Komuso- so you can use the amigusa.a€?Priest- so as to be able to approach both men and women. The use of religion as an escape from prohibitions from traveling and staying in an area was rather common in some situations. Still, they were not all so despised and many folks would open up to a traveling Buddhist monk (Below) if he were to ask questions about the provence he was traveling as part of his duties. 64 Shoninki-The True Records of the Shadow Warriors, Copyright Don Roley 2012were to ask questions about the provence he was traveling as part of his duties. Thus a ninja dressed as a yamabushi had a ready made excuse for being ona€?the road into other provinces. Sometimes they even set up in areas to give shows showing off their goods whilea€?watching the roads and people. This disguise was very popular with the Koga ninja, who traveled the land selling medicine carried on bundles hung from a stick on their shoulder. Sarugakushi (Following picture, ) were related to performers, except that instead of singing and dancing, they were the performers of more traditional and high class entertainment. The common folks had their own way of dressing, and this changed a bit from place to place. Komuso- so you can use the amigusa.Priest- so as to be able to approach both men and women. Thus a ninja dressed as a yamabushi had a ready made excuse for being onthe road into other provinces. Sometimes they even set up in areas to give shows showing off their goods whilewatching the roads and people.
The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries.
On the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying among just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetical Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?. As mentioned above, this all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. While this map represents a significant step forward in the Japanese attempt to combine religious and contemporary geographic knowledge it remains in essence a Buddhist map. Rokashi Hotana€™s map became the model on which all future Japanese Buddhist world maps were drawn well into the 19th century. This is the earliest map of this type representing Buddhist cosmology and became the prototype of Buddhist world maps. Ayusawa, Shintaro, a€?The types of world map made in Japana€™s Age of National Isolationa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 10 (1953), pp. Christiea€™s, Natural History, Plate Books and Cartography, June 7, 2006, sale 7225, lot 94.
Nobuo Muroga, Kazutaka Unno, a€?The Buddhist World Map in Japan and Its Contact with European Mapsa€?, Imago Mundi, Vol. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title.
In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world spanning continent of Jambu-Dvipa. A A A  This is the earliest map of this type representing Buddhist cosmology and became the prototype of Buddhist world maps. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. But despite this reality and thousands of years of philosophical examination, there is little consensus today on what consciousness is.
I am suggesting the need for the method of our investigation to be appropriate to the object of inquiry.
Here I feel that a close collaboration between modern science and the contemplative traditions, such as Buddhism, could prove beneficial.
The Buddhist understanding of the mind is primarily derived from empirical observations grounded in the phenomenology of experience, which includes the contemplative techniques of meditation. I agree with the Harvard psychologist Stephen Kosslyn that it is critical to recognize the natural boundaries of introspection.
What occurs during meditative contemplation in a tradition such as Buddhism and what occurs during introspection in the ordinary sense are two quite different things. It may well be that the question of whether consciousness can ultimately be reduced to physical processes, or whether our subjective experiences are non-material features of the world, will remain a matter of philosophical choice.
The second most common element in the universe is increasingly rare on Earth—except, for now, in America. Renowned planetary scientist James Kasting on the odds of finding another Earth-like planet and the power of science fiction. Video: conversations with leading scientists and thinkers on fundamental issues and ideas at the edge of science and culture. Audio slideshow: Justine Cooper's large-format photographs of the collections behind the walls of the American Museum of Natural History. In 2009, we are celebrating curiosity and creativity with a dynamic look at the very best ideas that give us reason for optimism. In this installment of Revolutionary Minds, five people who use the new tools of science to educate, illuminate, and engage. Leading scientists, designers, and architects on ideas like the personal genome, brain visualization, generative architecture, and collective design.
Seed examines the radical changes within science itself by assessing the evolving role of scientists and the shifting dimensions of scientific practice. On the trail of the haunts, homes, and posts of knowledge, from the laboratory to the field. Today, though many of the Buddhist monk are mostly vegetarian, there is no such commandment in Buddhism that one has to be a vegetarian to embrace Buddhism.
