When I was asked to review Mark Nathan’s dissertation, I immediately flashed back to a presentation I heard him give in 2008.
From the beginning of the introduction the calm scholarly tone of Nathan’s work matches the ideals of Korean Buddhism, while clearly exposing the importance of the propagation of Buddhism, or pogyo, in the twentieth century. Chapter One dives right into explaining the purpose of the research, establishing the context, and outlining tangentially connected work by other scholars. Chapter Two tackles the question of how pogyo was defined and conceptualized by the Buddhist organizations who utilize the term.
At the end of the chapter Nathan also raises the interesting question of the historicity of Buddhist propagation—is Buddhism a proselytizing religion or was this idea copied in whole cloth from Western Christian missionaries? Geography is a key theme in Nathan’s dissertation, and he turns his attention to the subject in Chapter Three.
In their efforts to establish urban propagation programs, Korean Buddhist orders cooperatively established Gakhwangsa.
After briefly touching on the internet, Nathan rewinds 2,000 years to discuss the development of the Buddhist canon and, of course, pogyo efforts of the time.
After finishing reading this dissertation I was more convinced than ever that Mark Nathan makes an original and needed contribution to the literature on Korean Buddhism.
Get Involved at DRTo contribute a review of your own, to have your dissertation reviewed, or to contribute a Talking Shop or Fresh from the Archives piece, all you need to do is get in touch.
A review of Forests of the Gods: Shinto, Nature, and Sacred Space in Contemporary Japan, by Aike P.
My interest was piqued, however, by a suggestion in the introductory chapter that the narrative self (the self as the author and central character in one’s life-story) might be – in effect – a cop out.
I had recently read Kenneth Gergen’s An Invitation to Social Construction, which included a discussion of the narrative self.
One day on a lunch break, I was browsing in a midtown bookstore (I worked at Sixth Avenue and 50th). Philosophers refer to “the problem of the self.” This “problem” includes such questions as: Is there a self?
A review of The Buddhist World in Modern Russian Culture (1873-1919): Literature and Visual Arts, by Adele Di Ruocco. The opening chapter succinctly introduces the goal of the dissertation: “to investigate why and how Buddhism informed the aesthetic and philosophical inquires of certain modern Russian writers and artists especially in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries” (p. Chapter 1 discusses how travels in Asia influenced intellectual and creative outputs in Russia around the turn of the twentieth century. Di Ruocco next turns to the presence of the Buddha in Russian visual arts and literature in the first two decades of the twentieth century. The dissertation’s final two chapters link Buddhism in Russia to wider intellectual currents in Western Europe. The penultimate chapter considers the idea of Nirvana, its frequent equation with a nihilistic worldview and the broader resonance of this view as, according to Di Ruocco, “symptomatic of western angst” (p. In sum, Di Ruocco’s work brings together the lineaments of Buddhist thought in the intellectual life of late Imperial Russia.
Bekannt wurde der junge Grieche, John Dimas, durch seine einzigartigen Sets mit drei Plattenspielern. Wenn man fragt, mit welchem Wort man eine Nacht mit Ben Klock beschreiben kann – es gibt keines. Kompromisslos, einzigartig und komplett unbeeindruckt vom Gang- und Gabigen: der frische und vielfaltige Sound, der Basti Grubs Sets ausmacht, in denen Innovation genauso mitschwingt wie die generelle Neugier und Bereitschaft, es anders zu machen. Bevor es ein Ende nimmt mit dem Juli, hier unser aktuellster und letzter *Juli Podcast of the Week*, diesmal von Leon. Dass die Kunst&Kultur Szene nicht ganz so frei ist wie es sich der ein oder andere wunschen wurde, hat mannigfaltige Grunde. Wie war?s mit einer eigenen Ausgabe des am letzten Freitag erschienen Debut Albums des German-Wunderkinds Klangkuenstler? Dass nach einigen truben Wochen endlich der Sommer in Munchen Einzug gefunden hat, lasst nicht nur die bayrischen Biergartenherzen hoher schlagen. Das Muffatwerk wird kurzum zur Hohle des Lowen und neben Pandaparty und Atomic Cafe stellen auch wir unser Konnen zur Verfugung und kummern uns darum, dass auf dem House&Techno Floor nur das Beste vom Besten zu horen sein wird.
