The primary goal of the Incident Management process is to restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize the adverse business impact of a service shortfall, thereby facilitating optimal quality and availability of IT services provided.
Incident Management is a process within the Service Operation module of the ITIL Service Lifecycle. Most IT department specialist groups contribute to handling Incidents at one time or another. The determinants governing the Incident Management Process have Capacity implications - the retention and use of optimal resources for recovery of incidents without idle resources. As illustrated above, an incident involves the recognition of a fault in the infrastructure at the points of Error Detected, Error Reported and Service Restored. Abnormalities and unexpected results occurring during testing of new systems in test or pre-production environments. Problem diagnosis and resolution which are managed through a designed Problem Management Process.
While the Service Desk presents a First Point of Contact (FPOC) for clients, parts of the technology infrastructure are controlled by business units with responsibility for specific applications and outside Service Providers.
An Incident is "an operational event which is not part of the standard operation of a system".
A condition identified from multiple Incidents or from a single significant Incident indicative of a single error for which the cause is unknown. A condition identified by a successful diagnosis or the root cause of an Incident when it is confirmed that an object is at fault. Problem Management differs from Incident Management in that its main goal is the detection of the underlying causes of an Incident and their subsequent resolution and prevention. Release Management will introduce Errors into the infrastructure in the form of "Defects" - unresolved issues which are deemed of low immediate impact and which may be accompanied by Workarounds. ITIL suggests that Incidents be referenced against Configuration Items (CI's) maintained in a Configuration Management Database (CMDB). Management with the ability to more quickly size up the scope of an Incident (how localized or widespread are the possible affects) and to prescribe solutions (workarounds, Known Errors, etc).
Availability Management has overall responsibility for the continuing availability of the production environment.
Because of its' impact on business operations, Availability Management may lead (or will certainly be involved in) Situation Management. Capacity Management has a role to play similar to that of Availability Management for Situation Management when capacity issues are involved. The primary goal of the Incident Management system and of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) working on the incident is the restoration of service to the same state that existed prior to the incident. Customers should report incidents only to The Service Desk or directly to an Online Services application. Performance metrics should be collected to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of Incident Management support processes and improvement projects will be implemented to ensure continuous improvement of the process. Service restoration times and communications protocols should be communicated to the Customer.
The Service Desk should have end-to-end ownership of the incident - including communication with the customer.
All pertinent Incident information should be recorded into the Incident Ticket in a timely manner. No Ticket should be determined RESTORED until the customer validates that their request has been completed or service is restored to their satisfaction. First Point of Contact is a role assumed by an Incident Analyst upon first receipt of an Incident Ticket. Most of the discussion on Incident Management implies an organization of a certain threshold. As the number of incidents in the organization increases there is a commensurate need to scale the Incident department.
At some point the number of Incidents being experienced leads to a requirement for more robust tools. The larger the scale the greater the benefits that can be realized from specialization of function.
Identification of Availability as a separate functional requirement with a mandate for the analytical review of the incident management lifecycle in order to reduce the length of outages. The priority of an Incident is determined by analysis and review of two dimensions - the importance of the component (known as a Configuration Item (CI)) out of service as a result of the Incident and the breadth or scope of the incident as determined by the number and organizational importance of the resources impacted.
It is often useful to distinguish incidents according to the importance of the business operations affected.
Another important element in assigning a Severity to an Incident is an estimation of how quickly the service can be restored and the existence of contingency actions designed to reduce the impact of outages.
2A situation which results in a loss of major functionality to a customer and severely impacts service.
3A situation of minimal customer impact where a workaround is currently known and available. Many Incidents are regularly experienced and the appropriate resolution actions are well known. This attempt will involve routing the Trouble Ticket to an appropriate Subject Matter Group for subsequent treatment should any restoration efforts at first point of contact be ineffectual. Escalation is a procedure whereby an individual or group is notified that a Incident exists and is a request for aid. Transferring an Incident from first-line to second-line support groups or further is called Functional Escalation and takes place because of lack of knowledge or expertise or when agreed time intervals elapse (which triggers a re-evaluation of the resources assigned to the Incident). Hierarchical Escalation can take place at any moment during the resolution process when it is likely that resolution of an Incident will not be in time or satisfactory.
As resources are increasingly allocated to resolve the Incident, the resolution "TEAM" becomes bigger, more formalized with increasing role differentiation.
