William Scrots, King's Painter to Henry VIII and his son Edward VI, was paid a salary twice as large as that of his predecessor, Hans Holbein? Thomas Stanley was an officer of the Royal Mint at the Tower of London under four monarchs—Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I? Samuel Hieronymus Grimm, a Swiss painter, toured England for twenty years leaving 2,662 sketches in the British Library -- including the only known image of the coronation of Edward VI? Sir John Luttrell, an English soldier and diplomat under Henry VIII and Edward VI, was the subject of an allegorical portrait (pictured) by Hans Eworth celebrating peace with France and Scotland? Edward VI of England's 1547 Injunctions mandated that a copy of the English translation of the Paraphrases of Erasmus was to be kept in every parish church? March 1981, and inside 10 Downing Street, Margaret Thatcher is confronting the most terrible dilemma any British Prime Minister has ever faced.The news could hardly be worse. Leafing through the documents, you realise how seriously officials took this gigantic war game. The scenario begins in early March 1981 a€” which indeed was a period of deepening international tension. Meanwhile, a peace organisation known as a€?Purple Peacea€™ and backed by Communist money has been holding massive demonstrations. And at Dartmoor Prison, some 24 inmates make a break for freedom, including Free Caledonia and Cewri Cymru terrorists a€” all part of the Communistsa€™ plan to disrupt the Thatcher governmenta€™s military preparations.By the evening of March 11, the drift to war seems unstoppable. At six oa€™clock, while most people are still sleeping, 100 Soviet bombers launch an unprovoked air raid, striking at air defence and radar installations across the country.Half an hour later, the Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, the Foreign Secretary, Lord Carrington, and the Defence Secretary, John Nott, hold a hurried meeting at Number 10. The police report that 50,000 people are trying to flee Manchester for Wales and the North, with a further 20,000 heading out of Liverpool.A few hours later, Whitehall is shaken by a massive car bomb, followed by an explosion at Green Park Tube station that kills eight people and injures 35. But the Warsaw Pacta€™s military advantage means that a€?Britaina€™s air defence has been virtually eliminateda€™. For the first time, Mrs Thatcher and her key ministers, principally Willie Whitelaw and Lord Carrington, consider using nuclear weapons. Currently the Mayor of London, he previously served as the Member of Parliament for Henley-on-Thames and as editor of The Spectator magazine.
Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Literae Humaniores.
On his father's side Johnson is a great-grandson of Ali Kemal Bey, a liberal Turkish journalist and the interior minister in the government of Damat Ferid Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, who was murdered during the Turkish War of Independence.[5] During World War I, Boris's grandfather and great aunt were recognised as British subjects and took their grandmother's maiden name of Johnson. Try as I might, I could not look at an overhead projection of a growth profit matrix, and stay conscious. He wrote an autobiographical account of his experience of the 2001 election campaign Friends, Voters, Countrymen: Jottings on the Stump.
Johnson is a popular historian and his first documentary series, The Dream of Rome, comparing the Roman Empire and the modern-day European Union, was broadcast in 2006. After being elected mayor, he announced that he would be resuming his weekly column for The Daily Telegraph. After having been defeated in Clwyd South in the 1997 general election, Johnson was elected MP for Henley, succeeding Michael Heseltine, in the 2001 General Election.
He was appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education on 9 December 2005 by new Conservative Leader David Cameron, and resigned as editor of The Spectator soon afterwards.
A report in The Times[22] stated that Cameron regarded the possible affair as a private matter, and that Johnson would not lose his job over it.
The Conservative Party hired Australian election strategist Lynton Crosby to run Johnson's campaign.
Johnson pledged to introduce new Routemaster-derived buses to replace the city's fleet of articulated buses if elected Mayor. I believe Londoners should have a greater say on how their city is run, more information on how decisions are made and details on how City Hall money is spent. Ken Livingstone presides over a budget of more than ?10billion and demands ?311 per year from the average taxpaying household in London. Under my Mayoralty I am certain that London will be judged as a civilised place; a city that cares for and acknowledges its older citizens.

The Mayor’s biggest area of responsibility is transport, and I intend to put the commuter first by introducing policies that will first and foremost make journeys faster and more reliable. Across Britain, tens of thousands of terrified people are streaming out of the major cities. And across the Welsh border, a group known as Cewri Cymru a€” a€?Welsh Giantsa€™ a€” have been launching arson attacks on public buildings.