Zur PLATTENKONFERENZ steuern diese Samstag Nacht MATTIAS MEYER, CHRIS ZEITLMEIER & DJ CREDES und MONTY ihren Teil bei und machen eine Runde Sache daraus. Genau in der Nacht wuchs ein Wald in seinem Zimmer – der wuchs und wuchs, bis die Decke voll Laut hing und die Wande so weit wie die ganze Welt waren.
Auch alle die es nicht auf die Gasteliste schaffen sind Gewinner, denn jeder Back to the Woods Gast kann mit dem Bandchen nach dem Open Air zu uns ins Harry Klein kommen.
Zum dritten Mal in Folge finden wir uns auf Platz 1 der Munchner Clubs wieder und das soll gebuhrend gefeiert werden. Die Jungs von clubSabotage lassen es sich nicht nehmen und fahren am Donnerstag schwere Geschutze auf. Fur die Harry Klein Crew durfte NOE noch weites gehend unbekannt sein, wer jedoch gern bei Garry Klein zu Gast ist, kennt sie bestimmt. DJ REDs Talent liegt sowohl in ihrer musikalischen Vielseitigkeit als auch in ihrer Konsequenz.
Paul Tiedje, das jungste Pferd im Harry Klein Support Stall, hat Nurnberg gegen Munchen und Rakete gegen Harry Klein getauscht. Heute Nacht, DJ Import aus Down Under und bevor wir uns auf Trinity im Harry Klein freuen, gibt es auf egoFM, bei Basse, die die Welt bedeuten, ein Set von ihr. Kaum zu glauben, seit sechs Jahren haben die Electrophilen ihre musikalisch Homebase bei uns im Harry Klein. Neben diversen Gigs uberall auf unserem Globus, haben die beiden seit 2012 ihr eigenes Baby im Harry Klein und laden im Zweimonats-Rhythmus zu +Slave to the Rhythm+ ein. Endlich gibt es auch das Shirt zur Party und das war auf dem OFF Sonar mindestens so begehrt wie Karten fur die OFF Sonar BPitch Rooftop Party. Nein, es handelt sich nicht um das Champions League Achtelfinale 1934, bei dem Schweden gegen Argentinien spielte, sondern um das musikalische Programm am kommenden Wochenende. Da das Wetter ja deutlich abkuhlen soll, gibt es nichts was einer Nacht auf den Tanzflachen dieser Stadt im Wege steht.
Seit Tagen herrschen hochsommerliche Temperaturen in Munchen, was zu einer Spaltung der Bevolkerung fuhrt.
Die beiden Schwestern, bei uns bekannt als WENDLAND, begeistern uns im Harry Klein Gast mit ihren bunten, blinkenden Bildern auf der Leinwand. In fact Nathan’s research had stood out to me at the time for his clear focus on what Buddhism does as contrasted with Buddhist philosophy, the focus of the majority of scholarly works on Buddhism. Nathan employs diverse sources ranging from the personal writing of early propagators to regulations governing propagation to manuals explaining how to propagate Buddhism. Should pogyo be understood as an effort to proselytize or evangelize, in the way that the word pogyo is meant when it is used in the Christian context? This temple became a place where different orders could meet and cooperate to varying degrees. Nathan asserts that it is possible to study the law without nationalist bias if the law is not treated automatically as a tool for political ends. I was especially looking forward to reading this chapter because I have never seen any academic work addressing the mass media Buddhist presence, although in my years in Korean Studies I have often encountered Buddhist mass media. Nathan points out that the earliest efforts to record the dharma in books were directly linked to propagation, and traces the transmission of Buddhism to China (most transmission to Korea came through China).
