Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.
Descartes refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, and refused to trust his own senses. Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes, Indre-et-Loire), France, on 31 March 1596. Given his ambition to become a professional military officer, in 1618, Descartes joined the Dutch States Army in Breda under the command of Maurice of Nassau, and undertook a formal study of military engineering, as established by Simon Stevin. Despite frequent moves[29] he wrote all his major work during his 20+ years in the Netherlands, where he managed to revolutionize mathematics and philosophy.[30] In 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years.
The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt. Descartes continued to publish works concerning both mathematics and philosophy for the rest of his life.
Descartes began (through Alfonso Polloti, an Italian general in Dutch service) a long correspondence with Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, devoted mainly to moral and psychological subjects.
Queen Christina of Sweden invited Descartes to her court in 1649 to organize a new scientific academy and tutor her in his ideas about love. He was a guest at the house of Pierre Chanut, living on VA¤sterlA?nggatan, less than 500 meters from Tre Kronor in Stockholm. Descartes apparently started giving lessons to Queen Christina after her birthday, three times a week, at 5 a.m, in her cold and draughty castle.
As a Catholic in a Protestant nation, he was interred in a graveyard used mainly for orphans in Adolf Fredriks kyrka in Stockholm. Thus, all Philosophy is like a tree, of which Metaphysics is the root, Physics the trunk, and all the other sciences the branches that grow out of this trunk, which are reduced to three principals, namely, Medicine, Mechanics, and Ethics. In his Discourse on the Method, he attempts to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one can know as true without any doubt. To further demonstrate the limitations of these senses, Descartes proceeds with what is known as the Wax Argument. And so something that I thought I was seeing with my eyes is in fact grasped solely by the faculty of judgment which is in my mind. In this manner, Descartes proceeds to construct a system of knowledge, discarding perception as unreliable and instead admitting only deduction as a method.
Descartes in his Passions of the Soul and The Description of the Human Body suggested that the body works like a machine, that it has material properties. In present-day discussions on the practice of animal vivisection, it is normal to consider Descartes as an advocate of this practice, as a result of his dualistic philosophy. Humans should seek the sovereign good that Descartes, following Zeno, identifies with virtue, as this produces a solid blessedness or pleasure.
The moral writings of Descartes came at the last part of his life, but earlier, in his Discourse on the Method he adopted three maxims to be able to act while he put all his ideas into doubt. In his Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes sets forth two proofs for God's existence.
This anthropocentric perspective, establishing human reason as autonomous, provided the basis for the Enlightenment's emancipation from God and the Church. One of Descartes' most enduring legacies was his development of Cartesian or analytic geometry, which uses algebra to describe geometry.
Descartes' work provided the basis for the calculus developed by Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, who applied infinitesimal calculus to the tangent line problem, thus permitting the evolution of that branch of modern mathematics.[71] His rule of signs is also a commonly used method to determine the number of positive and negative roots of a polynomial.
Descartes discovered an early form of the law of conservation of mechanical momentum (a measure of the motion of an object), and envisioned it as pertaining to motion in a straight line, as opposed to perfect circular motion, as Galileo had envisioned it. Current opinion is that Descartes had the most influence of anyone on the young Newton, and this is arguably one of Descartes' most important contributions.
Pour Whitehead et Bachelard, il n'y a pas de paradoxe A  affirmer que la connaissance scientifique est A  la fois objective et construite.
Fascination with the argument stems from the effort to prove God's existence from simple but powerful premises.
Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings,[10][11] which are studied closely to this day. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate systema€”allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations)a€”was named after him. Leibniz, Spinoza[13] and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.
When he was one year old, his mother Jeanne Brochard died after trying to give birth to another child who also died.


Resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, I spent the rest of my youth traveling, visiting courts and armies, mixing with people of diverse temperaments and ranks, gathering various experiences, testing myself in the situations which fortune offered me, and at all times reflecting upon whatever came my way so as to derive some profit from it. Descartes therefore received much encouragement in Breda to advance his knowledge of mathematics. Martin's Day), while stationed in Neuburg an der Donau, Descartes shut himself in a room with an "oven" (probably a Kachelofen or masonry heater) to escape the cold.
