The Department of Computer Science hosts the world-famous computer scientist and inventor of Genetic Algorithms (GA's), Dr. Genalytics Model 6.0 transforms large amounts of transaction data into predictive intelligence and uses genetic algorithms to automatically search and identify key combinations of time series variables found in any dataset.
Starting today, past and present IlliGAL lab members and affiliates will team up to blog on genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, and related subjects. GECCO, I was re-reading Sam Mahfoud's paper titled "population sizing for Sharing methods". Since niching mechanism is one of the key components of hierarchical and multiobjective genetic algorithms, the population-sizing paper deserves renewed attention. Over a number of years, I've followed research in iGAs and some time ago, I started to collect information about market research and product development with the idea of founding a company to do just that using interactive GA technology. Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators Library (SPRNG): An RNG library that combines various available random number generators and supports both serial and parallel platforms. Mersenne Twister (MT): An RNG which has a period of 2^19937-1 with an assured 623-dimensional equidistribution property (Thanks to Jaume for pointing me to MT). Experiments showed that a lower mixing rate increases both the population size needed and the convergence time.
Business Week article gives an overview of BBN's Boomerang project now fielded in Iraq to protect Allied troops by detecting and locating sniper fire.
This story is fine as far as it goes, but as GA afficianadoes well know, the BBN effort was supported by a crack team of card-carrying genetic algorithmists.
This year's Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005) is 25-29 June 2005 in Washington DC.
Those with artistic or creative talent should try their skills at designing the new SIGEVO logo as the competition ends February 7th.
Martin Pelikan's book titled "Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm: Toward a New Generation of Evolutionary Algorithms" is now available.
More details regarding hBOA and to download the software visit the hBOA page and Martin's webpage. Lately, I have moved from WEKA to D2K, a data mining framework developed by the Automated Learning Group at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
We all know that computational complexity of GAs depends primarily on the population size and the number of generations. What I like on using the bisection method is that all parameter tweaking will be done automatically (and thus I don't have to do it myself), because the remaining GA parameters do not influence time complexity as much (mostly by some constant factor and that's not so important when we talk about asymptotic upper bounds).
Of course, the above thinking is correct only if larger populations lead to better solutions (given enough generations we should all be able to believe this fact) and if smaller populations do not significantly increase the number of generations (in all cases I studied, any sufficiently large population size lead to about the same number of generations, as can be expected for many variants of evolutionary algorithms based primarily on recombination).
Technology Review article also highlights the history of evolutionary computation a€“ briefly mentioning the work of Holland, Goldberg, Koza, and others. Theory and Applications of Efficient Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (CS, Feng Chia University, 2004) was ranked number one among all CS dissertations in a national competition held under the auspices of the Institute of Information & Computing Machinery (IICM). Oregon Daily Emerald reports that James Bean, noted operations researcher, genetic algorithmist, and inventor of the random keys technique for permutation and other combinatorial problems, is using genetic algorithms to help develop sustainable automobile technology in his new role as Dean of the Lundquist College of Business.
The usage of EDAs can help addressing two major issues in XCS: (1) knowledge extraction and (2) structure identification. Toronto Globe and Mail reports that researchers at Laurentian University are using genetic algorithms to schedule mining of ore deposits.
Science Daily posts a University of Michigan press release entitled Falling Prey to Machines?
According to Holland, the problem with developing artificial intelligence through things like genetic algorithms is that researchers don't yet understand how to define what computer programs should be evolving toward. According to Holland, advances in software have not kept pace with the exponential improvements in hardware processing power, and there are many artificial intelligence problems that cannot be solved by simply performing more calculations.
Acovea (analysis of compiler options via evolutionary algorithm) is an open source project which utilizes GAs to tune the optimization flags for GCC to yield the fastest code specifically for your computer. Another reason for the current situation is that human lifespans are no longer a good match to the turnover in intellectual ideas. So, it is in this sense, that the acceptance of SIGEVO by ACM couldn't come at a better time, and should be seen as a very positive thing. Of course, department heads when asked about tenure and promotion will tell you that each case is special and is scrutinized without regard for brand names.