This is a work that steps back and views over 100 years of Buddhism from the perspectives of organizational structure, law, geography, media, and most of all the multiple points of impact during Korea’s difficult modernization. For one thing, note that the view that there is no substantial self has a history in the West as well, in the thought of Hume, and of Nietzsche. When I started reading it, however, my first impression was that the subject matter was over my head. Gergen advocates using a social construction approach to practical life problems, including its use by practitioners of narrative therapy.
I don’t know how I found my way to this particular book — it was one of those it-fell-off-the-shelf-into-my-lap experiences. With a few notable exceptions (William James, neo-Freudians, humanists), psychologists largely ignored the self until the late 20th century. In her dissertation, The Buddhist World in Modern Russian Culture (1873-1919): Literature and Visual Arts, Adele Di Ruocco has achieved all three of these aims. The Buddha’s appearance in the art of Boris Anisfeld, Evgenii Zamiatin’s novel We, and Iurii Annenkov’s portrait of Maxim Gorky are indicative of the multiple media in which the Buddha was found.
Nicholas II, at the time heir to the Russian throne, traveled to Asia on a Grand Tour in 1890 and 1891. The idea of the Yellow Peril, articulated by Kaiser Wilhelm II, was widely endorsed in the Russian press in 1904 as the situation in the Far East deteriorated.
Chapter 5 traces the manifestations of Buddhism in France and the exposure of Russian intellectuals living and traveling there to the religion.


The dissertation should be positioned with respect to recent work that has reconstructed intellectual milieus in time and space—I am thinking most notably of that of Edith Clowes (Russia on the Edge: Imagined Geographies and Post-Soviet Identity.
Nach diesem Motto werden wir heute eine Nacht zelebrieren, wie sie Munchen lange nicht mehr erlebt hat. Ob es sich nun um langatmige, introvertierte und entspannte Klavierpassagen handelt, oder den neuartigen Sound des Hang-Instrumentes, landliche Tierstimmen-Ensembles, exotische Drums, interessante Einsatze von Stimmen und Song-Strukturen, oder auch einfach nur reduziert druckenden Technosound, der geburtige Frankfurter macht unvorhersehbar, was als nachstes auf dem Programm steht.
Das liegt nicht nur daran, dass Stephan Kaussner, der Newcomer Night Hauptbeauftragte, zum ersten Mal nicht mit auf dem Line Up steht, sondern auch daran, dass es heute gleich drei Nurnberger auf dem Plan hat. Wegen der anhaltenden Hitzewelle haben wir beschlossen, unseren Au?enbereich zu erweitern und unseren Gasten den Stachusbrunnen fur eine Abkuhlung zur Verfugung zu stellen. Der eng mit IWW verbandelte Kunstler war erst kurzlich unser Gast im Club, zur IWW Label Release. Simina Grigoriu, die in diesem Jahr bereits das Harry Kein und den Konigsplatz zum Erbeben brachte, kummert sich musikalisch um euer Wohl. Und als waren das nicht schon mehr als genug Teile fur ein wunderschones Ganzes, steuert heute Plattenkonferenz-Grunder CHRIS ZEITLMEIER noch seinen 30igsten Geburtstag bei.
Henry Gilles, Robert Drewek und Benjamin Roeder, bekannt aus dem Charly oder von Permanent Vacation, schlagen auf und feiern heute abACHT! Sie lie? sich nicht vom minimalistischen Zeitgeist verfuhren, sondern verfolgte beharrlich ihre LInie.
Im Harry Klein freut man sich ganz besonders uber einen schwedischen Exportschlager, weit weg von IKEA und Co. Der eine Teil freut sich seines Lebens und genie?t an der Isar oder im Eiscafe die Hitze und das kuhle Bier – bis in die spaten Nachtstunden. Heute ist damit erst mal Schlu?, denn ab dem fruhen Abend ziehen Warmegewitter auf, die die Stadtbevolkerung wieder vereinen und in uberdachte Raume treiben werden.