He visited Basilica della Santa Casa in Loreto, then visited various countries before returning to France, and during the next few years spent time in Paris. In 1641 he published a metaphysics work, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia (Meditations on First Philosophy), written in Latin and thus addressed to the learned.
Connected with this correspondence, in 1649 he published Les Passions de l'A?me (Passions of the Soul), that he dedicated to the Princess. There, Chanut and Descartes made observations with a Torricellian barometer, a tube with mercury. Soon it became clear they did not like each other; she did not like his mechanical philosophy, nor did he appreciate her interest in Ancient Greek. His manuscripts came into the possession of Claude Clerselier, Chanut's brother-in-law, and "a devout Catholic who has begun the process of turning Descartes into a saint by cutting, adding and publishing his letters selectively."[42] In 1663, the Pope placed his works on the Index of Prohibited Books. By the science of Morals, I understand the highest and most perfect which, presupposing an entire knowledge of the other sciences, is the last degree of wisdom. Thought cannot be separated from me, therefore, I exist (Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy).
He considers a piece of wax; his senses inform him that it has certain characteristics, such as shape, texture, size, color, smell, and so forth.
In the third and fifth Meditation, he offers an ontological proof of a benevolent God (through both the ontological argument and trademark argument). The mind (or soul), on the other hand, was described as a nonmaterial and does not follow the laws of nature.
First, the soul is unitary, and unlike many areas of the brain the pineal gland appeared to be unitary (though subsequent microscopic inspection has revealed it is formed of two hemispheres). Like the rest of the sciences, ethics had its roots in metaphysics.[45] In this way he argues for the existence of God, investigates the place of man in nature, formulates the theory of mind-body dualism, and defends free will. For Epicurus the sovereign good was pleasure, and Descartes says that in fact this is not in contradiction with Zeno's teaching, because virtue produces a spiritual pleasure, that is better than bodily pleasure. One of these is founded upon the possibility of thinking the "idea of a being that is supremely perfect and infinite," and suggests that "of all the ideas that are in me, the idea that I have of God is the most true, the most clear and distinct."[53] Descartes considered himself to be a devout Catholic[2][3][4] and one of the purposes of the Meditations was to defend the Catholic faith. He "invented the convention of representing unknowns in equations by x, y, and z, and knowns by a, b, and c". Baier le fait en explorant les conditions techniques de leur enregistrement et de leur transmission. Arriver A  une telle formulation, c'est non seulement penser avec Whitehead, Meillassoux, Bachelard et Stiegler, mais c'est aussi penser grA?ce A  la photographie de Nicolas Baier.
Friedrich Kittler, Gramophone, Film, Typewriter, traduction anglaise de Geoffrey Winthrop Young et Michael Wutz (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999). Existence is derived immediately from the clear and distinct idea of a supremely perfect being. In Descartes' substance-attribute-mode ontology, extension is the primary attribute of corporeal substance. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before".
In this way he became acquainted with Isaac Beeckman, principal of a Dordrecht school, for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music (written 1618, published 1650).
While within, he had three visions and believed that a divine spirit revealed to him a new philosophy. In Amsterdam, he had a relationship with a servant girl, Helena Jans van der Strom, with whom he had a daughter, Francine, who was born in 1635 in Deventer, at which time Descartes taught at the Utrecht University. In it Descartes lays out four rules of thought, meant to ensure that our knowledge rests upon a firm foundation. It was followed, in 1644, by Principia PhilosophiA¦ (Principles of Philosophy), a kind of synthesis of the Discourse on the Method and Meditations on First Philosophy.
In 1647, he was awarded a pension by the Louis XIV, though it was never paid.[31] A French translation of Principia PhilosophiA¦, prepared by Abbot Claude Picot, was published in 1647.
