Few chapters in these chronological volumes have pleased me as much as the one in his volume about The Trained Cormorants of Los Angeles by Donald Hardenbrook (a€?Huret, the Boulevard Assassin,a€? BSI).
New York in the years after World War II was the richest, liveliest, most glittering city in the world. Although a good deal of the talent went into television and Madison Avenue, two burgeoning phenomena despaired over by postwar New York intellectuals, theater was particularly right now, with plays like Death of a Salesman and A Streetcar Named Desire. It is seven oa€™clock and I re-examine an ex-speakeasy in East 53rd Street, with dinner in mind. Judging from personal comments, as well as from published writings, a number of aficionados share the prevailing apprehension over the appalling possibilities latent in the atomic bomb, which the world must now face though it is no better prepared than it was for the Giant Rat of Sumatra. All agree, I am sure, that this is a work worthy of the talents of these two men, which otherwise may some day have to be devoted to preparing a monograph upon a€?The Distinction Between the Ashes of One Hundred and Forty Cities.a€? It is my earnest hope that this proposal will win the approval of, and be supported by, every true believer and true man. Because Alger Hiss seemed so much an exemplar of the New Deal a€” Eleanor Roosevelt and other icons rallied to his support a€” the case was fiercely argued be-tween FDRa€™s critics and adherents. Those who were for Hiss or against him felt their own pride and past political judgment to be at stake. The President a€?condemned the investigation as a a€?red herring,a€™a€? his daughter Marg-aret recalled in her memoir Harry S.
Undaunted, a€?Give a€?em hell Harrya€? launched a whistle-stop campaign across America against the a€?do-nothinga€? GOP Congress, surprising everyone, especially Vincent Starretta€™s Chicago Tribune by winning the election.
For every crisis at home or abroad, there seemed to be another just for the Baker Street Irregulars. Morley, approaching sixty, was finding himself less inspired as a writer than in the past, and opportunities fewer than they had been. Despite well over four million bucks in prizes to keep people listening to radio in 1948, about a quarter of the country was watching television.
Television also brought the world into American living-rooms in news shows like a€?The Camel News Caravana€? with John Cameron Swayze. War movies and Westerns still lit up movie screens, comedy sparkled in Born Yesterday and Harvey, and drama kept its grip in All the Kinga€™s Men and Sunset Boulevard, but detective fare had changed. Baker Street Irregulars had their own taste in these things, of course; in fact, one whoa€™d presented too much realism about crime and violence at the 1947 BSI dinner was a€?blacklisteda€? in 1948.
This is the fifth volume of the BSI Archival History, covering mid-1947 through 1950, or more or less precisely the Irregular events of fifty years ago. Yet it was recent enough that many young men embarking upon Baker Street Irregularity at the time are amongst us today, and providing a growing volume of personal recollections to the history. Perhaps the most wondrous of all for me have been the memories of Miriam Alex-ander, Edgar W.
Many others besides Miss Alexander have been of great help where this volume is concerned, and I hope I overlook no one in thanking them very sincerely here: Hy Adler, Marvin Aronson, Michael Baldyga, Ray Betzner, Peter Blau, Monika Bolino, Vinnie Brosnan, Robert Clyne, Saul Cohen, Catherine Cooke, Ralph Earle, George Fletcher, Richard Foster, Ted Friedman, Andrew Fusco, David Galerstein, Robert S. Also greatly appreciated for their resources, drawn upon by me and others men-tioned above, are the Library of Congress, the Harry S.
Special recognition is due to Jeff Decker, Don Hardenbrook, and Philip Shreffler, and to the late Bliss Austin and the late Robert G. Once again at my elbow throughout this effort have been Ronald De Waala€™s World Bibliography of Sherlock Holmes and Dr.
Just back, 2 days ago, from wonderful trip; which will take a long time to digest, longer still to enunciate.
I got yr letter and appeal for help just before leaving Londres, I was too throng with doings to make any prompt comment.
Morleya€™s view was alarmingly different: Scionists along with Apocryphals and Riff-Raff should all be swept into the category of Impossibles, and once the Impossibles were eliminated, whatever remained (however improbable) would be the BSI. Many places where the BSI met in its Golden Age are gone: Christ Cellaa€™s speakeasy on East 45th Street, the Murray Hill Hotel on Park Avenue a couple of blocks below Grand Central Station, and Cavanagha€™s in Chelsea.