To explain why he uses propagation for the Korean word pogyo, Nathan examines the English alternatives, and ultimately discards each because of the importance of conversion to terms such as proselytize, and their strong Christian context. Nathan explains that the monks were given more latitude in their activities than many Koreans because the Japanese preferred Buddhist activity to Western missionaries and Christianity. In this chapter Nathan argues that law led to an emphasis on pogyo as the method to reform, revitalize, and modernize Korean Buddhism. Nathan’s chapter included an overview of how the modern mass media contributes to pogyo with a comparison to pre-modern Buddhist propagation. As Nathan points out, in the Mahayana branch of Buddhism the idea that keeping, reciting, or copying sutra was beneficial to the actor was widespread, further encouraging the spread of written Buddhist materials. My perspective, based on all the additional questions that arose as I read the dissertation, is that as a book this will form the basis of countless additional studies in the largely ignored field of modern Korean Buddhist practice.
What follows is the concluding question and answer in this fairly long and quite interesting interview. For another, note that many contemporary cognitive scientists and philosophers have either rejected the view that there is such a self, or have defended some variety of a minimalist conception of the self. Within the first few pages I was looking up the definitions of soteriological and diachronic (a word I’ve repeatedly looked up (diachronically), maybe now for the last time). In fact, it appears that the no-self view occupies the rational high ground when it comes to conceptions of the self. Since this particular VP didn’t want anyone to learn how to do her job, I was kept busy with routine, uninteresting tasks.
The title, Skillful Means, meant nothing to me at the time, so there was no reason to select it. Only with the decline of behaviorism and psychoanalysis did the self emerge as a topic worthy of consideration. In the West, we have Plato, followed by pre-Enlightenment religious philosophers who were concerned with the sinful qualities of the self (egotism, pride, selfishness). This work traces the lineages of Buddhism as a values system and worldview in Russian intellectual life in the late imperial period.
Di Ruocco positions her work against two predominant trends—those organized around the concepts of Orientalism and of the occult—in the extant scholarship on Buddhism in Russia. Aleksei Remizov relied directly on the travels of others to infuse his work on folklore and myth. In certain representations, Buddhist and Christian elements were co-present, and these depictions reflect a wider intellectual discussion regarding the syncretism of Buddhism and Christianity that was ongoing in late Imperial Russia.
The tour was widely covered in the Russian media and resulted in a rich and varied collection of objects that subsequently formed part of the Imperial Buddhist Collections, displayed at the Winter Palace beginning in 1893. The result, Di Ruocco observes, was the dissemination of “Buddhist ideas into modern Russian culture, albeit in negative terms” (p. Di Ruocco discusses in detail an 1898 Buddhist ceremony led by the Buriat lama Agvan Dorzhiev at the Musee Guimet. Von trockenen, kernigen Minimalbeats bis zum herzoffnenden Rave-Orgasmus, von hypnotischem, groovenden House bis in die tiefsten, dunkelsten Abgrunde von Techno.
Bevor wir Basti Grub im Harry Klein horen, gibt es bei „Basse, die die Welt bedeuten“ auf egoFM ab 23h, ein Set von ihm. Stephan, vertreten durch den neuesten Harry Klein Support Paul Tiedje bekommt Unterstutzung aus der Heimat. Max Tauer und Julian Haffner spielen b2b oder auch jeder fur sich. Der Harry Klein Stempel erlaubt die Benutzung des Brunnens zur Abkuhlung und egal ob nass oder trocken, mit dem Stempel kommst du rein zuruck in den Club. Auf seiner Album-Tournee macht Klangkuenstler, der neben Alle Farben, egokind und Spanks auf dem angesagt Label Kallias released, an diesem kommenden Freitag einen Stopp im Harry Klein und wir durfen zwei der begehrten Scheiben verlosen! Diese werden hochstpersonlich von Klangkunstler am Freitag im Plattenkoffer hierher transportiert und nachste Woche per Post an die glucklichen Gewinner versandt. Alle Antworten im FACEBOOK THREAD bis Freitag nachmittag um 15:00 nehmen an der Verlosung teil! Wenn dann unser Lieblings-Radiosender egoFM zum Sommerfest ladt, bleibt keine Kehle trocken und kein Tanzbein ungeschwungen.