Intelligence reports suggest a massive military build-up along the Soviet Uniona€™s border with Turkey and the Bulgarian frontier with Yugoslavia, while Nato scrambles to reinforce its troops in West Germany and Scandinavia. At Immingham, on the Humber Estuary, a terrorist bomb destroys the entire oil refinery with all its fuel stocks, while at the Devonport naval base in Plymouth a bomb kills four and injures 18.The next morning, Saturday March 14, there are queues outside banks and building societies as ordinary families rush to withdraw their savings.
That afternoon, even as a second air raid hits seven British air bases, the Thatcher government formally declares war on the Soviet Union.The next day, Tuesday 17th, is one of the grimmest days in our islandsa€™ history. Throughout the day, hundreds of civilians are killed in Soviet air raids, early Home Office estimates suggesting at least 400 casualties in Glasgow, Plymouth, Liverpool and Devonport.Sabotage attacks at Edinburgh Airport and Avonmouth docks kill a further 76 people. That night, Britain is pounded by more air raids, with scores of civilians killed and at least 100 houses destroyed in Liverpool.
Perhaps even now their 21st-century successors are working on similar exercises, imagining the bloody collapse of the European Union, a massive terrorist attack on London or even the nightmare of a chemical or nuclear atrocity.We may well count ourselves lucky that the dreadful horrors of World War III never came to pass. In reference to his cosmopolitan ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot" — with a combination of Muslims, Jews and Christians comprising his great-grandparentage.[6] His father's maternal grandmother, Marie Louise de Pfeffel, was a descendant of Prince Paul of Wurttemberg through his relationship with a German actress. They have two sons—Milo Arthur (born 1995) and Theodore Apollo (born 1999)—and two daughters—Lara Lettice (born 1993) and Cassia Peaches (born 1997).[13] Boris Johnson and his family currently live in Holloway, North London. In 1999 he became editor of The Spectator, where he stayed until December 2005 upon being appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education. He is also author of three collections of journalism, Johnson's Column, Lend Me Your Ears and Have I Got Views For You. On 2 April 2006 it was alleged in the News of the World that Johnson had had another extramarital affair, this time with Times Higher Education Supplement journalist Anna Fazackerley. Yet Londoners have little confidence in the Mayor spending their money with care and prudence. It was here that David Cameron and all his supporters gathered to congratulate him on becoming Mayor of London. Looting is widespread, while every day brings bomb attacks at railway stations and RAF bases.Abroad, the Red Army has sliced through the Westa€™s defences, using chemical weapons to punch through Natoa€™s front lines. Every two years, civil servants would take part in an exercise to test Britaina€™s capacity to deal with outbreak of a new war.
Every Prime Minister during the Cold War, from Attlee to Thatcher, knew that one day they might be asked to approve a nuclear strike. There have been a€?ugly scenes at demonstrations called to protest about rising unemployment and public spending cutsa€™, while major strikes in the railways and the steel industry have left Britain a€?not well placed to face the loss of essential importsa€™. Two days later the crisis takes a turn for the worse, as Warsaw Pact troops flood into Yugoslavia.
The BBC has suspended all weather forecasts on government advice, while there are reports that Mrs Thatcher has promised the Irish government a United Ireland in return for the a€?provision of temporary evacuation camps for selected British subjectsa€™.In reality, those camps would probably have been internment camps for Left-wing agitators.
That morning, the Cabineta€™s War Measures Committee recommends that a€?major art treasures should now be removed from London, Edinburgh and Cardiffa€™.
And in yet another shocking atrocity, a terrorist bomb kills 16 people at Victoria station.That night there are stormy scenes in the House of Commons, with Mrs Thatcher, who has been in power for just 22 months, under attack from all sides.
The Soviet leaders a€?would only agree to negotiatea€™, an intelligence report explains, a€?if they thought that the Blue alliance was near the point where it would have to decide on the strategic use of nuclear weaponsa€™ a€” meaning an apocalyptic attack on the Soviet Union itself.Mrs Thatcher a€” or, in reality, Richard Hastie-Smith a€” reports that she has secretly discussed the dilemma with Labour, who a€?raised no objectionsa€™ to a Nato strike.
At dawn, Soviet bombers use nerve gas and chemical blistering agents in attacks on Scotland, Manchester and Carlisle.At nine oa€™clock on the morning of March 20, the War Cabinet meets for the final time. But as I closed that obscure, dusty file, I wondered what future generations will think of us, that we lived in a time when such nightmares seemed so terrifyingly plausible. Through Prince Paul, Johnson is a descendant of King George II, and through George's great-great-great grandfather King James I a descendant of all of the previous British royal houses.