It will take some time to know the overall effect, and indeed, joining a large bureaucratic organization like ACM will come with its share of constraints and costs. Sam Williams's recent article "Unnatural Selection" in Technology Review is getting some blog traction. Another script I use very often is a perl wrapper for gnuplot, the plotting program from the GNU project. This script receives as parameters a variable-length number of data files to overlap in the same plot. Don't forget, the new motherboards and processors drain a lot of power, so you need about 1.5 Amps per node. ATA Engineering announced the release of version 1.0 of the Attune package for test-analysis correlation and model updating. In beta testing, a key aerospace customer used Attune to carry out hundreds of real-time correlation iterations during modal testing of a launch vehicle payload, whereas prior to this they were limited to less than a dozen manual correlations a week.
Additional information is available from the Attune product website or the full press release. Finally, a third way of approaching animation synthesis was presented by Torsten Reil, from Natural Motion. However, by abstracting the proposed optimizations on large but abstracted code with a proprietary representation, and then projecting execution time based on resource utilization and resulting code classifications for fitness, their system was able to find speedups in a just a couple of hours with only a 2% drop in speedup from that work using actual execution times. John Holland's course, Introduction to Adaptive Systems, wondering what all the genetics stuff had to do with adaptive systems.
That experience on my thesis left me with a thirst to better understand genetic algorithms, how they work, and how to make them work better. My 2002 book, The Design of Innovation, tells the long version of this story, but the basic idea of little modeling is to construct models for various effects in isolation (selection alone, crossover alone, mutation alone), and use dimensional analysis to create models for complex phenomena from pairs of simpler models. More recently, Ali Yassine, Tian-Li Yu, and I have carried the little modeling approach over to organizational theory here. We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete. Social, economic, and technological changes increasingly lead to a discontinuous and fragmented career context in which transitions occur more frequently than ever. Even though, over the last two decades, the boundaryless career concept has stimulated a wide theoretical debate, its ability to adequately capture the nature of contemporary careers has been questioned (Rodrigues and Guest, 2014). This study aims to contribute to fill these gaps by examining the relationship between ESCs, on the one side, and physical career mobility and career success, on the other. Prior research has shown the impact of emotional and social competencies on work performance across a wide range of roles, in terms, for example, of financial performance (McClelland, 1998; Boyatzis, 2006), service quality (Beigi and Shirmohammadi, 2011), project performance (Zhang and Fan, 2013), customer satisfaction (Williams, 2008), and effectiveness in public service (Sharma, 2013). Addressing this issue we aim to understand if ESCs are antecedents of actual career moves, namely physical mobility. Critics of the boundaryless career concept have highlighted the possible downsides individuals face when they undertake physical mobility. Another drawback usually ascribed to frequent career mobility is related to the limited propensity of these individuals to invest in their relationships at work or in their internal career development, due to their strong focus on frequent job changes and consequent limited time in the same position (Verbruggen, 2012). Since in this study we are interested in the longitudinal impact of ESCs and boundaryless careers on objective advancements attained by individuals during their career path, we focus our attention on the objective career success rather than considering subjective perceptions in terms of feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction with one's career. Despite the fact that competency-based research has produced consistent studies on the relationship between ESCs and job performance, only a few of them have devoted attention to the impact of emotional and social competencies on objective career success.
The ability to perceive and understand emotions in others, namely social competencies, may favor positive evaluations from others and supportive relationships that in turn impact on career advancements (Poon, 2004). Previous research has found contradictory evidence on the relationship between boundaryless career and objective career success. Crossing organizations, industries or geographical domains may stimulate individuals over time toward learning and professional development. Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them.
A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view.
Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102).
It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece.
In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent.
An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square.
The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. By studying time series patterns, organizations can identify credit risks, anticipate customer attrition, and detect probable bankruptcies. In April 1994, a graduate student named Kate Sherwood (Ducky) put up the first IlliGAL web page. In the last American election cycle, blogging grew as a force to rival the mainstream media. The population-sizing estimate though derived for fitness sharing, also holds for other niching methods such as restricted tournament selection as well.
Ever since Dawkins famous Blind Watchmaker code, and Caldwell and Johnston's Faceprints work at ICGA 91, the idea of having user-driven subjective functions in place of predetermined objective functions has opened the door to evolving art, music, poetry, and more. My dreams of a great startup were dashed one semester when during my genetic algorithms course, some students researching their class project uncovered a company that was already vigorously pursuing interactive GAs in marketing applications.
A simple idea such as a round robin of small disjoint training sets greatly helps Pittsburgh classifier systems in the quest for generality.
Not only is the math difficult, but the system also had to work in the cacophony of urban warfare, including echoes from shots -- and do it on the move.
