At the centerline of the world tour, the French Canadian Captain Erwann Le Rouzic took over in New Caledonia mid May 2011, for the further circumnavigation sharing the master's responsibility with Captain Patrick Marchesseau. LOMOcean claim to offer custom boat designs tailored to the specific requirements of each client.
2012 One week after having received the Global +5 Award for our 2013 scientific expedition, we have once again been awarded by the acclaimed Solar Swiss Prize 2012 in the category “Persons and Institutions”! The Solar Swiss Prize rewards the individuals and institutions who are the most committed, the best solar buildings and the most beautiful installations.
It's the co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 and Professor at the University of Geneva, Martin Beniston, who will head this project.
The crew, led by Captain Eric Dumont, headed south in the direction of the Balearic Islands. July 26th, it was in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, in Cagliari, that the solar vessel made a stopover and was presented to the public with the support of the local office of tourism. Beginning of August, the crew began the longest leg of the navigational tour, being 4 days, to arrive in the port of San Angelo Wharf of La Valette, in Malte.
Next, back up north for a stopover in Carloforte, on the island of San Pietro, southwest of Sardinia.
Each stop was not only an opportunity for the PlanetSolar crew to present the futuristic ship to officials, who always welcomed us with enthusiasm, but also to a curious public who were captivated and enthralled by the present day possibilities of solar energy. Location: United Kingdom Would a tiny mastless multihull be sufficiently stable in heavy seas?
Is there a real risk of capsizing a mastless proa or tri of these kind of dimensions just from the action of the waves in typical sea or ocean storms?
Location: Australia For your purposes, catamaran hull slimness is important, and 4 feet would be way too much, you could think about half that.
Originally Posted by Mr Efficiency For your purposes, catamaran hull slimness is important, and 4 feet would be way too much, you could think about half that. Originally Posted by NeilG Is there a real risk of capsizing a mastless proa or tri of these kind of dimensions just from the action of the waves in typical sea or ocean storms?
If you want it to be high efficency, make it a monohull with a heavy keel designed to be boarded and rolled. A vessel is nothing but a bunch of opinions and compromises held together by the faith of the builders and engineers that they did it correctly.
If you plan to make long passages with no outside support I would recommend a process to right the vessel in case of capsize. I believe the consensus on length to fineness ratios of hulls for max performance is around 16:1, and then there are other considerations like hull shapes (semi circular , soft V ) and rocker.
Location: Melbourne, Australia There is a trimaran design by Craig Loomes of LOMOcean design for a rowing trimaran that is unstable upside down in other words self righting. A small multihull can be quite stable but considering the tiny amount of power that a human can apply you want it to be narrow in beam to reduce windage.
Originally Posted by Corley There is a trimaran design by Craig Loomes of LOMOcean design for a rowing trimaran that is unstable upside down in other words self righting.
Originally Posted by keysdisease Any multihull can be capsized, so can any motor boat.
Nevertheless, pedal boat Moksha was a heavy monohull of 26 ft x 4.5 ft carrying 300 man-days of provisions, yet could maintain around 3 knots. Yes, in heavy seas Atlantic rowers put out the sea anchor and take refuge in the cabin - that goes with the territory of human-powered sea boats. Location: United Kingdom Anyone know how the Hallin Marine rowing tri was designed to deal with capsizes?
I can't find much about the boat design or crossing online, though I just messaged them about this issue through the contact form on the site. The Hallin Marine was built for six crew (three rowing at a time) with the main hull 40ft long and a maximum of 3ft wide. I'm guessing though that if freak circumstances had caused a capsize, they would have had no choice but to signal and wait for assistance. The Microship is an interesting project (pedal power, sailing and a backup trolling motor), but doesn't appear to have been designed with crossing open seas in mind. Location: Sacramento I'd build a boat that has no 'topside', and if 'capsized', it is the same as if it was not capsized. Build essentially a round tube vessel with the inner quarters that rotates inside the outer shell.
When making potentially dangerous or financial decisions, always employ and consult appropriate professionals.