The membership in Edgar Smith's day, as now, were men who played sports: court tennis, racquets, squash, polo, etc. First floor contains the reception area and, off to the left, the Club's very spacious lounge including a cigar stand in the corridor outside. The antechamber, a small square room, opens up via folding doors into another one of comparable size, which separately is the anteroom for a second, narrower private dining room.
A A A  It is seven oa€™clock and I re-examine an ex-speakeasy in East 53rd Street, with dinner in mind.
A A A  Judging from personal comments, as well as from published writings, a number of aficionados share the prevailing apprehension over the appalling possibilities latent in the atomic bomb, which the world must now face though it is no better prepared than it was for the Giant Rat of Sumatra. A A A  Because Alger Hiss seemed so much an exemplar of the New Deal a€” Eleanor Roosevelt and other icons rallied to his support a€” the case was fiercely argued be-tween FDRa€™s critics and adherents. A A A  Morley, approaching sixty, was finding himself less inspired as a writer than in the past, and opportunities fewer than they had been. A A A  Despite well over four million bucks in prizes to keep people listening to radio in 1948, about a quarter of the country was watching television. A A A  War movies and Westerns still lit up movie screens, comedy sparkled in Born Yesterday and Harvey, and drama kept its grip in All the Kinga€™s Men and Sunset Boulevard, but detective fare had changed.
A A A  Baker Street Irregulars had their own taste in these things, of course; in fact, one whoa€™d presented too much realism about crime and violence at the 1947 BSI dinner was a€?blacklisteda€? in 1948.
A A A  Yet it was recent enough that many young men embarking upon Baker Street Irregularity at the time are amongst us today, and providing a growing volume of personal recollections to the history.
A A A  Perhaps the most wondrous of all for me have been the memories of Miriam Alex-ander, Edgar W.
A A A  Many others besides Miss Alexander have been of great help where this volume is concerned, and I hope I overlook no one in thanking them very sincerely here: Hy Adler, Marvin Aronson, Michael Baldyga, Ray Betzner, Peter Blau, Monika Bolino, Vinnie Brosnan, Robert Clyne, Saul Cohen, Catherine Cooke, Ralph Earle, George Fletcher, Richard Foster, Ted Friedman, Andrew Fusco, David Galerstein, Robert S.
A A A  Once again at my elbow throughout this effort have been Ronald De Waala€™s World Bibliography of Sherlock Holmes and Dr.
A A A  Just back, 2 days ago, from wonderful trip; which will take a long time to digest, longer still to enunciate.
A A A  I got yr letter and appeal for help just before leaving Londres, I was too throng with doings to make any prompt comment. A A A  Morleya€™s view was alarmingly different: Scionists along with Apocryphals and Riff-Raff should all be swept into the category of Impossibles, and once the Impossibles were eliminated, whatever remained (however improbable) would be the BSI.
1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Harris of Detroit (a€?The Creeping Man,a€? BSI), who entered the BSI in the 1940s and left us many priceless memories and insights along with companionship in his later years. He was invested as long ago as 1955, and was an old man when he wrote for me about his boyhood devotion to Sherlock Holmes, and his learning about the BSI and founding a scion society with another youngster, Robert Pattrick (a€?The Politician, the Lighthouse, and the Trained Cormorant,a€? 1954).
Undamaged by the war, capital of financial power unmatched in history, a cultural mecca for America and Europe, New York was now both O. There is, first, the New York of the man or woman who was born here, who takes the city for granted and accepts its size and its turbulence as natural and inevitable. Lee Strasberga€™s Actora€™s Studio was training newcomers like Marlon Brando, Paul Newman, and Joanne Woodward. A thin crowd, a summer-night buzz of fans interrupted by an occasional drink being shaken at the small bar.
The old sense of immunity, of being protected from Old World strife by two great oceans, was gone. I therefore offer a suggestion which, if adopted, should deliver us from the Valley of Fear into which we hav been thrust by this fantastic Oppenheimer creation.
Labor discontent was sharp, prices were high, there was a great deal of civil rights ferment, and a new Red Scare got underway as the Cold War broke out.