Life is suffering goes the first noble truth of Buddha and people misinterpret that Buddhism is all about suffering, suffering and suffering. Many of the people think enlightenment as a lottery ticket to get away from the problems in life. Often people misinterpret non-attachment in Buddhism as no attachment, thinking people cannot have relationships. Do you have any contrary opinion to this post - Do you wish to get heard - You can now directly publish your opinion - or link to another article with a different view at our blogs. DisclaimerAll views , including those expressed in affiliated social media pages of the website, are personal and belong to the contributing author(s) in accordance with our fundamental right to freedom of speech given to us by our constitution under Article 19(1a) . The text has now been translated and published by Don Roley of the Colorado Springs Bujinkan Dojo. But as the last line of the Shoninki points out, these were not just costumes that were thrown on. Thisa€?was a member of the Fukke sect of Buddhism that wandered while playing aa€?flute and concealing their face. Many of these samurai from the rural provinces became enamored of the big city life of Edo and did not want to return.

Even today religious figures are looked on with less suspicion than most folks, even knowing what we do about how some of them have abused that trust. Even though the idea that the ninja came from yamabaushi is largely a myth, the disguise was a good one for someone on the road a lot with a need to carry a weapon.
At the same time, it believes that the Shinto gods exist and can give aid to those purifying themselves. He also could carry a weapon on the road, which would look rather strange for any other Buddhist missionary.
Under the guise of seeking to convince them to buy his products, he could draw them into conversations of what they did, what was the situation in the area and other topics and be totally without suspicion.
Wandering performers (Below) had excuses to travel, could talk to people without suspicion and were frequently invited to perform in places of interest.
Thiswas a member of the Fukke sect of Buddhism that wandered while playing aflute and concealing their face. It was used in at least one murder done by samurai and the most famous case is of Musashibo Benkei sneaking his lord past troops by having them all dress up and pretend to be yamabushi gathering funds for a temple.Japanese Buddhism has a close relationship with Shinto but Shugendo is probably the best example of the two existing together in one faith. This is the first Japanese printed map to depict the world, including Europe and America, from a Buddhist cosmographical perspective. Jambu-dvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral (see the excerpt on the left).
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements - at least from a cartographic perspective. Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, making this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe, is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America.
Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?.
It is likely that Rokashi Hotan was aware important European style maps circulating in China at the time. The confused cosmological view upon which his map is based, referencing at once religious, secular, and non-Buddhist teachings, matched the growing religio-secular conflict that would emerge in Japan during the coming centuries.
The Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), the En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yoch Ziu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. The joy of meeting someone you love, the sadness of losing a close friend, the richness of a vivid dream, the serenity of a walk through a garden on a spring day, the total absorption of a deep meditative state—these things and others like them constitute the reality of human experience.
Given that one of the primary characteristics of consciousness is its subjective and experiential nature, any systematic study of it must adopt a method that will give access to the dimensions of subjectivity and experience.
Buddhism has a long history of investigation into the nature of the mind and its various aspects—this is effectively what Buddhist meditation and its critical analysis constitute. Working models of the mind and its various aspects and functions are generated on this basis; they are then subjected to sustained critical and philosophical analysis and empirical testing through both meditation and mindful observation. I have been told that, given the problem inherent in developing objective criteria to adjudicate between competing first-person claims of different individuals, introspection as a method for the study of the mind in psychology has been abandoned in the West. No matter how highly trained a person may be, we have no evidence that his or her introspection can reveal the intricacies of the neural networks and the biochemical composition of the human brain, or the physical correlates of specific mental activities—tasks that can be most accurately performed by empirical observation through application of powerful instruments.
The key issue here is to bracket out the metaphysical questions about mind and matter, and to explore together how to understand scientifically the various modalities of the mind. Snow raised about science and the humanities 50 years by asking six great thinkers, Where are we now? People have different view on Buddhism, sometimes exactly opposite to what Buddhism promotes. How can a person asking alms have a choice of being vegetarian or a non – vegetarian? However, unless you define religion as a faith in a creator god, Buddhism fulfils all the requirements of being a religion.
