The '''Rothschild family''' is a wealthy family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild+, a court Jew+ to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel+, in the Free City of Frankfurt+, who established his banking business in the 1760s.
The first member of the family who was known to use the name "Rothschild" was Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, born in 1577.
Another essential part of Mayer Rothschild's strategy for future success was to keep control of their banks in family hands, allowing them to maintain full secrecy about the size of their fortunes.
Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family with carefully arranged marriage+s, often between first or second cousins+ (similar to royal intermarriage+).
The German family name "Rothschild" is pronounced approximately in German+, not as it is in English+. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family+ have been elevated to Austrian nobility+, being given five hereditary titles of Baron+s of the Habsburg+ Empire by Emperor Francis II+ in 1816. The Rothschilds already possessed a significant fortune before the start of the Napoleonic Wars+ (1803–1815), and the family had gained preeminence in the bullion+ trade by this time. The brothers helped coordinate Rothschild activities across the continent, and the family developed a network of agents, shippers and couriers to transport gold across war-torn Europe.
In one instance, the family network enabled Nathan to receive in London the news of Wellington's victory at the Battle of Waterloo+ a full day ahead of the government's official messengers.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild initially started his business in Manchester+ in 1806, and gradually moved it to London+, where in 1809 he acquired the location at 2 New Court in St.
In 1816, four of the brothers were each elevated to the hereditary nobility by Austrian Emperor Francis I+; moreover, a fifth brother, Nathan, was elevated in 1818.
Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the Suez Canal+.
The Rothschild family was directly involved in the Independence+ of Brazil+ from Portugal+ in the early 19th century. The Japanese government approached the London and Paris families for funding during the Russo-Japanese War+. The name of Rothschild became synonymous with extravagance and great wealth, and the family was renowned for its art collecting, for its palaces, as well as for its philanthropy.
In 1901, with no male heir, the Frankfurt House closed its doors after more than a century in business. The Rothschild banking family of England was founded in 1798 by Nathan Mayer Rothschild+ (1777–1836) who first settled in Manchester+ but then moved to London+. During the early part of the 19th century, the Rothschild's London bank took a leading part in managing and financing the subsidies that the British government transferred to its allies during the Napoleonic Wars+. Nathan Mayer's eldest son, Lionel de Rothschild+ (1808–1879) succeeded him as head of the London branch.
The London banking house continued under the management of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild+ (1882–1942) and his brother Anthony Gustav de Rothschild+ (1887–1961) and then to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild+ (b.
The first was son James Mayer de Rothschild+ (1792–1868), known as "James", who established de Rothschild Freres+ in Paris. But then the Paris business suffered a near death blow in 1982 when the socialist government of Francois Mitterrand+ nationalised and renamed it Compagnie Europeenne de Banque+. Ensuing generations of the Paris Rothschild family remained involved in the family business, becoming a major force in international investment banking.
James Mayer de Rothschild+'s other son, Edmond James de Rothschild+ (1845–1934) was very much engaged in philanthropy and the arts and was a leading proponent of Zionism+.
In Vienna+, Salomon Mayer Rothschild+ established a bank in the 1820s and the Austrian family had vast wealth and position.
The C M de Rothschild and Figli bank arranged substantial loans to the Papal States+ and to various Kings of Naples plus the Duchy of Parma and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
After the death of James Jacob de Rothschild+ in 1868, his eldest son Alphonse Rothschild+ took over the management of the family bank and was the most active in support for Eretz Israel+. Interviewed by ''Haaretz+'' in 2010, Baron Benjamin Rothschild+, a Swiss-based member of the banking family, said that he supported the peace process+: "I understand that it is a complicated business, mainly because of the fanatics and extremists – and I am talking about both sides.
Since the late-19th century, the family has taken a low-key public profile, donating many famous estates, as well as vast quantities of art, to charity, and generally eschewing conspicuous displays of wealth.