Incidents require communications in order to keep those most affected by a failure informed of the progress being made towards resolution.
Incidents may also impact Service Level Agreements and may require immediate attention with specific protocols for keeping staff informed.
It is best practice for an organization to establish default communications procedures for each of its' Severity determinations. Initial Status Report: This will be performed as soon as a problem has been reported, and a problem ticket is opened. Identification: This phase will state the cause and source of the problem (if not already related in the Initial Status Report), and what course of corrective action is being followed.
Updates: Periodic updates will be given per the above Severity schedule and until problem has been resolved. Throughout the Incident process the status of the Incident indicates it's progress through the system. NEWAn incident has been received, logged and is active within the incident tracking database. Care should be taken at this point to ensure that the solution used is recorded on the Incident database and noted in any Knowledge Bases used by the organization. CLOSEDThe Ticket is now considered inactive and there is no further consideration of it beyond analytical purposes by Availability, Capacity or Problem Management. ASSIGNEDAn incident has been assigned to an specialized individual or group for further investigation and resolution.
PENDINGThe Ticket is a HOLDING position pending the availability of equipment or resources to work on it. INVESTIGATIONNotation with time of efforts to collect information about the incident including url of any web sites checked or literature referenced. DIAGNOSISNotation with time suggesting resolution of the incident (note: this is about restoration of service and may not be equated with solving the root cause of the incident). RESTORATION STARTEDA notation as to when an attempt at service restoration was started and what the results were. RESTORATION COMPLETEDThe restoration of service to the condition preceeding an incident is complete - either by the First Point of Contact or following an escalation to another group for treatment.
Completing a Trouble Ticket to the rigour suggested by the complete set of the above codes obviously involves significant effort and can add to the restoration time frame.
Availability Management through decomposition of the Incident lifecycle to identify process steps where bottlenecks are occurring.
Any proactive analysis of incident information assumes the overall reliability of the data itself.
If the organization wishes to undertake any proactive measures to remove faults from its' infrastructure it must consider the quality of the primary data source early and establish methods to ensure its' integrity. Ensures that clear and effective procedures and working practices are in place for Incident Management.
All Incidents experienced by the customer are reported first to the Service Desk which records the call into the Service Desk system. The Restoration Owner brings diagnostic, investigative and technical expertise to solving incidents. Monitor areas where technical or business risk may need to be escalated for specialist or management review. Log, approve and manage all workarounds, preventive actions, and Requests for Changes (CI Owner). A Key Goal Indicator, representing the process goal, is a measure of "what" has to be accomplished. By comparison, a Key Performance Indicator is a measure of "how well" the process is performing.
Effective management of distributed computing environments requires the development of a consistent process for defining, tracking and measuring service levels. START: from the best estimate of the time of service failure or from the time the incident was reported.
STOP: from the time the service was restored by the incident analyst or after the User verifies that the service is restored to their satisfaction. View Click to display excerpt.')", onclick="openWin5('Excerpt by Malcom Frye on Metric UsageMost IT departments around the world are actually actively encouraging poor quality. An automated alert is a warning from an application or system of a pending or real failure to the device, either in total or a constituent part of an assembly.
Alerts may be configured to automatically create a Trouble Ticket or the Support Agent may be responsible for the Ticket's creation.
Known Errors are tracked and monitored by Problem Management processes through Error Control procedures. A knowledge base is the organization's repository for known incident symptoms and recovery methods and procedures.
The more complete and accessible the Knowledge Base the more likely that incident can be resolved quickly, at first point of contact by the Service Desk.
Many vendors offer FAQs specific to their product offerings, but, the most extensive and easy to use Knowledge Base probably belongs to Microsoft.
It is inefficient for the Service Desk to continue to create Incident records for multiple occurrences of essentially the same incident. There is frequently a period of time when incidents are being reported to the Service Desk as independent events. Specific log files and documentation for individual technical support groups used to analyze and solve problems. The description of how Configuration Items involved in an Incident relate to other components of the infrastructure.
SLA, OLA and UCs are agreed-upon obligations which are translated into service specifications by the parties responsible to fulfill defined obligations. Escalation Protocols are defined rules for the review and possible redefinition of workplans associated with restoring service following an outage or service deterioration.