An article written by BBNers Hussain, Montana, Brinn & Cerys entitled Genetic algorithms for UGV navigation, sniper fire localization, and unit of action fuel distribution was presented last June at GECCO 2004 at the Workshop on Military and Security Applications of Evolutionary Computation (MSAEC-2004). In his book, Martin presents a principled method for designing and analyzing scalable genetic algorithms that can solve boundedly-difficult, hierarchically-decomposable problems in polynomial (usually sub-quadratic) time. I know Martin and Jaume have also been using some of this tools too in their data mining related papers.
LIBSVM is an integrated software for support vector classification, (C-SVC, nu-SVC ), regression (epsilon-SVR, nu-SVR) and distribution estimation (one-class SVM ).
Given that we know the optimum, the number of generations can be determined by the GA itself---when the GA finds the optimum or the entire population converges to it (or gets close enough), we've got it. The basic idea is to first determine a reasonable initial interval (min,max) of population sizes where min is too small and max is too large. To eliminate noise, the bisection can be run several times and the results of all bisection runs can be averaged (right now I use 10 rounds of bisection, each with 10 runs). To determine whether or not the second condition is at least partially satisfied, one can try one problem size (rather larger than smaller) and test whether the overall complexity decreases for larger populations than the one determined by the bisection.
From jet engine fan blade design to minimizing power consumption of long-distance pipelines, the article cites several applications of genetic algorithms and genetic programming. Recently, such approaches are slowly infiltrating in the learning classifier systems world. Knowledge extraction addresses the issue of mining problem knowledge from the final solution developed by XCS. He told me that the problematic GA runs would converge to a mediocre solutions, but different parts within those solution were of good quality.
Thesis Symmetry in the Representation of an Optimization Problem and related papers, available as IlliGAL technical reports 2001020 and 2001030 are a good starting point for anyone interested in knowing more about symmetry and synchronization problems in optimization in general, and GAs in particular. While hardware performance continues to double almost every year and a half, the doubling time for software performance is at least 20 years. I've been heavily involved in the process of this transformation, and so my views are not entirely unbiased (no one's views are entirely unbiased or so any good postmodernist would claim), but I think this move is good for ISGEC, good for ACM, good for the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, and good for computer science. First wave evolutionary computation researchers (and cyberneticists of all stripes) in the late 50s and 60s were just getting their sea legs under them when Minsky and Papert's premature and misleading hatchet job on neural networks appeared and took the wind out of cybernetic sails generally. With GECCO as an ACM conference proceedings, young faculty can safely put their work there without endlessly defending their choice. Department heads have told me that the decision to move from ISGEC to SIGEVO will make absolutely no difference to them.
But, in the end, I believe the young people in the PhD pipeline will benefit immensely through higher probability of hiring, better chances to tenure, and improved prospects of funding as the once outlaw field of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation comes in off the range, hangs up its six-shooter, and becomes a law-abiding denizen of the mainstream of computer science.
I have used it extensively to compute statistical tests, and I made a script to automatize most of the testing process. It uses the Bonferroni correction to ajust the significance level of the tests for the multiple comparisons.
The script generates draft plots just to check how do the results look, without the overhead of launching other programs that can generate more fancy plots like Matlab. We mostly use the cluster to run multiple GA runs to collect statistics, and also for testing the effect of different parameters on the scalability of the algorithms (For example, see Martin's blog).
That means they produce a lot of heat, but nothing that a few well placed fans and couple of ACs can't fix. He tackled the problem by using a set of controllers and running it through a set of genetic algorithms to develop the motion he wanted out of them. This still gave an overall 10-20% speedup when the found choice of optimizations were applied.
Shortly thereafter, I proposed applying genetic algorithms to gas pipeline optimization and rule learning, did so, and went on to take my first teaching job at the University of Alabama.
And that thirst led me to try difference equations, Markov chains, transform methods, anything that I could get my hands on, to help me do a better job in GA analysis and design.
For example, we might create a model for convergence time under selection alone, combine this with a model for mixing under crossover alone, and consider the pairwise effect as a dimensionless ratio of the two times. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience.