Since 2003, a group of Rothschild banks have been controlled by Rothschild Continuation Holdings, a Swiss-registered holding company (under the chairmanship of Baron David Rene de Rothschild+). N M Rothschild and Sons+, an English investment bank, does most of its business as an advisor for mergers and acquisitions. In 1953, one Swiss member of the family, Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild+ (1926–1997), founded the LCF Rothschild Group (now Edmond de Rothschild Group+) which is based in Geneva+, which today extends to 15 countries across the world. In 2001, the Rothschild mansion located at 18 Kensington Palace Gardens+, London, was on sale for ?85 million, at that time (2001) the most expensive residential property ever to go on sale in the world. In December 2009, Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild+ invested $200 million of his own money in a North Sea oil+ company. In January 2010, Nathaniel Philip Rothschild+ bought a substantial share of the Glencore+ mining and oil company's market capitalisation. During the 19th century, the Rothschilds controlled the Rio Tinto mining corporation+, and to this day, Rothschild and Rio Tinto maintain a close business relationship. In 2012, RIT Capital Partners announced it is to buy a 37 per cent stake in a Rockefeller family+ wealth advisory and asset management group. Today, the Rothschild family owns many wine estates: their estates in France include Chateau Clarke+, Chateau de Malengin, Chateau Clerc-Milon+, Chateau d'Armailhac+, Chateau Duhart-Milon+, Chateau Lafite Rothschild+, Chateau de Laversine, Chateau des Laurets+, Chateau L'Evangile+, Chateau Malmaison, Chateau de Montvillargenne, Chateau Mouton Rothschild+, Chateau de la Muette+, Chateau Rieussec+ and Chateau Rothschild d'Armainvilliers. The family once had one of the largest private art collections in the world, and a significant proportion of the art in the world's public museums are Rothschild donations which were sometimes, in the family tradition of discretion, donated anonymously. Hannah Mary Rothschild+ was appointed in December 2014 as Chair of the Board of the National Gallery+ of London. Rothschild et Cie Banque контролирует банковский бизнес Ротшильдов во Франции и континентальной Европе, в то время как Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG контролирует ряд банков Ротшильдов в других местах, включая N M Rothschild & Sons в Лондоне.
A., инвестиционная банковская и холдинговая компания, основанная в 1838 году, и зарегистрированная во Франции, которая имеет более 2,000 сотрудников. The Rothschild brother’s contribution to Baku’s oil industry — «Oil-Industry History» (USA), 2012, v. Unlike most previous court Jews, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth, and established an international banking family+ through his five sons, who established themselves in London+, Paris+, Frankfurt+, Vienna+, and Naples+. In about 1906, the Jewish Encyclopedia+ noted: "The practice initiated by the Rothschilds of having several brothers of a firm establish branches in the different financial centres was followed by other Jewish financiers, like the Bischoffsheims+, Pereires+, Seligmans+, Lazard+s and others, and these financiers by their integrity and financial skill obtained credit not alone with their Jewish confreres, but with the banking fraternity in general.
By the late 19th century, however, almost all Rothschilds had started to marry outside the family, usually into the aristocracy or other financial dynasties. Another line, of the British branch of the family+, was elevated by Queen Victoria+, who granted the family two hereditary titles of Baronet+ (1847) and Baron+ (1885). From London in 1813 to 1815, Nathan Mayer Rothschild+ was instrumental in almost single-handedly financing the British war effort, organising the shipment of bullion to the Duke of Wellington's+ armies across Europe, as well as arranging the payment of British financial subsidies to their continental allies. The family network was also to provide Nathan Rothschild time and again with political and financial information ahead of his peers, giving him an advantage in the markets and rendering the house of Rothschild still more invaluable to the British government. Swithin's Lane, City of London+, where it operates today; he established N M Rothschild and Sons+ in 1811. In 1885, Nathan Mayer Rothschild II+ (1840–1915) of the London branch of the family, was granted the hereditary peer+age title Baron Rothschild+ in the Peerage of the United Kingdom+. During the 19th century, the family bought up a large proportion of the property in Mayfair+, London. Upon an agreement, the Brazilian government should pay a compensation of two million pounds sterling to the Kingdom of Portugal to accept Brazil's independence.
By the end of the century, the family owned, or had built, at the lowest estimates, over 41 palaces, of a scale and luxury perhaps unparalleled even by the richest royal families. Nathan Mayer von Rothschild, the third son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild+ (1744–1812), first established a textile+ jobbing business in Manchester and from there went on to establish N M Rothschild and Sons+ bank in London. Through the creation of a network of agents, couriers and shippers, the bank was able to provide funds to the armies of the Duke of Wellington+ in Portugal+ and Spain+, therefore funding war. Under Lionel the bank financed the British government's 1875 purchase of Egypt+'s interest in the Suez Canal+. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railways and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power.
Baron David de Rothschild+, then 39, decided to stay and rebuild, creating a new entity Rothschild and Cie Banque+ with just three employees and €830.000 ($1 million) in capital. The Rothschilds have since led the Thomson Financial League Tables+ in Investment Banking Merger and Acquisition deals in the UK, France and Italy. His grandson, Baron Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild+, founded in 1953 the LCF Rothschild Group+, a private bank.
