CORE QUESTION General Voter Comfort with Voting Machines Help America Vote Act of 2002 Voting Machine Manufacturers Political Ties Hacking, Fraud, and Security Open Source vs. Other sites are welcome to link to this page, but not to reproduce or repurpose our copyrighted content.
Massachusetts becomes the first US state in the to adopt the Australian Secret Ballot system on a statewide basis. Herman Hollerith patents a method of using punched cards to compile data for the US Census.
The ES&S 150 Central Count Scanner is an example of a precinct-based optical scan systemSource: Douglas W.
Roy Saltman states in his report "Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying" (230KB) that "the use of pre-scored punch cards contributes to the inaccuracy and to the lack of confidence. The Federal Election Commission (FEC) releases the first set of standards for computer-based voting systems. Florida Judge Robert Rosenberg, member of the Broward County Canvassing Board, studies a dimpled punch card ballot on Nov. Problems with punchcard voting systems, particularly in Florida, in the 2000 presidential election between George W.
The Help America Vote Act of 2002 is signed into law in an effort to improve voting systems across the country.
Following passage of the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), the US Election Assistance Commission (EAC) is established. Georgia becomes the first state to implement the use of direct recording electronic voting machines on a statewide basis, deploying the DREs at the same time in every county and paying for the implementation with state funds instead of county funds. Computer security experts Avi Rubin and Dan Wallach, along with graduate students Tadayoshi Kohno and Adam Stubblefield, evaluate the security of a particular model of electronic voting machine based on source code they found on the Internet.


Please see our reprinting policy for details on how to request permission to reprint ProCon.org content. This style of paper ballot, later called the Australian Secret Ballot, is printed at the government's expense, lists the names of all candidates and issues in a fixed order, and is counted by hand.
This voting system is still used in some areas of the country (approximately 4% of voters cast hand counted paper ballots in the 2012 US Presidential election). Although this punchcard system (US Patent 395,782 (458KB) ) was not used for voting, the technology laid the foundation for the punchcard voting systems developed in the 1960's.
Harris, with the help of William Rouverol, patents the Votomatic punch card voting system (U.S.
Saltman  "Effective Use of Computing Technology in Vote-Tallying," National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Special Publication 500-30, Mar. It is generally not possible to exactly duplicate a count obtained on pre-scored punch cards, given the inherent physical characteristics of these ballots and variability in the ballot-punching performance of real voters. Saltman  "Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying," NBS Special Publication 500-158, Aug. The "Performance and Test Standards for Punchcard, Marksense [optical scan], and Direct Recording Electronic Voting Systems" (449KB)  are commonly referred to as the Voting Systems Standards (VSS). Michael Shamos offers The DRE Tampering Challenge (3KB) , in which he states "I do not believe it is feasible in practice to tamper undetectably with a well-designed direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine. The Voting Systems Standards (2MB) expand on the first set of standards by focusing on the voting medium instead of specific kinds of voting systems and addressing accessibility, usability, telecommunications, and audit trails.
The law mandates that all polling places have at least one handicap-accessible voting device, guarantees that any voter not appearing on a registration list has the right to cast a provisional vote, assures that all voters have the opportunity to review their selections before casting a ballot, establishes the Election Assistance Commission, and authorizes $3.9 billion in federal funds for replacing lever machines and punchcard voting systems with either DREs or optical scan systems with accessible ballot marking devices.
The EAC is tasked with providing support and technical guidance on the administration of federal elections, disbursing the funds allocated under HAVA, developing a new set of standards, implementing a new program for testing and certifying voting machines, and serving as a clearinghouse of election information.


Their analysis reveals several vulnerabilities that lead them to conclude these systems should not be used for federal elections.
14, 2003 - Democrats Raise Questions of Propriety over Diebold Chief Executive's Ties to George W. Patent 4,021,780 (2MB) ) the first model of the modern precinct-based optical scan systems in use today.
It is recommended that the use of pre-scored punch card ballots be ended." Despite his warning, use of punch card voting systems continues until widespread problems in the 2000 US presidential election prompt these systems to be banned by the Help America Vote Act of 2002. Inaccurate registration lists, unclear ballot designs, high numbers of spoiled ballots, and questions about voter intent on cards where the chad, the small piece of paper punched out of punchcard ballots, was not fully punched out were among the problems.
This critique is the first independent security analysis to raise concern about DREs and inspires many computer scientists to join the debate over the use of electronic voting machines. This technology, later called the Myers Automatic Booth, prevents overvotes, speeds up the vote counting process, and significantly reduces the chance of dishonest vote counting because the votes are counted by machine.
In this system a voter marks their choice by punching a hole in a prescored card marked with numbers which correspond to candidates and ballot issues listed in a separate booklet. The system, comprised of Video Voter terminals that were controlled by a Video Voter Data Center, was probably the first direct-recording electronic voting system to be used in real elections. This push-button machine was one of the first direct recording electronic voting machines to achieve significant commercial success.
The Votomatic was an improvement upon the punch card system used the year before and eventually becomes the most commonly used type of punch card voting system.



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