Similarly, the literature on emotional and social competencies has demonstrated how they predict work performance across industries and jobs but has neglected their influence in explaining the individual's mobility across boundaries and their impact on career success. As described by Feldman and Ng (2007), several factors have promoted individuals' career mobility over the last decade. Specifically, among the main critics, scholars argue that there has been a limited advancement in boundaryless career conceptualization, on the one hand, and a scantly empirical investigation of its determinants and outcomes, on the other. Literature has provided evidence of the impact of individual factors on actors' propensity to move across boundaries by considering their gender, level of education, age, and prior working experience. Apart from the professional knowledge required to perform a specific job, these studies have drawn attention to the role of competencies as antecedents of a boundaryless career and have underlined the importance of both personal and interpersonal skill dimensions (Akkermans et al., 2013).
Specifically, we address the following research question: Do ESCs spur individuals to cross boundaries in their career path and to pursue a higher objective career success over time?


First, it contributes to building the conceptual bridge between the literature on the boundaryless career and the research stream on ESCs, by considering them as antecedents of physical career mobility across organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries. In the next section, we propose a framework that aims to bridge career management and the competency-based literatures, introducing the research hypotheses on the relationship between the possession of ESCs, the pursuit of a physical boundaryless career, and the attainment of a higher career success. The former refers to the ability of recognizing, understanding, and managing emotional information about oneself, for example planning, achievement orientation, adaptability, self-control, whereas social competencies concern the ability of recognizing, understanding, and managing emotional information about others, such as empathy, teamwork, negotiation, networking, conflict management, and leadership (Goleman, 1995; Boyatzis, 2009). However, to date ESCs have not been investigated as predictors of career decisions with specific regard to boundaryless career paths. Crossing career boundaries may create uncertainty and generate stress (Rodrigues and Guest, 2010) related to the job insecurity that individuals face when they perceive threats to the continuity of one's employability and to the uncertainty regarding the quality of the subsequent employment (Colakoglu, 2011). The incapacity to build and use contacts may negatively influence the recognition of opportunities for job mobility, and prevent individuals attaining subsequent career outcomes.
Moreover, since the labor market and organizational changes have reduced the opportunities for only hierarchical advancements, nowadays objective career success includes both vertical and horizontal promotions.
These contributions have primarily focused only on single competencies that refer to the emotional and social competency constructs. Another study provided evidence on the significant and positive effect of the ability to build social relationships on salary growth (Wolff and Moser, 2009). Different and changing requirements in new jobs encourage individuals to continuously gain new education and training (Heilmann, 2011). It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation.
Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one.
A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained.
The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre.
These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).
The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge.
In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
His talk on Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) will discuss the study of complexity, innovation, and relations between CAS and GA's. To my discredit, I didn't understand why she was so fascinated by the web, but in my defense, I didn't get in her way. In less well followed topics, blogging is growing at astonishing rates, and we hope that IlliGAL Blogging will become a resource and focal point for intelligent discourse in the growing community of genetic and evolutionary computation (GEC). Of course, a lot of water has passed over the iGA dam since the early days, and for those interested in a fairly recent update on the state of interactive evolutionary computation, I recommend Hideyuki Takagi's article. That company, Affinova, has married iGAs and practical market research and product development notions to create a unique line of products and services.
On the Michigan approach, however, such issue was settled down after the idea of evolving classifiers based on accuracy by Wilson (now celebrating the 10th anniversary of its publication). The paper details the development of Boomerang and other GA-based military-security applications. Written in Java, it is easy to use, providing a flexible environment for rapid preliminary filtering and analysis of raw data.
The thing I like the most about D2K, and one of the reasons for switching, is the data flow oriented paradigm that it uses. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. Most likely, the complexity increases with the population size and thus the bisection can run the experiments for us.
Chen takes the methodology of The Design of Innovation and applies it to understanding the approximate complexity of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). The goal is to identify most important features in the problem and the dependencies among those features.