Operational guidelines, including process, procedures, and roles and responsibilities for the Incident Management process. Rules governing the usage of forms of communication (e-mail, meetings, reports) that occur internally within the IT support groups as well as with clients. A database or some automated or manual system for recording Incidents for control and follow-up. The primary output of the incident process is the restoration of the service and a reduction in the disruption of normal work processes caused by outages. The process and manner in which the incident is attended to will be evaluated by the Customer (defined for this purpose as the person reporting the incident).
Every Incident is recorded in an Incident Management system - either by the creation of a unique Trouble Ticket or the amendment of an existing Ticket to record an additional outage. Best practices define a 'grace' period between the restoration of the service and the CLOSING of the Trouble Ticket.
During the restoration effort user and business groups should be kept informed of key activities. Define the fault in service continuity in a way which expedites incident containment and time to restore. All Incidents should be recorded, preferably through the automatic generation of an Incident Ticket to be completed as the incident is addressed and service is restored.
An alert to the Service Manager is required in the case of serious degradation of service levels, in case it is necessary to take special action. Incident should be handled using standard approaches and procedures and within timeframes negotiated with Customers of the Incident Management service. A web portal contains information on commonly occurring problems and incidents which is known and readily accessible to clients. If the customer locates and implements the solution satisfactorily the Incident is considered completed.
If a solution is not found in the Knowledge Base the customer must contact the Service Desk.
Offer a variety of methods to report incident to increase choice, encourage the recording of incident and achieve customer satisfaction with the interaction. Service Desk response rates are typically negotiated with customers and documented in SLA's. Log and classify the reported incident in a way which expedites its' treatment and resolution. This assessment involves "initializing" the Incident Ticket with sufficient information to either resolve it quickly or route it properly to the subject matter group best able to restore service expeditiously.
For the purpose of this chapter, the focus is how information security management works within the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). The ITIL concept emerged in the 1980s, when the British government determined that the level of IT service quality provided to them was not sufficient.
The earliest version of ITIL was actually originally called GITIM, Government Information Technology Infrastructure Management.
Large companies and government agencies in Europe adopted the framework very quickly in the early 1990s. Security management details the process of planning and managing a defined level of security for information and IT services, including all aspects associated with reaction to security Incidents.
Security management is the process of managing a defined level of security on information and IT services.
Service support describes the processes associated with the day-to day support and maintenance activities associated with the provision of IT services: Service Desk, Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Configuration Management, and Release Management. Service Desk: This function is the single point of contact between the end users and IT Service Management.
Incident Management: Best practices for resolving incidents (any event that causes an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of an IT service) and quickly restoring IT services.
Problem Management: Best practices for identifying the underlying causes of IT incidents in order to prevent future recurrences.


Change Management: Best practices for standardizing and authorizing the controlled implementation of IT changes. Service DeskThe objective of the service desk is to be a single point of contact for customers who need assistance with incidents, problems, questions, and to provide an interface for other activities related to IT and ITIL services. The objective of Incident management is minimize the disruption to the business by restoring service operations to agreed levels as quickly as possible and to ensure the availability of IT services is maximized, and could also protect the integrity and confidentiality of information by identifying the root cause of a problem.
With a formal incident management practice, IT quality will improve through ensuring ticket quality, standardizing ticket ownership, and providing a clear understanding of ticket types while decreasing the number of un-reported or misreported incidents. The object of problem management is to resolve the root cause of incidents to minimize the adverse impact of incidents and problems on the business and secondly to prevent recurrence of incidents related to these errors.
A problem is a condition often identified as a result of multiple Incidents that exhibit common symptoms.
A known error is a condition identified by successful diagnosis of the root cause of a problem, and the subsequent development of a work-around. Incidents and service requests are formally managed through a staged process to conclusion. Change management ensures that all areas follow a standardized process when implementing change into a production environment.
Configuration management is the implemtation of a configuration management database (CMDB) that contains details of the organization's elements that are used in the provision and management of its IT services. Identification: Selecting and identifying the configuration structures and items within the scope of your IT infrastructure.
Configuration control: Ensuring that only authorized and identifiable configuration items are accepted and recorded in the CMDB throughout its lifecycle.
Status accounting: Keeping track of the status of components throughout the entire lifecycle of configuration items.
Verification and audit: Auditing after the implementation of configuration management to verify that the correct information is recorded in the CMDB, followed by scheduled audits to ensure the CMDB is kept up-to-date. Without the definition of all configuration items that are used to provide an organizations's IT services, it can be very difficult to identify which items are used for which services. Release Management is used for platform-independent and automated distribution of software and hardware, including license controls across the entire IT infrastructure.