But, what these people generally fail to look at the other noble truths which emphasize on the cause of suffering and also ways to end these sufferings.
New Version of Four Sights Revealed, courtesy Buddha of Zee TVKing Bimbisara, the First Royal Patron of Gautam Buddha!
You should study the things they would know to an extent that you are familiar, and without fear of playing the part. Due to the restrictions, even if they left their lord's service they would not be allowed to stay in Edo.
Before the Meiji government required the separation of religions into either Buddhism or Shinto it is believed that Shugendo, the religion of the yamabushi might have been the most popular form among the common people.
Shugenja travel to areas holy according to Shinto belief to perform training and develop religious energy.
Too handsome, loud or other characteristics that drew attention to them were to be avoided.
Printed by woodblock in 1710 (Hoei 7 = Year of the Tiger), this map was composed by the Buddhist monk Rokashi Hotan. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Also, at the upper left corner 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. The Mateo Ricci map (#441) is one such example and copies were known to have reached Japan in the 17th century. Ultimately this is one of the most important, beautiful, and influential printed maps ever to emerge in Japan. A less common example was published by the bookseller Bundaiken Uhei and corresponds to this example.
The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious World as expounded by Buddhists.
A comprehensive scientific study of consciousness must therefore embrace both objective and subjective methods: It cannot ignore the reality of first-person experience but must observe all the rules of scientific rigor. So the critical question is this: Can we envision a scientific methodology for the study of consciousness whereby a robust first-person method, which does full justice to the phenomenology of experience, can be combined with the objectivist perspective of the study of the brain? Unlike that of modern science, Buddhism’s approach has been primarily from first-person experience. Given the dominance of third-person scientific method as a paradigm for acquiring knowledge, this disquiet is entirely understandable. However, a disciplined use of introspection would be most suited to probe the psychological and phenomenological aspects of our cognitive and emotional states. Refinement of attention, in terms of stability and vividness, is a crucial preparation for the utilization of rigorous introspection, much as a telescope is crucial for the detailed examination of celestial phenomena. I believe that it is possible for Buddhism and modern science to engage in collaborative research in the understanding of consciousness while leaving aside the philosophical question of whether consciousness is ultimately physical.

According to Buddha, the route to happiness was by overcoming all the hindrances that comes along the path. When somebody goes through the worst phase of life or meets a heavy accident, people often say it must be his karma that is punishing him. Ayutthaya City – The Ayodhya of ThailandWhy Did Buddha Choose Sarnath, and not Bodh Gaya to Deliver his First Sermon?Analyzing Devadatta, the Cousin of Buddha!7 Types of Wives As Per Buddha, The Enlightened One! During the Edo period when the Shoninki was written travela€?by the people was highly regulated. To get around this, a nearby training center for yamabushi would allow samurai to train there for a while, get certified as yamabushi and then the restrictions would not apply to them. They then distribute this energy (for a a€?donationa€?) to folks on their travels to other holy areas. In order to get by when they were not in a more familiar guise, they tried to be plain vanilla to those around them. During the Edo period when the Shoninki was written travelby the people was highly regulated. Zuda Rokashi Hotan (1654-1728) was a prominent Buddhist scholar-priest active in Japan during the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
At its center is Lake Anavatapta, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event. It is curious that Rokashi Hotan chose to ignore it and other Eurocentric data in exchange for a religious world-view, while at the same time attempting to reconcile Buddhist and modern geography.
In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi World, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai etc. The contemplative method, as developed by Buddhism, is an empirical use of introspection, sustained by rigorous training in technique and robust testing of the reliability of experience. Just as in science, there is a series of protocols and procedures which contemplative introspection must employ. Perhaps he must have done something really wrong that today he met with such a big accident. It was rather difficult for most of thea€?population to get permission to travel to another area and stay there for any period of time.