An ihrer Seite LIZA und BENNA und ganz Harry Klein like wird auch visuell einiges geboten und so stehen die Blink and Removes an den Lichtreglern. Es ist vielmehr eine Symbiose, ein Zusammenwachsen von Menschen, Gerauschen, Geruchen, Gefuhlen zu etwas Gro?erem, zu einem wunderschonen Ganzen. Alle Zeichen stehen auf der schwarzen, runden Scheibe, auf die in Musik in Rillen gepresst wird. In his dissertation he examines the pogyo practice in Korean Buddhism to reveal 1) how pogyo was conceptualized and the material practices through which it was carried out, as well as 2) the underlying forces at work in this response to modernization. In this first chapter the dissertation traces the entire history of the religion in modern Korea. In this regard Nathan points out that although the 1911 Temple Ordinance Law gave undue power to the pro-Japanese abbots of the thirty major temples, it was also connected to central propagation efforts that formed a foundation for Buddhism’s re-entry into urban Korea.
Nathan feels, however, that most scholars have only investigated these laws to discuss colonial oppression, rather than the impact of law on Buddhism.
East Asia was particularly fertile ground for the proliferation of a religion where passing on religious texts was a religious (meritorious) act.
Until the book is published I feel that this dissertation is essential reading for anyone who is researching Buddhism in contemporary Korea, as well as scholars of religion more generally (in fact I recommended it at least five times while I was reviewing it). A book that assumes I’m familiar with the distinction between thetic and non-thetic awareness – interesting as that may be – suggests I should be more philosophically informed before proceeding. Or so the editors of this collection of essays (Mark Siderits, Evan Thompson, and Dan Zahavi) would argue.
It draws on academic approaches to literature, visual culture, and religious studies, and has broad intellectual appeal across these and other disciplines. Instead, the dissertation’s central organizing trope is “the journey”: travel to, movement within, and exchange with the Buddhist world writ large.
The transference of religious myths suggests that ideas, not just individuals, undertook an “imaginary journey” from east to west (p. This was one of a series of exhibitions aimed at increasing public awareness of foreign cultures. The service was described by the poet Innokentii Annenskii in “The Buddhist Mass in Paris,” which invoked the color yellow in reference to the Gelugpa (Yellow Hat) school of Tibetan Buddhism to which Dorzhiev belonged.
Di Ruocco has achieved something comparable by tracing the varied influences coming from the Buddhist world—the figure of the Buddha and the concept of Nirvana—to position Russian intellectual thought at a moment in time before the rupture wrought by the Soviet short century. As an art historian, I am always pleased to come across more sources re collection development. Zu Gast ist der Exilberliner David Goldberg und unser House Import furs deepe – Deep Down Dave. Nach dem ausgiebigen Bad in der Sonne oder dem schwitzigen Tag im Buro findet, obACHT schon abACHT der perfekte Abendausklang im Club statt.
We learn of the arrival of Japanese Buddhist missionaries in 1877, the lifting of the law prohibiting monks and nuns from entering Seoul (and other major cities), and the 1899 (instituted in 1902) state initiative to reorganize Korean Buddhism (too little, too late).
Nathan has found that courts have consistently used pogyo as a central part of their understanding of religious organizations.


234). In the next section Nathan outlines further research directions for the study of Buddhist propagation. So I decided to take it more slowly, try a little harder, and give the introductory chapter another read through. The book was about being mindful while doing one’s work, and it turned out to be exactly what I needed at the time. The journeys around which Di Ruocco organizes the analysis are diverse in their orientations and interests. The tsarevich’s confidant, Prince Esper Ukhtomskii, accompanied Nicholas on the Grand Tour and also gathered an impressive collection of eastern objects, as did the explorer Petr Kozlov and Aleksandr Vereshchagin, an officer in the Russian Army and brother of the artist, Vasilii. The Yellow Peril came to be associated with Buddhism in some intellectual circles and was viewed as a threat to the Christian order: Vladimir Solov’ev, for example, criticized Buddhism for its inherent contradiction.