The focus of release management is the protection of the live environment and its services through the use of formal procedures and checks. A release consists of the new or changed software or hardware required to implement approved change. Major software releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing large areas of new functionality, some of which may make intervening fixes to problems redundant. Minor software releases and hardware upgrades, normally containing small enhancements and fixes, some of which may have already been issued as emergency fixes. Packaged Release is a combination of many changes: for example, an operating system image containing the applications as well.
Services delivery is the discipline that ensures IT infrastructure is provided at the right time in the right volume at the right price, and ensuring that IT is used in the most efficient manner.
Financial Management: The object of financial management for IT services is to provide cost effective stewardship of the IT assets and the financial resources used in providing IT services. The object of service level management (SLM) is to maintain and gradually improve business aligned IT service quality, through a constant cycle of agreeing, monitoring, reporting and reviewing IT service achievements and through instigating actions to eradicate unacceptable levels of service.
SLM is responsible for ensuring that the service targets are documented and agreed in SLAs and monitors and reviews the actual service levels achieved against their SLA targets. SLM is responsible for negotiating and agreeing to service requirements and expected service characteristics with the Customer, measuring and reporting of Service Levels actually being achieved against target, resources required, cost of service provision. Implementing the service level management process enables both the customer and the IT services provider to have a clear understanding of the expected level of delivered services and their associated costs for the organization, by documenting these goals into formal agreements. Service level management can be used as a basis for charging for services, and can demonstrate to customers the value they are receiving from the Service Desk. It also assists the service desk with managing external supplier relationships, and introduces the possibility of negotiating improved services or reduced costs. Capacity management is responsible for ensuring that IT processing and storage capacity provisioning match the evolving demands of the business in a cost effective and timely manner.
The second main area of responsibility is SCM, which focuses on managing the performance of the IT services provided to the Customers, and is responsible for monitoring and measuring services, as detailed in SLAs and collecting recording, analyzing and reporting on data.
The third and final main area of responsibility is RCM, which focuses on management of the components of the IT infrastructure and ensuring that all finite resources within the IT infrastructure are monitored and measured, and collected data is recorded, analyzed and reported. From these processes come the results of capacity management, these being the capacity plan itself, forecasts, tuning data and Service Level Management guidelines. Availability management is concerned with design, implementation, measurement and management of IT services to ensure the stated business requirements for availability are consistently met. Availability Management is the ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level over a period of time. Reliability is the ability of an IT component to perform at an agreed level at described conditions. Maintainability is the ability of an IT Component to remain in, or be restored to an operational state.
Resilience is a measure of freedom from operational failure and a method of keeping services reliable. Security refers to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data associated with a service. Security is an essential part of availability management, this being the primary focus of ensuring IT infrastructure continues to be available for the provision of IT services. Some of the elements mentioned earlier are the products of performing risk analysis to identify how reliable elements are and how many problems have been caused as a result of system failure. The risk analysis also recommends controls to improve availability of IT infrastructure such as development standards, testing, physical security and the right skills in the right place at the right time.
The practice of financial management enables the service manager to identify the amount being spent on security counter measures in the provision of the IT services.
Management is to support the overall business continuity management process by ensuring that the required IT technical and services facilities can be recovered within required and agreed business time-scales. IT service continuity management is concerned with managing an organization's ability to continue to provide a pre-determined and agreed level of IT services to support the minimum business requirements, following an interruption to the business.
IT service continuity is responsible for ensuring that the available IT service continuity options are understood and the most appropriate solution is chosen in support of the business requirements.
Security management provides a framework to capture the occurrence of security-related incidents and limit the impact of security breaches.
The security management framework defines the sub-processes for the development of security plans, the implementation of the security plans, the evaluation and how the results of the evaluations are translated into action plans. The plan sub-process contains activities that in cooperation with the service level management lead to the information security section in the SLA. In the plan sub-process, the goals formulated in the SLA are specified in the form of operational level agreements (OLA). Besides the input of the SLA, the plan sub-process also works with the policy statements of the service provider itself. The operational level agreements for information security are setup and implemented based on the ITIL process. The implementation sub-process makes sure that all measures, as specified in the plans, are properly implemented.
The maintenance is based on the results of the evaluation sub-process and insight in the changing risks.
The maintenance sub-process starts with the maintenance of the service level agreements and the maintenance of the operational level agreements. From Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 2, edited by Harold F.