Born in London, he was the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family, Nathan Mayer Rothschild+ (1777–1836). The crash of 1929 brought problems, and Baron Louis von Rothschild+ attempted to shore up the Creditanstalt+, Austria's largest bank, to prevent its collapse. However, in the 1830s, Naples followed Spain with a gradual shift away from conventional bond issues that began to affect the bank's growth and profitability. Many Rothschilds were supporters of Zionism+, while other members of the family opposed the creation of the Jewish state. The Rothschild family archives show that during the 1870s the family contributed nearly 500,000 francs per year on behalf of Eastern Jewry to the Alliance Israelite Universelle+.

Today, Rothschild businesses are on a smaller scale than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including: real estate, financial services, wine and charities.
Rothschild Continuation Holdings is in turn controlled by Concordia BV, a Dutch+-registered master holding company.
In 2004, the investment bank withdrew from the gold market, a commodity the Rothschild bankers had traded in for two centuries. Although this Group is primarily a financial entity, specializing in asset management and private banking, its activities also cover mixed farming, luxury hotels and yacht racing+.
The deal, focusing on asset-management, marks the first time that these two well-known families have collaborated. In 1853 Nathaniel de Rothschild+ purchased Chateau Brane-Mouton+ and renamed it Chateau Mouton Rothschild+. They also own wine estates across North America, South America, South Africa and Australia. The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild+ in Frankfurt am Main+, Germany.
By this means Jewish financiers obtained an increasing share of international finance during the middle and last quarter of the 19th century. The German surname "Rothschild" is not related to the Protestant surname "Rothchilds" from the United Kingdom. In 1818, he arranged a ?5 million (equal to ?) loan to the Prussia+n government, and the issuing of bonds+ for government loan+s formed a mainstay of his bank’s business.
As such, some members of the family used "de+" or "von+" Rothschild to acknowledge the grant of nobility.
N M Rothschild and Sons+ was pre-eminent in raising this capital for the government of the newly formed Empire of Brazil+ on the London market.
The soon to be British Prime Minister Lloyd George+ claimed, in 1909, that Lord Nathan Rothschild+ was the most powerful man in Britain.
The providing of other innovative and complex financing for government projects formed a mainstay of the bank's business for the better part of the century.
The Rothschild bank also funded Cecil Rhodes+ in the development of the British South Africa Company+ and Leopold de Rothschild+ (1845–1917) administered Rhodes's estate after his death in 1902 and helped to set up the Rhodes Scholarship+ scheme at Oxford University+.
In 2003, following Sir Evelyn's retirement as head of N M Rothschild and Sons of London+, the English and French financial firms merged under the leadership of David Rene de Rothschild+. By 1980, the Paris business employed about 2,000 people and had an annual turnover of 26 billion francs (€4,13 billion or $5 billion in the currency rates of 1980). Today the Paris operation has 22 partners and accounts for a significant part of the global business.
Nevertheless, during the Second World War+ they had to surrender their bank to the Nazis+ and flee the country. The Unification of Italy+ in 1861, with the ensuing decline of the Italian aristocracy who had been the Rothschild's primary clients, eventually brought about the closure of their Naples bank, due to declining forecasts for long-term business sustainability. Lord Victor Rothschild+ was against granting asylum or to help Jewish refugees during the Holocaust.
Baron Edmond James de Rothschild+, youngest son of James Jacob de Rothschild+, was a patron of the first settlement in Palestine+ at Rishon-LeZion+, and bought from Ottoman landlords parts of the land which now makes up present-day Israel.
Paris Orleans is the flagship of the Rothschild banking Group and controls the Rothschild Group's banking activities including N M Rothschild and Sons+ and Rothschild and Cie Banque+. Edmond de Rothschild Group's committee is currently being chaired by Benjamin de Rothschild+, Baron Edmond's son. Lord Rothschild is also one of the major investors behind BullionVault+, a gold trading platform. In 1868, James Mayer de Rothschild+ purchased the neighbouring Chateau Lafite and renamed it Chateau Lafite Rothschild+. He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild+, (born circa 1710), a money changer+ who had traded with the Prince of Hesse+.