Also of note is the influence of Buddhist exhibitions held in the French capital on subsequent displays organized in Russia, including the First Buddhist Exhibition held in Petrograd in 1919. This position was influenced in the main by the works of German philosophers, including most prominently Arthur Schopenhauer. Seit uber 10 Jahren Resident im beruchtigten Goa Club in Rom, seit letztem Jahr Mitglied im Kader von BPitch Control. After this examination of what individual intellectuals considered to be pogyo, Nathan follows with outlining the ideas about pogyo presented in propagation regulations. Pogyo‘s central position in law evolved from Westerners who first protected their legal right to practice and then extended rights to Christian missionaries. He clarifies that most scholars have focused closely on individuals and hence the organizational and institutional framework becomes subsumed into individual biographical stories, and has been at time subverted by nationalistic bias. Some journeys were real, others metaphorical; whether a world tour or an interchange of ideas, these varied journeys resulted in ideational exchange with the Buddhist worldview.
The analysis in this chapter centers on the story of Prince Josaphat’s conversion to Christianity, elements of which closely align with the life of the Buddha. These exhibits, along with the art of the latter Vereshchagin and the form of Tibetan medicine practiced by Petr Badmaev, increased the Russian public’s exposure to Buddhist images and practices. Another instance of skepticism revolved around debates on the building of a Buddhist temple in St. This perspective on Nirvana also influenced the visual arts: Kazimir Malevich came to embrace nothingness in his series of white canvasses painted in 1917 and 1918.
Deepening his explanation of geography beyond the push for urban propagation centers, Nathan explains the spiritual and philosophical connection between Buddhism and mountains.
After the end of the Japanese Occupation, however, Buddhism went through a difficult period of adjustment, as different groups sought to control the major monasteries.
Nathan explains Japanese Buddhist propagation in Korea, contextualizing it with several pages of detailed information on Buddhism after the Meiji Restoration in Japan, as well as a discussion of the activities of Japanese Buddhist monks in Korea.
This understanding of pogyo as central to religion by the Japanese impacted post-colonial Korean Buddhism and legal measures related to Buddhism.
Other scholars have reified Buddhism in their work, leading to a host of analytic problems as the many divisions and personalities within Korean Buddhism are subsumed into one undifferentiated monastic community.
This conversion story was incorporated into the works of Leo Tolstoy in his Confession, and into the poet Dmitrii Merezhovskii’s verses and essays. Der hat es sich nicht nehmen lassen, Sinnvolles mit dem Schonen zu verbinden und gleich zwei der SINSTRUCT Kunstler eingeladen, bei ihm im Juli ein Gastpiel zu leisten.
Nathan’s interest in pogyo causes him to search through all the manuals, however, and his analysis of a 1999 manual by the Jogye Order (the dominant order of Korean Buddhism) is extensive.
His nuanced explanation of how the landscape was inscribed with religious meaning, followed by theorizing on the meaning of space and place to religion, is one of the most fascinating parts of the dissertation. Nathan sketches a difficult period lasting from the 1950s through to the 1970s where the combination of in-fighting, national poverty, a powerful Christian president, US military influence, industrialization, and urbanization interrupted propagation activities to varying degrees.
Although Nathan finds these efforts to be part of Japanese imperialism, they did provide an example to Korean Buddhist monks of active propagation of Buddhism, and Japanese monks such as Sano Zenrei were active proponents of overturning the law forbidding Korean Buddhist monastics from entering the major cities while advocating for freedom of religion. Nathan also points out that the Temple Ordinance remained in effect, in large part, until 1962 when it was replaced by the Buddhist Property Management Law. Although other scholarship has viewed these publications through the lens of collaboration, by seeing pogyo as the over-arching goal of the contributors Nathan finds the journals steadfastly focused on propagation, not politics. In addition Nathan warns against considering pogyo as just one more activity that was added to the roster for Buddhist organizations, but rather points out that many organizations were formed to carry out propagation—pogyo came first, with Buddhist propagation centers even serving as the birthplace of some modern Buddhist orders.