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Read escalations, problem diagnosis and problem rectification on high end devices and problems. We can provide test reports and recommendations by remotely testing the Baseline functionality and POC for Cisco UC implementation project. Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a framework of best practices to manage IT operations and services.
Helpdesk solution comprising of different functions like generating tickets from various sources, managing tickets based on defined service level agreement (SLA) escalation matrix.
This tool defines 5 ITIL processes that guarantee the uninterrupted and best quality services. This implies a continuing need to identify the number and type of expertise needed to restore service when faults and outages occur.
Service issues which arise during the fulfillment of the Service Request may result in its' escalation to an Incident which would be covered by this process.
Technically these represents Changes (and hence are covered by Change Management procedures), but, the frequency of their occurrence and the limited risk posed by their introduction means they can be delegated to the Service Desk for implementation as part of the Service Request process.
Some of these provide support for incident reporting by maintaining their own Service Desks. The sequence of migration of an Incident through Incident and, subsequently, to Problem and Change Management is depicted below.
It will impact the system but may be minimal and possibly even transparent to the client community. In many situations this goal can be in direct conflict with the goals of Incident Management where the aim is to restore the service to the Customer as quickly as possible, often through a temporary Work-around, rather than the implementation of a more permanent resolution -- which may prevent future Incidents from occurring. This is not always the case, however, and a procedure for matching Incidents against Problems and Known Errors is useful.
The CMDB retains information on the interrelationship amongst Configuration Items and links to associated data on that CI - including Incidents which have been assigned against it. This includes oversight of the incident process as it affects MTTR - and hence overall availability. The early restoration of Mission and Business Critical applications will have major affects on the costs associated with service failures.
They will usually participate under the leadership of the Situation Manager (who will frequently be a members of the Availability Management Team).
Exceptions exist for a Known Error or when a Request for Change is created, or, under extraordinary circumstances, when the SME deems it closed. The role performed is initial investigation and diagnosis of the incident using pre-established query scripts and knowledge sources to restore service as quickly as possible. The primary objective should be to restore service within timeframes as defined and described in Service Level Agreements. Most organizations will already have some incident management capability though it may be little more than informal recording of reported Trouble Tickets. This threshold provides the organization with tangible benefits resulting from the recording of Incident information based upon the premise that the lessons learned from restoring service in one instance can be used to expedite subsequent resolutions. Like all good workload planning, this necessitates being able to distinguish Incident which can be disposed of quickly from those which will require more attention or different expertise. This specialization means that scarce (and expensive) resources will be utilized in the capacities most suitable for them. Mission Critical applications are client-facing business systems which, when not available, will lead to significant hardship for the enterprise.
If the risks of system failure are manageable the impact can be considered low and a lower priority may be assigned. However, there may be additional determinants of its' importance based on whether the Incident occurs during or outside of business hours.
The existence of backup systems and Critical Outage Plans for a key server, network or application will facilitate the quick restoration of service and hence reduce the impact which might be expected from the same Incident without these contingencies.
The service is not immediately recoverable and a large number of users are unable to perform a significant portion or their duties. This is not always the case, however, and a procedure for matching Incident classification data against that for Problems and Known Errors is useful. Automatic functional escalation based on established time intervals should be negotiated and agreed to by business operations and should be recorded in Service Level Agreements (SLA) for easy reference. Hierarchical resolution action is invoked when it becomes apparent that available resources may be insufficient to resolve the Incident. The Incident Coordinator is assigned administrative and communication roles to free the Incident Analyst to focus on finding a solution.
It is important to acknowledge and demonstrate the responsiveness of the IT service provider to the consumers of the service.
With the increasing dependency of many job function on computing resources it is increasingly difficult to plan around the use of computing resources for extended periods. Notification may not initially identify the cause or source of difficulty, but will report what network components are affected, the status of their functionality, and the scope of the outage in relation to Indiana University as a whole.
The table below defines examples of codes which may be used to distinguish an incident as it migrates through the Incident Management process. Every Trouble Ticket should have the following three log entries to indicate STATUS changes. This status is usually automatically created when a Trouble Ticket is created and is accompanied by basic information identifying the caller and an initial description of the incident.
Describing the Trouble Ticket according to elements in the Incident Lifecycle will provide Availability and Problem Management with valuable information to improve overall availability and to resolve recurring Problems. The Incident Analyst should make a best guess from the person calling in or from automated alerts.