His poise was perfect, and his credentials impeccable: Johns Hopkins, Harvard Law, clerking for Oliver Wendell Holmes before entering government in the early a€?30s. Many Democrats and old New Dealers felt that Hiss was a gallant protagonist of the younger liberal crowd that went to Washington in the New Deala€™s first crusade. The Democrats were almost desperate to have Dwight Eisenhower, the most popular man in America, but when he disavowed any political intentions, they re-nominated Truman and steeled themselves for sure defeat in a€™48. He had done a lot of radio in past years, on the a€?Transatlantic Quiza€? and a€?Information, Please,a€? but both shows came to an end in these years. International Business Machines, Inc., demonstrated a computer about the size of a tugboat, and at MIT, a member of The Speckled Band of Boston, Norbert Wiener, coined a prophetic new term, Cyber-netics.
The greatest crisis the BSI faced, however, was not changing taste on the publica€™s part, nor from the outside at all.
It was a time when many of the great early figures in Baker Street Irregularity were beginning to anticipate the culmination of their careers in letters, the professions, or (in Edgar W.
This effort was triggered by the death of Bliss Austin, a€?The Engineera€™s Thumba€? (a posthumous contributor to this volume) in 1989, when we realized how much we had lost in institutional memory. Smitha€™s secretary at General Motors at the time, and the original secretary-treasurer of the Baker Street Irregulars, Inc. Harris, for their original contributions to this volume, and to Bill Vande Water for his invaluable assistance with both the illustrations and many little nagging items of research. There would be some kind of dinner; the question now was how large, and who was to be included. What is exceptional about the Solid Core as defined by Smith below is not who is there, but who isna€™t.
In that day, no women were allowed inside the club; now wives of members are now permitted to attend certain social functions with their husbands at the club. The second floor has a spacious dining room overlooking Park Avenue, a large, magnificent, very masculine bar, a billiard room holding about six tables, and a library which is one of the best (maybe the best) sports libraries in the world.
The anterooms and the smaller dining room are painted hunt green with chair rails painted white or, in the case of the smaller dining room, stained.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. It was he who defined the spirit of the Murray Hill Hotel and Cavanagha€™s eras of the BSIa€™s annual dinners as a€?disputation, confrontation, and dialectical hullabalooa€? a€” explaining how the BSI lost it when growing numbers forced a move into large banquet halls at the Regency Hotel, 24 Fifth Avenue, the Union League Club, and now the Yale Club of New York, to the loss of all Irregulars.
Second, there is the New York of the commuter the city that is de-voured by locusts each day and spat out each night.
It is dark in here (the proprietor sees no reason for boosting his light bill just because the liquor laws have changed). New engines of destruction could span them in hours, bombs could incinerate entire cities in a single blast, and the wartime alliance had broken down. I propose that control of the bomb be entrusted to the Brothers Holmes: Mycroft to be responsible for the complex and delicate questions of policy and diplomacy, and Sherlock for all investigations into illicit production and for the removal of any would-be Moriarty who may seek to reduce our planet to the size of an asteroid in order to study its dynamics.
He was the epitome of the bright young men called to Washington by FDRa€™s New Deal, and he made a far better impression on even the New Deal-haters on the House Committee than the slovenly Chambers did. They feared, as the others hoped, that a verdict against Hiss would be a verdict against the New Deal. He was opposed not only by Republican Tom Dewey, but by Progressive Party breakaway candidate Henry Wallace and Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond as well.
The Kremlin said the secret of the atom bomb had a€?long ceased to exist,a€? and proved it in 1949, three years ahead of American predictions a€” convincing Truman to proceed with a vastly more destructive hydrogen bomb. But the crises persisted, and a€?a good deal of the rest of the way, in his first year, it was poison ivy.a€? Still, the Marshall Plan was proceeding, and in May 1949 the Soviets abandoned their blockade of Berlin. Douglas MacArthur took command with one of the great coups in history, his amphibious landing behind enemy lines at Inchon. The market for his kind of writing was drying up, and his work as a Book of the Month Club judge was becoming his main source of income. Few office buildings hummed more than the General Motors Building at 1775 Broadway, where the Overseas Division of the worlda€™s largest corporation was rebuilding operations in Europe, South America, and the Far East. Stars like Jack Benny and Burns & Allen moved their radio shows to television, and it revived careers for other veterans of vaudeville, like Milton Berle. The Polaroid camera went on the market, frozen concentrate orange juice was introduced, 45rpm and LP records began to replace a€?78s, and the transistor was demonstrated. The form took on tones of realism and pessimism in film noir like Out of the Past, starring newcomer Robert Mitchum as a new kind of cool in private eyes, and in brutal depictions of urban police work like The Naked City and The Asphalt Jungle. Far more dangerous than Adrian Conan Doylea€™s glower of disapproval was the one directed at the BSI by its own founder and moving spirit. Even-tually he would succeed in steering the sodality past most if not all of the Irregular crisess. The Archival His-tories began as an omnium gatherum of the published accounts and previously un-published correspondence by the early Fathers of the Church, but have become with this installment a record of the memories of living Irregulars as well. Some anonymous heroes of the Hampshire, England, county library system were kind enough to seek a needle in the haystack for this volume, and found it. Some future historian of the BSIa€™s most recent decades will certainly find himself handicapped, compared to me, for lack of a Whoa€™s Who & Whata€™s What picking up where Bill Rabe left off in the 1960s.