Di Ruocco writes that these influences “exemplify how religious myths migrated from one culture to another, helping to popularize certain motifs, such as the figure of the Buddha” (p. As Nathan wrestled with the documentary record to define pogyo he found the definition expanded to include indirect propagation activities. Continuing the close reading and analysis of Han Yongun’s Joseon Bulgyo Yusillon that informs much of the dissertation, Nathan uses Han’s discourse on locality and Buddhism as illustrative of the concern that without relocating to urban centers and carrying out pogyo, Buddhism would not survive.
After Park Chung Hee became president he enacted the Management of Buddhist Property Law in 1962, allowing the government broad powers over monasteries and their finances.
Although scholars have previously focused on legal language that allowed Japanese Buddhist organizations to apply to take over Korean Buddhist temples, Nathan finds this line of inquiry to be relatively unimportant as despite many applications, only minor temples were ever granted to Japanese Buddhist organizations.
The latter was an improvement in some ways—such as removing government interference from the selection of abbots—but many other aspects of the law seemed to be modeled on the ordinance. He outlines the publication history of various periodicals during the colonial era, most of which last only a few issues, and traces the situation for newspapers and journals up until the present.
Next Nathan addresses the tension surrounding pogyo owing to a perception that it may too closely follow Christian methods, hence occluding some characteristics of Buddhism. These activities are those that benefit society, not just Buddhists, and are considered within the scope of pogyo, an argument developed by some contributors to the Jogye Order propagation manual. Under this law Buddhist groups had to register with the government; the Jogye Order (the dominant order today) registered first, but in 1970 separated into the Jogye and Taego Order (now the second largest order in Korea, the Taego Order monks may marry). In 1987 the Traditional Temple Preservation Law replaced the previous law, with reduced powers. In the following section Nathan does the same for stand-alone publications, primarily books, on Buddhism as well as translations of historical Buddhist works from Chinese characters into vernacular Korean.
Nathan ascribes the dearth of academic study of pogyo directly to the way that it has been characterized as a Christianization of Buddhism. Another path through which the Buddha entered Russian intellectual circles was the translation of Sir Edwin Arnold’s The Light of Asia—the Russian translation of the book included annotations from Buddhist sources to supplement Arnold’s text. Some temples, however, registered as propagation centers without specifying an order, although later most established a formal relationship with a specific order.
Earlier books often used mixed script, introducing a barrier for some potential readers, but the single biggest hurdle for Buddhist publication was the sheer size of the Buddhist canon, which had been developed over the course of a thousand years. Some authors also created condensed or abridged versions of important Buddhist works, including Han Yongun. Nathan explicitly clarifies that conversion is not part of this definition, as conversion in a Buddhist context is, at best, unclear. Other propagation centers were established by specific (usually large and famous) monasteries to carry out activities in the urban setting.
Baek Yongseong spear-headed efforts to translate entire sutras into vernacular Korean throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s, and he was increasingly joined by other monks.
Next Nathan discusses institutional isomorphism as applied to his studies of Korea, and concludes that although this factor is important, Buddhist specific laws have worked against homogenization. Nathan makes it clear, however, that most temples established in urban areas, even if they did not explicitly call themselves propagation centers, included propagation as one of their major activities.
Nathan explains, however, that from liberation to the 1960s there were very few Buddhist books published. At the end of the chapter Nathan introduces a reverse trend—now many rural temples seek to draw lay people back to the traditional temple setting. In 1963, however, cooperative efforts for publication commenced with the goal of translating the entire canon: this lasted until 2001 when the 318th book was published. Other media used for Buddhist propagation began with colonial era radio broadcasts but a dedicated radio station didn’t emerge until 1990 and the Buddhist TV station did not begin until 1995.
The internet has seen further developments including digitization of the Korean Buddhist canon, however there was no extensive discussion of these modern mediums in the dissertation. Mountain temples became increasingly integrated into the lifestyle of Koreans, for tourism and for retreats (the assumption is that participants are Buddhists), culminating in experiential programs such as the Temple Stay Program designed to give a touristic but educational experience of Korean Buddhism (to participants who are assumed to be non-Buddhists).



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