The incident is being actively considered by a person or team charged with restoring service. To reduce the impact of recording on the restoration effort many of the log entries can be entered after the restoration in completed. Unfortunately, all to often, once an Incident is CLOSED an analyst is encouraged to proceed to a subsequent Ticket rather than devoting sufficient attention to ensuring the accurate recording of the Incident. At a minimum this requires the accurate reporting of the solution - whether a resolution or a workaround. For Severity 1 Incidents the RO may assume the role of a Situation Manager to institute more rigorous and formalized procedures for service recovery. As owners of these Configuration Items they have responsibility for it's stability (including restoration from failure) and sponsoring any changes with regard to it. It is a measurable indicator of the process achieving its goals, often defined as a target to achieve. They will often be a measure of a Critical Success Factor and, when monitored and acted upon, will identify opportunities for the improvement of the process. Well-defined management processes, which define the IS management infrastructure and specify the measurements, are as important as technologies and functional processes to the success of consolidated service desk (CSD) implementation. Best practices would argue for the time the incident occurred but this time is often difficult to determine. The difference can be significant in instance where it is difficult to arrange verification by the User.


In essence, a knowledge base places the expertise of Subject matter Experts at the disposal of generalists. A good Incident Management system should have the provision to increase a counter to provide an estimate of the extent of the incident's impact. The ability to correlate these occurrence through pattern matching practices, routines and procedures will aid in the speedy assessment of the incident's total impact and the breadth of the described symptoms and actions undertaken. Collectively, this data system should permit an overall assessment of the extent of incidents and hence the stability of the overall infrastructure.
It is in this period that the incident is re-assessed to ensure that any symptoms do not re-occur. Symptoms, basic diagnostic data, and information about the related Configuration Item should be included in Incident records during detection and recording.
This facility permits a wide variety of frequently occurring problems to be fixed using solutions which can be invoked by the client directly, thereby, reducing the number of calls to the Service Desk.
It is important to capture statistics on the use of the self help facility in order to supplement Incident statistics to accurately depict service volumes.
The Ticket is either filled in by the user accessing a web-based self-help form from the Incident Management System or is filled in by a Service Desk agent.
The concepts within ITIL support information technology services delivery organizations with the planning of consistent, documented, and repeatable or customized processes that improve service delivery to the business. The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA), now called the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), was tasked with developing a framework for efficient and financially responsible use of IT resources within the British government and the private sector.
Obviously this was very different to the current ITIL, but conceptually very similar, focusing around service support and delivery. ITIL was spreading far and, and was used in both government and non-government organizations. It also includes the assessment and management of risks and vulnerabilities, and the implementation of cost justifiable countermeasures.
These practices ensure that changes are implemented with minimum adverse impact on IT services, and that they are traceable. By identifying, controlling, maintaining and verifying the items that make up an organization's IT infrastructure, these practices ensure that there is a logical model of the infrastructure.
These practices ensure that only tested and correct versions of authorized software and hardware is provided to IT customers. A `problem' is an unknown underlying cause of one or more incidents, and a `known error' is a problem that is successfully diagnosed and for which a work-around has been identified. Problems can also be identified from a single significant incident, indicative of a single error, for which the cause is unknown, but for which the impact is significant. This process is referred to as the "incident management lifecycle." The objective of the incident management lifecycle is to restore the service as quickly as possible to meet service level agreements (SLAs). The focus of problem management is to resolve the root cause of errors and to find permanent solutions. Change is defined as any adjustment, enhancement, or maintenance to a production business application, system software, system hardware, communications network, or operational facility.
This could result in critical configuration items being stolen, moved or misplaced, affecting the availability pf tje services dependent on them. Proper Software and Hardware Control ensure the availability of licensed, tested, and version certified software and hardware, which will function correctly and respectively with the available hardware. This involves analysis and decisions to balance capacity at a production or service point with demand from customers, it also covers the processes required for the planning and delivery of quality IT services and looks at the longer term processes associated with improving the quality of IT services delivered.
The process includes monitoring the performance and the throughput of the IT services and supporting IT components, tuning activities to make efficient use of resources, understanding the current demands for IT resources and deriving forecasts for future requirements, influencing the demand for resource in conjunction with other Service Management processes, and producing a capacity plan predicting the IT resources needed to achieve agreed service levels.
