. OCOF is a collaborative effort between Point Blue Conservation Science, USGS, the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, and Coravai LCC.


Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts. Or change an option in the dropdown menu to view the chart for the same location, with different settings. Use the slider bar to visualize flood extent associated with potential sea level rise (from 0 cm to 5 m) and a 100-year storm. This work shall not be used to assess actual coastal hazards, insurance requirements, or property values and specifically shall not be used in lieu of Flood Insurance Studies and Flood Insurance Rate Maps issued by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Climate projections tell us how weather conditions are likely to change on average, but they cannot predict the weather at a particular day and time.
Since our emissions of greenhouse gases depend on a variety of different social, political, and economic factors, we cannot be certain how they will change. In fact, many of the wide sandy beaches in southern California around Santa Monica, Venice, and Newport Beach were created and are maintained entirely by sand nourishment programs. More comprehensive visualizations, data, and supporting information are available through Our Coast, Our Future (OCOF). Therefore, projected climate data may not prove to be accurate if the actual emissions pathway we follow differs from the scenarios used to make the projections. Climate scientists are constantly working to improve our theories of the climate system and its representation in climate models.
As sea levels rise, increasing volumes of replacement sand will be needed to maintain current beach width and quality.
In the meantime, one way to account for model differences is to look at projections from many different models to get a range of possible outcomes.
You can then take the average of the values across the different models, and this average value is a more likely outcome than the value from any single model. As global warming continues, the costs of beach nourishment programs will rise, and in some regions beach replenishment may no longer be viable. The default visualizations in this Cal-Adapt are based on the average values from a variety of models.



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