He perceives his body through the use of the senses; however, these have previously been unreliable. Because God is benevolent, he can have some faith in the account of reality his senses provide him, for God has provided him with a working mind and sensory system and does not desire to deceive him.
They are external to his senses, and according to Descartes, this is evidence of the existence of something outside of his mind, and thus, an external world.


However, as he was a convinced rationalist, Descartes clearly states that reason is sufficient in the search for the goods that we should seek, and virtue consists in the correct reasoning that should guide our actions. Specifically, the focus is on the epistemological project of Descartes' famous work, Meditations on First Philosophy.
Ironically, the simplicity of the argument has also produced several misreadings, exacerbated in part by Descartes' failure to formulate a single version. Early life[edit] Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes), Indre-et-Loire, France. Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. Upon exiting he had formulated analytical geometry and the idea of applying the mathematical method to philosophy.
In 1643, Cartesian philosophy was condemned at the University of Utrecht, and Descartes was obliged to flee to The Hague.
On 1 February he caught a cold which quickly turned into a serious respiratory infection, and he died on 11 February.
Therefore, Descartes concluded, if he doubted, then something or someone must be doing the doubting, therefore the very fact that he doubted proved his existence.
So Descartes determines that the only indubitable knowledge is that he is a thinking thing. However, it seems that it is still the same thing: it is still the same piece of wax, even though the data of the senses inform him that all of its characteristics are different. From this supposition, however, he finally establishes the possibility of acquiring knowledge about the world based on deduction and perception.
Descartes goes on to show that the things in the external world are material by arguing that God would not deceive him as to the ideas that are being transmitted, and that God has given him the "propensity" to believe that such ideas are caused by material things.
This form of dualism or duality proposes that the mind controls the body, but that the body can also influence the otherwise rational mind, such as when people act out of passion.
He believed the cerebrospinal fluid of the ventricles acted through the nerves to control the body, and that the pineal gland influenced this process.
Nevertheless, the quality of this reasoning depends on knowledge, because a well-informed mind will be more capable of making good choices, and it also depends on mental condition. But Descartes could not avoid prodding God to set the world in motion with a snap of his lordly fingers; after that, he had no more use for God," while a powerful contemporary, Martin Schoock, accused him of atheist beliefs, though Descartes had provided an explicit critique of atheism in his Meditations. European mathematicians had previously viewed geometry as a more fundamental form of mathematics, serving as the foundation of algebra. Upon its completion, the work was circulated to other philosophers for their comments and criticisms. He concluded from these visions that the pursuit of science would prove to be, for him, the pursuit of true wisdom and a central part of his life's work.[23][24] Descartes also saw very clearly that all truths were linked with one another, so that finding a fundamental truth and proceeding with logic would open the way to all science. In the preface to the French edition, Descartes praised true philosophy as a means to attain wisdom. The cause of death was pneumonia according to Chanut, but peripneumonia according to the doctor Van Wullen who was not allowed to bleed him.[36] (The winter seems to have been mild,[37] except for the second half of January) which was harsh as described by Descartes himself. Therefore, in order to properly grasp the nature of the wax, he should put aside the senses. In terms of epistemology therefore, he can be said to have contributed such ideas as a rigorous conception of foundationalism and the possibility that reason is the only reliable method of attaining knowledge.
He gave reasons for thinking that waking thoughts are distinguishable from dreams, and that one's mind cannot have been "hijacked" by an evil demon placing an illusory external world before one's senses. Most of the previous accounts of the relationship between mind and body had been uni-directional. For this reason he said that a complete moral philosophy should include the study of the body. Algebraic rules were given geometric proofs by mathematicians such as Pacioli, Cardan, Tartaglia and Ferrari. Descartes defines "thought" (cogitatio) as "what happens in me such that I am immediately conscious of it, insofar as I am conscious of it".
Equations of degree higher than the third were regarded as unreal, because a three-dimensional form, such as a cube, occupied the largest dimension of reality. Descartes professed that the abstract quantity a2 could represent length as well as an area. This was in opposition to the teachings of mathematicians, such as Vieta, who argued that it could represent only area.



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