Smitha€™s Irregular secretaries at General Motors Overseas Operations in New York, working for him from the end of 1946 until early 1949.
I find quite a mass of sherlockian correspondence, which I will pass on to you from time to time. In his letter of November 13th, Smith had spoken of five categories of those who had attended the previous three dinners. Smith, the scion-society circuit rider, was determined to save The Five Orange Pips, plus the central figures in scion societies close enough to New York to attend the dinner each year.


Missing are New Yorkers (or so close to town as to be) like Bliss Austin, Basil Davenport, Peter Greig, Richard Hoffman, and Earle Walbridge.
The BSI met there from 1948 through 1951 after the Murray Hill was torn down, it being Edgar W.
When the law made it impossible for any club at which any business events took place to exclude women, the Racquet Club stopped permitting business meetings over lunch and dinner to be held there, rather than change its membership policy.
The walls of the anteroom and the smaller dining room have framed sporting prints hanging on them, coaching, hunting, racing and similar scenes. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. New branches were opened in Australia, South Africa, Argentina and Brazil (1946), Ireland (1947), Italy (1948) and Japan (1953); joining operations previously opened in England (1935), France (1937), Canada and The Philippines (1940) and Mexico (1944). I had never met him in person, and he had perhaps never attended a BSI dinner in New York, as he had been confined to a wheelchair for many years.
Each day a hundred passenger trains came and went, a dozen ocean liners docked and sailed, a growing fleet of airlines landed and took off. Third, there is the New York of the person who was born somewhere else and came to New York in quest of something. How dark, how pleasing; and how miraculously beautiful the murals showing Italian lake scenes a€” probably executed by a cousin of the owner. In August 1947, before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, a Time Magazine editor named Whittaker Chambers identified himself as a member of the Communist Party underground in the 1930s, and named a number of former and current U.S. Whatever Hiss or his lawyers might say later, the House Committee thus succeeded, before he ever came to trial, in making a large and very mixed public identify Hiss with what was characteristic of the New Deal. America did something it never had before, commit itself to the security of nations across the sea, by ratifying the North Atlantic Treaty. By 1948 he was coming into Manhattan from home only once a week or so, even less as the a€?Forties wore on.
Smitha€™s responsibilities were for institutional relationships, public af-fairs, and analysis of world economic trends. TheArmy, experimenting with V-2 rockets in the New Mexico desert, was sending them higher and higher into the stratosphere. The FBI released its first a€?Ten Most Wanteda€? list in 1950, and Senator Estes Keefauvera€™s organized-crime hearings on television mad millions aware of the reality in a way they had never been before. Adrian could frustrate its plans, but Christopher Morley, if he wished, could turn it once more into a small circle of just his own cronies, meeting far from the worlda€™s gaze in the back room of some modern-day speakeasy a€” especially if the faltering Baker Street Journal failed, and was no longer there to connect a parent body with adherents elsewhere. It was also the time when I and my own generation of Irregu-lars were being born or starting elementary school. McDiarmid, Glen Miranker, Bjarne Nielsen, Daniel Posnansky, Susan Rice, Tony Ring, Edgar Rosenberger, Albert and Julia Rosenblatt, Steven Rothman, Peter Ruber, Henry Shalet, Jack Siegel, Paul Singleton, Bruce Southworth, John Soutter, James de Stefano, Enola Stewart, Thomas L.
For anyone wishing to be a benefactor of the race, here is fertile ground for a most welcome contribution. She was the first secretary-treasurer of the Baker Street Irregulars, Inc., and a shareholder in it. From the letter below, four of the categories appear to have been Solid Core, Scionists, Apocryphals, and Riff-Raff. Morley tended to disdain Scionists, without bothering to attend their meetings a€” I have many examples of his shrugging off invitations to scion society meetings, but not one, I think, of his accepting an invitation a€” and he was prepared to discard even luminous personalities like James Montgomery while retaining dubious eccentrics from his Grillparzer days like Charlie Goodman.