I remembered Clarissa's worka€”that she did during her visit to IlliGALa€”about how strong symmteries in problems such as Ising and other spin-glass models can cause synchorinization problems and how niching methods can be used to avoid them. Intelligence was just one of many traits that human beings exploited to increase their odds of survival, and the test for survival was absolute. For too long, GAs and EC more generally have lived in the backwaters of academic and industrial life. When he was asked how the acceptance of his revolutionary ideas in quantum physics was going, it is reported that he said, "Wonderful, lots of funerals." In Plank's day, perhaps the natural turnover in faculty matched the turnover of ideas, but in our time, rapid change in thinking has not been matched with a concomitant shortening of faculty life expectancy. With ACM affiliated journals in EC and GP, department heads have the moral equivalent of a Good Housekeeping seal of approval on our field to rely upon instead of the pleas of a lone faculty member up for tenure. But consumers will tell you that their decisions to buy products are also made on a case-by-case basis without regard for brands--as their grocery baskets fill with Crest, Tide, Mach 3, Ragu, Pepsi, Twinkies, and Tide. It supposes that the results are paired, like the results obtained, for instance, from a stratified ten-fold cross-validation test. Since then, quite a few people have asked me a how to build such a cluster, what components to buy, etc. Although I had succeeded in applying GAs in my problem domain, my doing so left me with as many questions as I answered. At first, my studies took me toward more esoteric and sophisticated tools, but then my training in fluid mechanics kicked (somewhere between my leaving Alabama and coming to Illinois), and I turned to the methodology of little models, including facetwise models, and patchquilt integration using dimensional analysis.
This approach, though algebraically simple, is remarkably powerful in helping sort out experimental results and organize a researcher's thinking. This study aims to fill these gaps by examining the effects of emotional and social competencies on boundaryless career and on objective career success. Among them, the macroeconomic conditions have created geographic disparities in mobility opportunities and the perception of favorable economic conditions in some areas. In this regard, the notion of a boundaryless career (Arthur, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996) is becoming central for the understanding of contemporary career paths. Literature has ascribed primacy to the role of organizational boundaries, but this definition is rather limiting since it neglects other relevant domains of physical mobility, such as occupation, industry, and geography (Arthur and Rousseau, 1996; Sullivan and Arthur, 2006).
The authors found that women score higher on motivation related to psychological mobility, while men present a higher score on motivation related to physical mobility.
However, scholars have recently claimed that research on the competencies that are necessary for managing a cross-boundary career is still incomplete, and the dimensions developed and measured in prior studies are inconsistent (Wang, 2013). In so doing, we also address the need of extending the conceptualization of physical mobility beyond the mere organizational boundaries dimension. Next, in the Methods Section we illustrate the setting and the time-lagged design adopted in this study. According to these definitions, a competency is manifested by a set of behaviors that are driven by motives and are instrumental in attaining work outcomes (Boyatzis and Kelner, 2010). This perception of ambiguity may increase if the individuals not only change employer but if they also face a new industrial context and operate in a different geographical location. Individuals pursuing physical boundaryless careers may require social competencies in order to develop and utilize networks of contacts that provide them with access to critical information and opportunities for attaining career mobility. Building and using contacts may yield a higher work performance, due to the possibility of relying on competent relations and to efficiently complete the tasks, and in turn increase performance ratings and salary. According to Arthur and Rousseau (1996), individuals who undertake a boundaryless career possess a higher propensity to learn and to reflect on their strengths and weakness than individuals who embrace a traditional career.
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus.
In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven.
On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries.
The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions.
When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans.
Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society.
Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map.
Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. Since then, the IlliGAL web site has grown and users from countries around the world generate some 8.4 million hits in nearly 200,000 visits annually.
Subsequently I met company executive Rob Frasca in another context, and got the chance to tell him how Affinova was the company that broke my entrepreneurial heart. Like supersonic airplanes, bullets create shock waves -- mini-sonic booms -- as they speed through the air.
These efforts are the result of longstanding GA work at BBN initiated by Dave Davis (now of NuTech Solutions) and carried on by Dave Montana and other hardworking GA types. Recently, I have notice the existence at least more than 20 different projects using such framework. Using an intuitive graphical editor, complicated analysis and visualization task are rapidly deployed by simple drag & drop. I have been using it in some of my recent research, and if you are interested in such areas, I definitely recommend you to take a look at it.
A "good" population size should be the one that ensures reliable convergence to the optimum (where "reliable may be defined any way we want, for instance, that the algorithm finds the optimum successfully in 9 out of 10 independent runs). Thereafter, he successfully applies carefully designed MOEAs to problems in production planning and design of nearest-neighbor classifiers. Bean was on the faculty of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering (IOE) of the University of Michigan for many years, where he also held the position of Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.
The extracted knowledge may not only be used for further data mining, but may actually be re-fed into the system giving it further competence in solving problems in which dependent features, that is, building blocks, need to be processed effectively.