His comic first novel Seventy-Two Virgins was published in 2004,[16] and his next book will be The New British Revolution, though he has put publication on hold until after the London Mayoral election.[17] He was nominated in 2004 for a British Academy Television Award, and has attracted several unofficial fan clubs and sites.

In 2004 he was appointed to the front bench as Shadow Minister for the Arts in a small reshuffle resulting from the resignation of the Shadow Home Affairs Spokesman, Nick Hawkins.
Yugoslavia has fallen, and West Germany and Norway are on the verge of succumbing.After four days of Russian air raids, killing hundreds of people in Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester and Southampton, Mrs Thatcher faces the ultimate decision. But had war broken out, as the 1981 exercise envisages, they would have had little choice but to say a€?yesa€™.
The Ministry of Defence launches an operation to return some 100,000 servicemena€™s wives and children from West Germany. From the Middle East comes news that Iraq has attacked eastern Turkey, while Norwegian sources report a vast military build-up across their north-eastern border.British attention, however, is focused on the a€?deteriorating food situationa€™.
Mercifully, we will never know.The big news, though, comes from Trafalgar Square, where an anti-war rally, led by a€?prominent Left-wing MPs, leading trade unionists and personalities from many walks of life including sport and showbiza€™, ends in violent clashes with the police. There had been repeated air attacks against the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force Base.a€™At nine that morning, Mrs Thatcher broadcasts to the nation, appealing for a€?calm and common sensea€™, while the Home Secretary, Willie Whitelaw, follows with some advice about warning sirens. The committee also suggests that the Queen address the nation, to bolster a€?morale in the United Kingdoma€™. The Red Army has now broken through in West Germany, punching a hole 40 km deep in the Allied lines. In 1995 a recording of a telephone conversation was made public revealing a plot by a friend to physically assault a News of the World journalist. On her desk is a message from the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, asking for authorisation to launch a nuclear attack across the Iron Curtain.She tells her colleagues that never before has a British Cabinet faced a€?such a grim choicea€™. Panic-buying leads to reports of a€?growing shortages of canned foods, sugar and floura€™, and many petrol stations in the South-East have run short of fuel.Outside military bases, there are now large demonstrations.
In many rural areas, shops have run out of coal, oil, batteries and candles, as well as sugar and flour, while many chemists have run out of first aid and common medicines.Far too late, according to the Press, the government declares a State of Emergency and puts the Whitehall machine on a war-footing. Almost incredibly, the exercise has the police arresting the Labour leader Michael Foot and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, who have been swept up in the fighting. All television and radio services are now taken off the air, except for one BBC channel, controlled by the Government. Accordingly, the supreme Nato commander has requested a€?authority to execute a nuclear strike on targets in the territory of Orange satellite countriesa€™.
But there is no alternative a€” and with the world staring into the nuclear abyss, Mrs Thatcher gives the go-ahead. In the Soviet Union, the senile Brezhnev has been removed by an internal coup, making way for a junta of KGB hard-liners. But the Home Office reports a€?ugly scenes at a supermarket in Brixtona€™ (where there actually had been bloody riots that summer), and there are the first outbreaks of looting in major cities.
At Horse Guards Parade in London, heckling by far-Left activists leads to the suspension of the traditional military ceremonies. Sixteen people are killed by terrorist bombings, arms caches are discovered in Lancashire and Wales, and the station commander at RAF Finningley is kidnapped by Left-wingers. Command and Control Centre, Wiltshire One of the UK's best kept secrets, CCC is an active government bunker located at Peel Circus in Corsham, above ground the site consists of nothing more than a doorway in to a mound of earth, obscured from public view by a ring of trees and vegetation. Burlington Bunker, Wiltshire The former emergency relocations site for the government in the event of nuclear attack, the site has been abandoned since the 1980s. Hack Green Nuclear Bunker, Cheshire Hack Green was first used during the Second World War, its purpose was to confuse German bombers looking for the vital railway junction at Crewe.
Photo of the radio racks at the Bunker, Corsham'>Burlington Bunker in Corsham » Read more about the wartime broadcasting service 10. Central Ammunitions Depot, Wiltshire The Central Ammunition Depot Corsham is an amazing labyrinth of air-conditioned tunnels and chambers, one hundred feet below ground, and extending under some 200 acres of North Wiltshire countryside in four separate sub-depots, which between them housed over 350,000 tons of ammunition.

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