Bernie Sanders, hours after his Brooklyn debate with Hillary Clinton, brought his message of economic equality to the Vatican — but missed out on meeting Pope Francis.
Hillary Clinton came to Thursday’s Democratic debate armed with the Daily News to take on rival Bernie Sanders over his positions on Wall Street and guns. On August 24, AD 79, the residents of Herculaneum and Pompeii collectively had what we might charitably call a Really Bad Day. The Herculaneum papyrii, as they’re known, were found in 1752 by some of the first excavations of the area. In the early days, academics attempted to unroll and decipher the scrolls, often with disastrous results. Last year, a team working at the European Radiation Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) used a synchrotron — think of it like an X-ray machine on steroids — to identify specific Greek letters and even words of text.
On the other hand, metal-based inks weren’t thought to have been invented until the 400s, and didn’t become widespread until around the 12th century.
Pliny the Elder described a carbon-based ink made from the smoke of wood burned in furnaces. Knowing that the Romans of antiquity possessed knowledge of metal ink may pale against the rediscovery of lost tomes of literature and philosophy.
The Democratic presidential hopeful spoke Friday to an audience of clergy, academics and two South American presidents at a Vatican conference where he was an invited guest. WASHINGTON — President Obama threw his weight Friday behind an effort to give consumers more choice when it comes to the cable boxes that control which television channels they watch.
The highly contentious and spirited debate at the Brooklyn Navy Yard turned into an old-fashioned donnybrook with each candidate going after the other aggressively as they jockeyed for positioning just days before the state’s April 19 primary.
Thursday night I was conflicted: I love New York and I love Brooklyn (even the new Brooklyn peering up at the stage through Warby Parker glasses).
Hundreds of striking Verizon employees marched Thursday across the Brooklyn Bridge on day two of their walkout against the communications giant. The original library consisted of some 1,800 scrolls that were first carbonized by intense heat, than compacted and preserved by tons of rock. Modern technology has focused on using multi-spectral imaging or X-rays to peer within the still-rolled scrolls and decipher their writings without disturbing the fragile remains. This year, the team revealed that their further investigation has shown that some of the Herculaneum papyrii were written with a lead-based metal ink.

The ancient Romans used lead for many things, including cooking pots, glassware, and for water pipes (the word for plumber is derived from the Latin word plumbum, for lead). Now that we know some of the ancient scrolls were written with lead-based ink, it means that this technology existed centuries before we thought it did. As the ESRF notes, “The only known use of metallic ink before this period was for the writing of secret messages in the 2nd Century BC.” One of the reasons why scientists may have missed this non-trivial detail is because papyri don’t last long in the climate of the Mediterranean, which means very few extant scrolls or parchment have survived into the modern day. For every thing we think we know, there are probably a dozen things we know we don’t, and a hundred that we didn’t know we didn’t know. We knew of Zeno from the writings of Cicero and Diogenes of Laertius, but nothing of his work survived. But a better understanding of the inks used in the illegible scrolls may help future scientists retrieve information more effectively. Court filings unsealed Friday show the former Assembly Speaker had affairs with two women — one a state lobbyist and one who he helped get a job with the state. The marchers, carrying signs or wearing placards, trekked across the landmark span on a sunny afternoon to demonstrate outside the Democratic presidential debate between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders. Election reform advocates bashed New York’s closed primary system for leaving millions of voters locked out of next Tuesday’s presidential primary. The pyroclastic flows that preserved Herculaneum would have sucked the oxygen out of the air; the process preserved the scrolls but also rendered them extremely fragile. One of the challenges of this process is that the ink used to write the scrolls was believed to be carbon-based rather than metal-based. Rome was the largest producers of lead in ancient times, so if they were going to write with any metal-based ink, lead is probably high on the list.
Ironically, our testament to the ink used for writing in this era comes from Pliny the Elder, who perished attempting to save others from the Versuvian eruption of 79 AD. The reason the Herculaneum papyrii were such a celebrated find is because they contain both source material from which to measure if modern translations of ancient works are accurate, and because they sometimes contain material for which we have no other source. The work of Philodemus’ preserved in Herculaneum, contained several of his essays as well as those of the great Stoic philosopher, Chrysippus. There are hundreds of scrolls and fragments of scrolls that yet resist translation, and no way to know what information they might contain — at least, not yet. But then tragedy strikes--Mount Vesuvius erupts and the children are fleeing for their lives, in one of the worst natural disasters ever recorded.

The Federal Communications Commission is pursuing new regulations giving consumers more options to buy elsewhere.
That board, on this planet, in real life, not as a joke, for real, met, discussed, and deliberated on who to endorse to be the Republican nominee for President of the United States.
And there was the city I adore, cheering and hooting and wooing at every Bernie Sanders or Hillary Clinton applause line, and even a few unadorned statements of fact. The state has a closed primary, only allowing people registered with a particular party to cast ballots in that party’s race.
Herculaneum was buried first and more deeply, with up to 30 meters of debris covering the site. Of the 1,826 papyri to have been excavated, 340 are complete (or nearly complete), 970 are decayed but partly decipherable, and more than 500 are listed as fragments (18th century archaeologists weren’t exactly known for their fine detail work).
One of the primary authors of the Herculaneum papyrii, Philodemus of Gadara, had a habit of quoting at length from the other philosophers whose work he discussed. Not just a mystery--an absolutely thrilling action adventure that makes you feel you were there!
Obama described it as a model for expanding competition in other areas, including financial services. They should see eye to eye on every issue because, basically, they’re both progressives who care about a fairer, more just nation.
Voters can’t cross party lines — and independent unenrolled voters can’t vote in any primary. That debris makes archaeology on-site more difficult than it is at Pompeii, but it also preserved a priceless collection of ancient scrolls — scrolls that have both improved our understanding of ancient texts and, as of today, rewritten our timeline for when certain technological advances occurred. Given that the Herculaneum scrolls were carbonized by their close encounter with Vesuvius, it’s extremely difficult to use certain recovery techniques to differentiate ink traces from the body of the scrolls themselves. As a result, we now have records of what those individuals thought or argued, even though the original source material from which Philodemus quoted is, in some cases, lost. Why can’t they just sit and quietly discuss the issues instead of having these unnecessarily angry debates?

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