First of these is BCM, which is responsible for ensuring that the future business requirements for IT services are considered, planned and implemented in a timely fashion. This requires knowledge of service levels and SLAs, systems, networks, service throughput and performance, monitoring, measurement, analysis, tuning and demand management.
This requires knowledge of the current technology and its utilization, future or alternative technologies, and the resilience of systems and services. Availability management requires an understanding of the reasons why IT service failures occur and the time taken to resume this service. It provides the essential management information to ensure that services are run efficiently, economically and cost effectively. The amount being spent on these counter measures needs to be balanced with the risks and the potential losses that the service could incur as identified during a business impact assessment (BIA) and risk assessment.
This includes ensuring business survival by reducing the impact of a disaster or major failure, reducing the vulnerability and risk to the business by effective risk analysis and risk management, preventing the loss of customer and user confidence, and producing IT recovery plans that are integrated with and fully support the organization's overall business continuity plan. It is also responsible for identifying roles and responsibilities and making sure these are endorsed and communicated from a senior level to ensure respect and commitment for the process. The activities within the security management process must be revised continuously, in order to stay up-to-date and effective.
The requirements are translated into security services, security quality that needs to be provided in the security section of the service level agreements. The plan sub-process contains activities that are related to the underpinning contracts which are specific for information security. These OLAs can be defined as security plans for a specific internal organization entity of the service provider.
The evaluation is necessary to measure the success of the implementation and the security plans. Because of changes in the IT infrastructure and changes in the organization itself, security risks are bound to change over time.
After these activities take place in no particular order and there is a request for a change, the request for change activity will take place and after the request for change activity is concluded the reporting activity starts. Level 2 support engineers are committed to deliver superior levels of customer services to Enterprise level, specifically through the accurate & timely diagnosis. This tool also has knowledge management option that has entire technical knowledge base specific to the incidents (tickets) and it is available to the general users as well. It also has an option to manage non-IT based assets as well which needs to be entered into the system manually.
Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers. Moreoever, it should remain responsible for monitoring the resolution effort for all registered Incidents. Given this goal, service may be most quickly restored by implementing workarounds rather than permanent solutions which address the root cause of the service failure or degradation. Note however, that the procedures for providing new service are documented and subject to Change Management control. Consideration should be given to retaining these record in the same CMDB as the Problem, Known Error and Change records, or at least linked without the need for re-keying, to improve the interfaces and ease interrogation and reporting.
The speed of service restoral is of paramount consideration in managing incidents, whereas, an investigation of the underlying Problem can require addtional time which will delay the restoration of service (causing downtime but preventing recurrence). Successful matching provides proven resolution methods thus avoiding the need for further investigation effort. Known errors are analyzed and Request for Changes are created to correct the defective object causing the incidents.
It is the responsibility of Availability Management to review and analyze the Incident lifecycle for inefficiencies which prolong the restoration effort.
The Incident Ticket will contain a log entry indicating this exception to the validation requirement.
The Incident Analyst should review the Severity Assignment and take appropriate steps to escalate incident resolution in order to meet restoration commitments established in SLAs.
Beyond the normal incident analyst's ability to accumulate experience this implies some organizational capability to record incidents so that incident solutions can be shared amongst all Incident staff. Of lesser importance are Business Critical applications, which can sustain some period of outage without immediate significant business impact. Obviously, an SLA for service restoration may be different if the organization has 12 hours to restore the service than if the Incident occurs during the peak of operations. Successful matching provides proven remediation methods, avoiding the need for further investigation effort.
When there becomes a need for more expertise as the Incident escalates to a Severity 1, there is an increasing need for coordinating multiple activities (ie., project management). If delays are to be expected it is important to provide an estimate of the resolution time so that staff can plan their time accordingly. With a robust Availability Management process the organization may extend quality assurance to encompass the accurate logging of Incident events (perhaps using the extended STATUS codes cited above). Depending on the nature of the Incident, the FPOC either assigns the request immediately to the Subject Matter Expert (SME) or attempts to provide a solution over the phone. Given the scope of the exercise there is a need for specialization of activities and more intense coordination efforts.
They implement a Request for Change to these items, undertake investigation and restoration of the component and may maintain Knowledge Databases. These improvements should positively influence the outcome and, as such, Key Performance Indicators have a cause-effect relationship with the Key Goal Indicators of the process. Unfortunately, many IS organizations are often unable to define consistent, value-add metrics, as it forces them to confront weaknesses and identify gaps in service coverage. Most organizations take the tact of using the time the incident was detected since it is more verifiable. The idea is that we have to solve — usually a big number, let’s say 70 percent — of all incidents on the first call.