So, I suggested him that there might be synchronization issues with the problematic instances and using a niching method might be the solution. No mention is made of who the reseachers are or what department, college, or lab they come from. Defining an equivalent test of fitness for targeting intelligence as an evolutionary goal for machines, however, has been elusive. Finally, the rise of symbolic AI and the subsequent cybernetics winter made it academically disreputable to persist in the "folly" of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation, but persist the field did, and we are here today because of the courage of a small group who swam against the intellectual currents of the 60s, 70s, and 80s. The result is large numbers of powerful faculty in charge with ideas in mind that are more than a little behind the time. In a busy world, trusted brands allow buyers to get quality products at low risk of error and low search costs. These optimizations seek to reduce memory or power usage, or to speedup the needed execution time.
And although I had used GAs to help solve interesting engineering problems, I was unhappy with GAs--and my own lack of understanding of GAs--as engineered objects. By analyzing a sample of 142 managers over a period of 8 years, we found evidence that emotional competencies positively influence the propensity of an individual to undertake physical career mobility and that career advancements are related to the possession of social competencies and depend on the adoption of boundaryless career paths. Moreover, firms have downsized and outsourced to become more flexible, efficient, and innovative, changing career expectations from job security to continuous learning and to remain marketable in the external labor market.
Indeed, women may undertake a cross-boundary career in order to meet husbands' career mobility or, on the other hand, they may turn down job offers which require family relocation or increased travel with negative consequences in terms of reduced time spent with their family. Moreover, younger people show a higher physical career mobility than older workers and a higher managerial experience or a higher education turned out to be positively related to motivators linked both to physical and psychological mobility. Secondly, it adds to the debate on ESCs and boundaryless career by investigating their effects on objective career success.


Afterwards, we present the results of the empirical analysis, and in the final section we discuss the implications and future research avenues in terms of career development. For these reasons, we expect that individuals who demonstrate emotional competencies, and are thus better able to understand their feelings and are more successful in regulating them through a thorough awareness of their self, may obtain a higher efficacy in planning and managing career-related issues, and in turn be more proactive and prone to identifying career opportunities. Developing relationships with different professional communities with disconnected contacts (Burt, 1992) and nurturing them beyond the current employing organization provides not only information but also other important resources such as influence, reputation, and guidance, offering a competitive advantage to the individual.
People who build experience in a variety of fields and roles strengthen their job profile, acquire a wider view of the phenomenon and consequently have more opportunities to be promoted. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns.
They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators.
While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. The website has undergone kaizen or continual improvement since Ducky's early efforts, and this blog represents the latest in a series of new features to be added to the site over the years.
For those interested in a nice case study of marrying GAs and business read the Affinova white paper here.
So if engineers arrange seven microphones like the spines of a sea urchin, a shock wave from a bullet will hit each microphone at a slightly different time, like a wave lapping against different pebbles on a beach. It is difficult enough working in the obscure vineyards of GAs and EC, but when a group used to toiling in obscurity does something deserving of national recognition, it would be nice if the mainstream business press would get the story right and at least mention the names of the people who really got the job done. I have been heavily using D2K in the DISCUS project, and I have no regrets about not using WEKA anymore.
Herb Simon talks about decomposability of most complex real-world systems, which is a feature that a good evolutionary algorithm should be able to exploit.
The dissertation concludes with novel theory and empirical work that carry over the method of fitness inheritance to MOEAs. Lo and behold, he came back yesterday and said using niching significantly improved the GA performance!
Nonetheless, a Google search on the search terms, "genetic algorithms," "mining," and "Laurentian University" quickly leads to the following link.
Thus, it is difficult to draw comparisons between how human intelligence developed and how artificial intelligence could evolve. After all, evolution is one of the biggest ideas in all of science, and the impact of modern genetics is hard to overstate, so it seems quite natural that computations based on evolution and genetics should have an important place in science and technology.
Unfortunately, the most obvious solutions to this problem are serious felonies, and no one is here suggesting that steps be taken to cull the herd. In the new world of ACM and SIGEVO, CS departments and their heads will be able to rely on a trusted brand in one of the most important decisions they make, the hiring, retention, and promotion of faculty. Her system tries to determine which combinations and orderings of optimizations should be performed on which portions of the code. This study also provides a contribution in terms of the evaluation of the emotional and social competencies demonstrated by an individual and of the operationalization of the measurement of boundaryless career paths, considering three facets of the physical mobility construct (organizational, industrial, and geographical boundaries). Social changes have led to increased upward mobility for female and minority employees, for instance through the implementation of diversity programs. This stream of research neglects the behavioral dimension of individual competency that goes beyond the mere knowledge and focuses on the intent and the related actual behaviors that enable individuals to pursue superior results in their career path.