Before the rise of modern society and its new forms of entertainment, the shows that the yamabushi put on to convince people of the religious power they had (and thus the wisdom of donating) was possibly as big as the circus was for many people in the early 20th century western countries. Their highest aim was to be so boring and part of the back ground that no one would notice them at all. It was rather difficult for most of thepopulation to get permission to travel to another area and stay there for any period of time. This lake, which is commonly associated with Lake Manasarovar in northern India, is believed in Buddhist mythology to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha. It should be noted that at the time of its production, Japan maintained an isolationist policy that began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. All meditatively valid subjective experiences must be verifiable both through repetition by the same practitioner and through other individuals being able to attain the same state by the same practice. Upon entering a laboratory, someone untrained in science would not know what to look at, would have no capacity to recognize when something is found; in the same way, an untrained mind will have no ability to apply the introspective focus on a chosen object and will fail to recognize when processes of the mind show themselves. Such collaborative study will contribute not only to greater human understanding of consciousness but also to a better understanding of the dynamics of the human mind and its relation to suffering. All images used on this site (barring the ones purchased by us) have been credited with a 'Image Source' and duly belong to their respective owners - they are used for illustrative and commenting purposes and we claim no ownership on them. Religious figures were rather exempt from most of the need to get permission and other prescriptions on travel. Like the clergy of Chaucera€™s time when he wrote a€?Canterbury Talesa€?, much of the clergy had degraded to such an extent that they were held in open contempt. They would walk on fire, run up and down stairs made of swords and other tricks to impress the folks.
Inspired by the 1653 publication of Si-yu-ki, a pilgrimage narrative of the Chinese monk Hsuang-Tsanga€™s (602-604) travels to India in search of sacred Sanskrit writings, Rokashi Hotana€™s map attempts to update Buddhist mythological cartography, as exemplified in the 1634 manuscript map Gotenjikuzu [Map of the Five Regions of India], to correspond with the Si-yu-ki, as well as with contemporary and ancient religious texts, Chinese annals, travel narratives, and even some European maps. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra, and the Sutlej (or Ganges, Oxus, Indus and Tarim). Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view - or with acknowledgement of Buddhist traditional teaching - the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. A strong crisp image suggests that this is one of the first examples that Bundaiken Uhei printed, as wooden plates tend to wear quickly and many other examples show signs that the woodblock was more heavily worn. It has been maintained that their artists could not have closed their eyes, as far as these parts are concerned, to the objective world maps made in Europe. If they are thus verified, such states may be taken to be universal, at any rate for human beings. Just like a trained scientist, a disciplined mind will have the knowledge of what to look for and the ability to recognize when discoveries are made. This is a precious gateway into the alleviation of suffering, which I believe to be our principal task on this earth.
The famous poet Matsuo Basho was known for taken the tonsure just before he went on one of his famous trips to make it easier to move around. Ihara Saikaku openly made fun of them in his book a€?Life of an Amorous Womana€? when he has the main character describe how she went out and bought meat for her priestly lover. There will be a digital version for Kindle and iBook coming out (hopefully) in May and you may wish to wait for that if you live overseas.
Ultimately, this map makes a lot more sense when one understands that Rokashi Hotan scaled his world map not by distance but rather by religious importance. But these maps treat India as the heart of their World, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. The humor is from the fact that technically both meat and sex were forbidden to them, but the rule was broken so often and so openly that it was common knowledge. The consequent product of Rokashi Hotana€™s work is this magnificent amalgam of disparate ideas and traditions.
India, the birthplace of the Buddha, is the central locale in the Jabmu-Dvipa conception and on this map.
In their maps the Buddhists connected the a€?Five Continentsa€? with the a€?Spiritual Worlda€? where the Spirit of human beings must go after death.
Other countries, including China, Japan itself, and even more so the distant continents of Africa, Europe and the Americas, Rokashi Hotan considered a€?but mote-like countries in the Jambu-Dvipaa€? and a€?as small as a millet-graina€?. 1680 - 1720) was a Japanese bookseller and publisher active in Kyoto during the early part of the 18th century and is best known for his publication of this important Buddhist world map.

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