Escalation will usually involve the infusion of additional resources or resources or greater expertise in the subject matter area(s) deemed most appropriate to the restoration effort. In addition, this period should permit the recording of Incident detail not entered during the 'heat' of the restoration effort. A configuration item (CI) is an element in the production environment, such as hardware, software, network, or network software.
The ITIL framework consists of the following IT processes: Service Support (Service Desk, Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Configuration Management, and Release Management) and Services Delivery (Service Level Management, Capacity Management, Availability Management, Financial Management and IT Service Continuity Management). As it grew in popularity, both in the UK and across the world, IT itself changed and evolved, and so did ITIL.
The importance of information security has increased dramatically because of the move of open internal networks to customers and business partners; the move towards electronic commerce, the increasing use of public networks like Internet and Intranets. Although every effort will be made to resolve the problem as quickly as possible this process is focused on the resolution of the problem rather than the speed of the resolution. Quality control during the development and implementation of new hardware and software is also the responsibility of Release Management. Incident management and problem management provide a key input to ensure the appropriate corrective actionss are being implemented.
An effective financial management system will assist in the management and reduction of overall long term costs, and identify the actual cost of services. Management of these costs will ultimately reflect on the cost of providing the IT services, and potentially what is charged in the recovery of those costs. Finally, IT service continuity is responsible for guaranteeing that the IT recovery plans and the business continuity plans are aligned, and are regularly reviewed, revised and tested. The control sub-process defines the processes, the allocation of responsibility the policy statements and the management framework.
For example, if the security management wishes to change the IT infrastructure in order to achieve maximum security, these changes will only be done through the change management process.
The definition or change of measures will take place in the plan sub-process in cooperation with the change management process.
The maintenance of the security concerns both the maintenance of the security section of the service level agreements and the more detailed security plans. The proposals serve as inputs for the plan sub-process and will go through the whole cycle or the proposals can be taken in the maintenance of the service level agreements. If there is no request for a change then the reporting activity will start directly after the first two activities. ITIL’s IT Service Support process helps organizations to efficiently manage software, hardware, and human resource services to ensure continued and uninterrupted business.
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New service provision is expected to be provided in accordance with the documented procedures. Availability Management will, in cooperation with Service Level Management, raise Service Improvement initiatives to streamline the incident process where bottlenecks are identified.
These are frequently internal administrative applications which support internal functions - ie. Localized outages may affect few staff by number but they directly affect the ability of the organization to direct or manage its' activities. This should take place long enough before the (SLA) agreed resolution time is exceeded so that corrective actions by authorized line management can be carried out - for example hiring third-party specialists.
Both require the invocation of contingency actions which may require some lead time in order to restore the service to its' original functionality.
While end users and senior management often expect "ideal" service levels, the reality is that actual service delivery vehicles, such as hardware, software and personnel, are not perfect, creating an expectation gap.
Now if we look at the manager of the service desk, that person wants things to get worse and worse.
The explicit review of an Incident Ticket to ensure that solutions and log entries contribute to the overall enhancement of the data system would extend its' usefulness as a valuable Availability and Problem Management tool.
The wide spread use of information and information processing as well as the increasing dependency of process results on information requires structural and organized protection of information.
This guarantees that all software can be conceptually optimized to meet the demands of the business processes.
This provisioning provides accurate and vital financial information to assist in decision making, identify the value of IT services, enable the calculation of TCO and ROI.
This means that both the client and the plan sub-process have inputs in the SLA and the SLA is an input for both the client and the process. The results of the evaluation sub-process are used to maintain the agreed measures and the implementation itself. It will also help to manage software inventory including compliance for software licensing. Such key resources are considered VIP and are given added weight in assigning Severity to an Incident. The most successful IS groups set appropriate expectations by developing SLAs in conjunction with end users and senior management. The request for change is then defined and it is then sent to the change management process. The security plans (Plan) are then implemented (Do) and the implementation is then evaluated (Check). After the evaluation the both the plans and the implementation of the plan are maintained (Act). And that’s a big quantum change, because we use a lot of resources in IT on just solving the same thing every day.
If we can release that workforce back into IT, we can do all sorts of powerful things.','400','400')">Putting the Frameworks Together to Improve BusinessClick to access article.



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