Thirdly, it provides a dynamic perspective in studying the impact of ESCs on the individual's career mobility and success over time.
Moreover, this subjective dimension of boundaryless career may be stimulated by self-reflection and awareness about the personal resources that individuals perceive to possess, that are only one component of emotional competencies. Specifically, individuals who possess a higher level of emotional competencies are expected to be better able to envisage and organize their future, setting desired career goals, defining a series of actions toward the achievement of their goals, moderating risks in a situation prior to taking action, and anticipating obstacles.
Besides, networking activities and social competencies may support individuals in better understanding different perspectives and settings through an empathetic listening and in influencing others in the effort of gaining continuous employability. Indeed, for higher-level managerial roles, firms may prefer individuals with a generalist background rather than a specialist (Verbruggen, 2012).
Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century.
The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period.
He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. Only good words is what I have about D2K's quality and how much effort the ALG people put into it to make a great package easy to extend and customize.
I'd strongly suggest this book to anyone interested in somewhat a philosphical discussion of what types of problems we should be trying to solve with our optimizers.
The Laurentian University Mining Automation Laboratory (LUMAL) under the direction of Nick Vayenas is applying simulation, robotics, and genetic algorithms to various mining problems. Why, then, have GAmists and ECers been largely relegated to second tier schools, non-tenured posts, or non-CS departments (even, god forbid, engineering departments)? And thanks to Srikant-Uni-of-Glasgow-Travails and SoloGen for the links to IlliGAL Blogging. Moreover, the extensive use of information and communication technologies has changed the way individuals interpret their job, promoting for instance virtual work that favors mobility and may decrease the sense of identification with the specific organization. Indeed, contrary to prior research in which data were primarily collected at only one point in time, we adopt a time-lagged design to investigate how ESCs influence the evolution of managers' careers.
Since emotional and social competencies are manifested by a set of actual behaviors that spur individuals toward the attainment of superior performance, we aim to understand their impact on objective career changes. Moreover, as suggested by Feldman and Ng (2007), individuals who are not able to get promoted in the current organization, seek out opportunities for career advancement crossing organizational boundaries. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands.
Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research.
Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. We can pray for crisper reporting from the the Globe and Mail, but in the meanwhile, odds are that this is the GA mining work that was so cryptically cited. Therefore, the traditional career model characterized by a full-time permanent job with a single employer has been progressively replaced by a contemporary career model which emphasizes inter-organizational mobility and temporary contracting arrangements (Sammarra et al., 2013). Thus, extant contributions seem not to take into account Arthur and Rousseau's (1996) initially much broader notion of this concept.
Finally, a more recent study has considered proactive personality as an explanatory factor of boundaryless career attitudes (Uy et al., 2015). For instance, prior research found that the individual's concern for working toward a standard of excellence and for developing challenging and specific goals, namely achievement orientation, enables individuals to improve their own performance and outperform others (McClelland, 1985).
Building upon these considerations we expect a positive effect of a boundaryless career on objective career success. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent.
Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. Work in this area traditionally relies on actual execution time for fitness, which may require up to 50 hours to determine which optimizations should be performed on a small piece of code. Recent research has provided empirical evidence of this shift toward career mobility in different countries. This positive impact on job performance may provide a higher visibility in the marketplace increasing the opportunity for getting career promotions (Kuijpers and Scheerens, 2006; Abele and Spurk, 2009).
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. Kim (2013) showed that organizational mobility increased in the USA throughout the 1990s and early 2000s in a wide range of jobs. Also, the capacity to adapt to new working demands, to different groups and environments has been highlighted as a key competency in the career competency literature (DeFillippi and Arthur, 1994; Hall, 2004).
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface.
Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society.
Similarly, prior literature review has provided evidence on the impact of emotional competencies on job advancement (Zeidner et al., 2004). Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. The diffusion of boundaryless career concepts in the European context has been demonstrated by some studies (Chudzikowski et al., 2010).
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities.
At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu.
Even though workers' mobility in the European Union remains modest compared to the United States, the number of mobile workers has increased sharply in absolute terms over the last decade (European Commission, 2014).



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