The room itself is a fairly large one, perhaps 20 x 30 feet, all paneled in walnut with very fine woodworking, inset scalloped shelves on the left, and a green marble fireplace on the right at you look in from the anteroom toward where the head table was.
McDiarmid, Glen Miranker, Bjarne Nielsen, DanielA  Posnansky, Susan Rice, Tony Ring, Edgar Rosenberger, Albert and Julia Rosenblatt, Steven Rothman, Peter Ruber, Henry Shalet, Jack Siegel, Paul Singleton, Bruce Southworth, John Soutter, James de Stefano, Enola Stewart, Thomas L. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. Yet dipping into his memories to write this chapter made him decide to come to the next one, and we laid plans to sit together at it. Theaters were full, restaurants were busy, couples spooned in Central Park, and a dozen newspapers vied for attention. Of these three tremendous cities the greatest is the last a€” the city of final destination, the city that is a goal.
He arranged for a private confrontation between the two men at the Commodore Hotel in New York. Truman responded with an a€?airlifta€? to supply the Western half of the city, something experts said was impossible. Ben Abram-sona€™s crises imperiled the Baker Street Journal, which, despite its brilliant beginning, died before the decade was over. A trip to England in 1947 brought home to him how much his place as a man of letters had slipped in America. These years saw the 100,000,000th American car roll off the assembly line, and General Motors was the industry leader by far. The long dry statistical treatise became a bestseller, was sniggered over on the airwaves daily, and inspired a rash of popular songs.
Whelan, the BSIa€™s chairman, facilitated the preparation and publication of this volume in invaluable ways.
She contributed a a€?First Meeting with Sherlock Holmesa€? article to the January 1948 BSJ, which described going to work for Edgar W. In the old days of simplicity, no one wailed when we went some 4 yrs without a Stated Occasion. But Smith appears to have been prepared to do so, at least on this occasion, to preserve an out-of-town Scionist presence.
It was, as Old Irregular Bob Harris put it in chapter three of Irregular Crises of the Late a€?Forties, St.
Helping to make up for the lost income are rents from the bank and the American Express office which occupy space at the Park Avenue corners of the Club.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Unlike Pan-Cake, which had to be completely renewed when it began to fail, Pan-Stik could be touched up.
And only when I arrived in New York that next January did I learn that Don had died a few days before.
In the a€?American Centurya€? Henry Luce had proclaimed, New York was its rightful capital.
It is this third city that accounts for New Yorka€™s high-strung disposition, its poetical deportment, its dedication to the arts, and its incomparable achievements.
One of them was Alger Hiss, a former State Department official now president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in New York.
Hiss challenged Chambers to repeat his allegations outside the privilege of a Congressional hearing. It was a pro-longed trauma for America, and the outcome licensed, if illicitly, the exploitation of fear embarked upon the following month by a whisky-soaked Senator from Wisconsin named Joe McCarthy.
The Red Scare swallowed up one of Irregularitya€™s most eloquent voices, and death took some of its finest contributors. When the Colophon surveyed subscribers in 1949 as to which ten contemporary American writers would be thought great in fifty years, Morley was not among them.
These were glory years for GM, which announced for 1949 the largest annual profit ever made by an American company a€” despite people griping that postwar cars were too long to park, too big for garages, and too much money.
As Americansa€™ love affair with the car on the road deepened, drive-in movie theaters began to multiply like rabbits a€” a€?passion pits with pix,a€? Variety called them in 1949.
Palomar observatory began peering farther out into the universe than astronomers ever had before.
Smith and wondering about his sanity the first time she took dictation from him, since all his letters that day were to Irregulars. Smith strove to include both Solid Core and Scionists in the reconstitution of the annual dinner, and was prepared to take Januarya€™s down in size even further, to a proposed invitation list of 31 aiming at a dinner of only 25.
His list of scion society representatives is a sound, even daring one, for he surely knew that it was Allen Robertson who, at the 1947 dinner, had sent Morley into this tizzy in the first place. Jamesa€™s Street but not really Baker Street: the most elegant of all BSI dinner venues, then or since. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. Young people, out of the service, or at the outset of their careers, were flooding into New York seeking the fresh, new world awaiting them. From the next booth drifts the conversation of radio executives; from the green salad comes the little taste of garlic.