He gained a position of such power in the City of London+ that by 1825–6 he was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England+ to enable it to avert a market liquidity+ crisis. In 1825, Nathan Rothschild raised ?2,000,000, and indeed was probably discreetly involved in the earlier tranche of this loan which raised ?1,000,000 in 1824. Rothschild and Sons, the British investment arm, plus Bank Rothschild AG, the Swiss branch, set up a representative banking office in Frankfurt. The group has €100bn of assets in 2008 and owns many wine properties in France (Chateau Clarke+, Chateau des Laurets+), in Australia or in South Africa. In 1853 Nathaniel acquired Chateau Brane Mouton, a vineyard in Pauillac+ in the Gironde+ ''departement''. Their Rothschild palaces+, a collection of vast palaces in Vienna built and owned by the family, were confiscated, plundered and destroyed by the Nazis. However, in the early 19th century, the Rothschild family of Naples built up close relations with the Vatican Bank+, and the association between the family and the Vatican continued into the 20th century. In 1917 Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild+ was the addressee of the Balfour Declaration+ to the Zionist Federation+, which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonisation Association (PICA), which acquired more than of land and set up business ventures. Born in the "Judengasse+", the ghetto+ of Frankfurt+, Mayer developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in the five main European financial centres to conduct business+. Their assets were held in financial instruments, circulating through the world as stocks, bonds and debts. Part of the price of Portuguese recognition of Brazilian independence, secured in 1825, was that Brazil should take over repayment of the principal and interest on a ?1,500,000 loan made to the Portuguese government in 1823 by N M Rothschild and Sons. In 1961, the 35-year-old Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild+ purchased the company Club Med+, after he had visited a resort and enjoyed his stay. The palaces were famous for their sheer size and for their huge collections of paintings, armour+, tapestries+ and statues+ (some of which were restored to the Rothschilds by the Austrian government in 1999). In 1832, when Pope Gregory XVI+ was seen meeting Carl von Rothschild, observers were shocked that Rothschild was not required to kiss the Pope's feet, as was then required for all other visitors to the Pope, including monarchs. In Tel Aviv+, the Rothschild Boulevard+ is named after him as well as various localities throughout Israel which he assisted in founding including Metulla+, Zikhron Ya'akov+, Rishon Lezion and Rosh Pina+.
Directors of the company include Eric de Rothschild, Robert de Rothschild and Count Philippe de Nicolay. Nathan Rothschild calculated that the future reduction in government borrowing brought about by the peace would create a bounce in British government bonds after a two-year stabilisation, which would finalise the post-war restructuring of the domestic economy. Rothschild and Sons financial strength in the City of London+ became such that by 1825–26, the bank was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England+ to enable it to avert a liquidity+ crisis. Rothschild and Sons of London+ joined with other investors to acquire the Spanish government's money-losing Rio Tinto+ copper mines.
All family members escaped the Holocaust+, some of them moving to the United States+, and returning to Europe only after the war.
The 1906 ''Jewish Encyclopedia+'' described the Rothschilds as "the guardians of the papal treasure". A park in Boulogne-Billancourt+, Paris, the ''Parc Edmond de Rothschild'' (Edmond de Rothschild Park), is also named after its founder.
But his wife Ariane de Rothschild+ often visits Israel where she manages the Caesarea Foundation+.
Rothschild and Cie Banque+ controls Rothschild banking businesses in France and continental Europe, while Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG controls a number of Rothschild banks elsewhere, including N M Rothschild and Sons+ in London.
In what has been described as one of the most audacious moves in financial history, Nathan immediately bought up the government bond market, for what at the time seemed an excessively high price, before waiting two years, then selling the bonds on the crest of a short bounce in the market in 1817 for a 40% profit. In 1973, he bought out the Bank of California+, selling his interests in 1984 before it was sold to Mitsubishi Bank+ in 1985. In 1999, the government of Austria agreed to return to the Rothschild family some 250 art treasures looted by the Nazis and absorbed into state museums after the war. The Rothschilds also played a significant part in the funding of Israel's governmental infrastructure. Twenty percent of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG was sold in 2005 to Jardine Strategic, which is a subsidiary of Jardine, Matheson and Co.+ of Hong Kong+.
Given the sheer power of leverage the Rothschild family had at their disposal, this profit was an enormous sum. In November 2008, Rabobank+ Group, the leading investment and private bank in the Netherlands, acquired 7.5% of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG, and Rabobank and Rothschild entered into a co-operation agreement in the fields of mergers and acquisitions+ (M&A) advisory and equity capital markets advisory in the food and agribusiness sectors. In 1887, the French and English Rothschild banking houses loaned money to, and invested in, the De Beers+ diamond mines in South Africa+, becoming its largest shareholders.
It was believed that the move was intended to help Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG gain access to a wider capital pool, enlarging its presence in East Asian markets. Rothschild wrote to the then current Prime Minister Shimon Peres+ expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court.

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