Chambers promptly did so, on a€?Meet the Pressa€? live on the new medium of television, as several million people watched. They werena€™t all wet, either; the a€™49 Cadillac Fleetwood was nearly nineteen feet long, and cost $4,779, a good deal more than most American families earned in a year. Science-fiction seemed less far-fetched now, what with the scientific marvels, and reports of flying saucers.
In 1998 she became a valuable source of information about Smith, Christopher Morley, and other members of the BSI, the BSI, Inc., and the Original Series BSJ a€” enriching the Late a€™Forties volume of the BSI History, where she is pictured on vacation in 1947 on p. One can nitpick Smitha€™s list of Scionists, and say a few things like why not Laurence Dodge from Boston, but not many. The following are my notes from a tour of it on Wednesday, October 9, 1996, by its then president, John D. And whether it is a farmer arriving from Italy to set up a small grocery store in a slum, or a young girl arriving from a small town in Mississippi to escape the indignity of being observed by her neighbors, or a boy arriving from the Corn Belt with a manuscript in his suitcase and a pain in his heart, it makes no difference: each embraces New York with the intense excitement of first love, each absorbs New York with the fresh eyes of an adventurer, each generates heat and light to dwarf the Consolidated Edison Company. Behind me (eighteen inches again) a young intel-lectual is trying to persuade a girl to come live with him and be his love.
Each time the Gasogene-cum-Tantalus and Buttons-cum-Commissionaire had a new idea, they en-countered the Conan Doyle Estatea€™s hostility a€” to the BSI, to the BSI, Inc.a€™s modest ambitions, to a new edition of the Canon edited for the Limited Editions Club, even to its traditional American publisher. 1949 saw the first great GM a€?Motoramaa€? at the Waldorf-Astoria, an automotive extravaganza in which Smith was immersed. Television shows like a€?Space Patrola€? were popular, and new names like Ray Bradbury and Robert Heinlein wrote for new magazines like BSI Anthony Bouchera€™s Fantasy & Science Fiction. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. In Asia, Indian independence led to partition, horrifying bloodshed, and the Mahatma Ghandia€™s assassination.
Were we embarking on World War III?a€? The decade closed with prospects in Asia gloomy, U.S. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. A combination of intellectual companionship and sexuality is what they have to offer each other, he feels. Smith as a self-made man of tremendous energy and ability, and a€” despite all the time spent on Sherlock Holmes at the office a€” an outstanding GM man: a€?an amazing intellect,a€? she said, who a€?loved to write, loved words, loved people, and was always learning.
Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
He was marvelous to work for because besides being so erudite he was also witty and charming, with a keen sense of humor. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. Then he has to go to the mena€™s room and she has to go to the ladiesa€™ room, and when they return, the argument has lost its tone. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. And the fan takes over again, and the heat and the relaxed air and the memory of so many good little dinners in so many good little illegal places, with the theme of love, the sound of ventilation, the brief medicinal illusion of gin. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed.


A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. As each studio also had all the writers, directors, producers and actors used in their films under contract, and owned the processing laboratories that developed the film, the United States Government claimed they engaged in restrictive trade practices.
When the case eventually reached the Supreme Court in 1948 the studios were forced to divest themselves of their movie theatre chains and this marked the beginning of the end of the studio system and the start of more independent film production in the United States. Unfortunately for Max Factor, the demise of the studio system also meant the end of its cheap endorsement links with Hollywood.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Pan-Stik (1948) and Color-Fast Lipstick (1952) appear to be the last products endorsed by movie stars, with Elizabeth Taylor, Esther Williams, Donna Reed, Janet Leigh, Debbie Reynolds and Jane Russell being amongst the last actresses to do so. The rise of television Another problem for the Hollywood studios was the rise of television, which was partly to blame for a drop in movie ticket sales.
The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
He calls this great new make-up Hi-Fi. Hi-Fi does for skin color tones what high fidelity does for sound. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care.
Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood.
They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too. The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments. They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states.
The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals. The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death. Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations. The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents. They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments. They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service. It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA.
Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence. ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects. ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques.
The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate. In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command.
A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE? Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior. 159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques.
Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results. These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations. Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage. Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit. The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v.
135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service. Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v.
388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy. Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim. Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B. Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare. He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland.
Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects. According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident. One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD.
December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests. 669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland. 2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program. Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin. They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded.
28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments. But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs. Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation. Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents. Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S. Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US.
The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions. But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S. For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's. According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs.



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