Like Thor Heyerdahl, American explorer Gene Savoy had an intense interest in the prehistoric civilizations of Peru. To demonstrate his belief, Savoy set out in the spring of 1969 to build a double-hull ship of totora reed and sail it from Peru to Mexico. On April 15, 1969 crew members settled into the Feathered Serpent as it was towed to sea and let go.
Intrigued by the strong resemblance between various aspects of ancient Egyptian and pre-Columbian culture, Thor Heyerdahl set out to demonstrate that the sources of New World technology and belief could have come from across the Atlantic.
The finished Ra—named for the Egyptian sun god—made entirely of papyrus and rope was taken by truck and ship to the Moroccan port of Safi where she was launched. Convinced only that he had chosen the wrong design, Heyerdahl arranged to build Ra II, a Moroccan madia whose design more closely resembled that of the reed rafts on Lake Titicaca. Named for the Mesopotamian river along whose course the Sumerian civilization flourished about 3000 BCE, Tigris was built by Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, who intended to prove that Sumerians and their contemporaries could have navigated such craft over long distances. Launched in November 1977, and flying the flag of the United Nations, Tigris had difficulty navigating through the Persian Gulf owing to unseasonably adverse winds and the tremendous amount of tanker traffic and offshore oil wells that had to be avoided. Thor Heyerdahl’s American Indians in the Pacific (1952) compiled a sizable mountain of evidence that pointed toward the possibility that pre-Incan mariners in reed boats had once attempted to cross the Pacific Ocean from South America to the islands of Polynesia. In 1988, a Spanish explorer named Kitin Munoz, who has referred to himself as the “spiritual son of Thor Heyerdahl” (Reuters, April 27, 1997) set out to build a reed boat and drift all the way to Tahiti on it. On June 29, 1988, Munoz set out from Lima, Peru, and in seven weeks crossed the eastern Pacific to a landing in the Marquesas. While Heyerdahl was involved in the excavations of the coastal pyramid complex of Tucume in Peru beginning in 1987, several explorers approached him for advice and assistance in getting their drift expeditions under way.
Paulino Esteban, who had helped to build Heyerdahl’s Ra II and Tigris, and Munoz’s Uru, arrived in the Peruvian fishing village of Pimentel to construct the Chimok from totora reeds. The Chimok, with its dragon heads rising from the double stern, was launched from the beach at Pimentel in front of a large crowd, with Heyerdahl doing the honors of christening the huge vessel.
In film of the voyage, a narrator relates that the Ecuadorian government threatened to send a warship after the reed boat if it did not turn around. The 11-man crew included one Hawaiian, two Tahitians, two Maori, 2 Aymaras, three Rapanui, and one Spaniard— Kitin Munoz, the leader of the project. He said, "In the first phase, the ship will travel through all the Polynesian islands such as Mangareva, Tahiti, Bora Bora, Tonga and Fiji reaching finally Australia.
On the 21st of May, it was reported that, according to a satellite telephone communication received from somewhere in French Polynesia, the boat was still on course, but with a broken mast. Then on May 24th the news came that Mata Rangi had split in two and the crew had taken to lifeboats tied to the sinking boat. The progress of modern archeological research in the Mediterranean and Atlantic region has resulted in a new theory of cultural development of mankind. The Mata Rangi II, a 30-meter reed boat, set sail Sunday from the northern city of Arica in what observers have described an attempt to prove that pre-Inca civilizations traveled by sea to Asia. The Mata Rangi II expedition is the brainchild of Spanish adventurer Kitin Munoz, a 40-year-old bachelor who has never had any formal training in navigation. The Mata Rangi II, whose name means "eyes of paradise" in Rapa Nui, the language of Easter Island, was built using reeds and bamboo from the shores of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Some 2,000 islanders headed by Mayor Lucien Kimitete saw Munoz and his seven-man crew limp into local waters 88 days after they set sail from Chile's northern port of Arica on a voyage of study and exploration. The prehistoric city of Tiwanaku, on the southern shore of Bolivia’s famous Lake Titicaca, was abandoned around 1000 AD, some 400 years before the Inca established their Andean empire. Our theory is that these giant andesite stones were transported across Lake Titicaca on reed boats of ancient design to the closest shores to Tiwanaku, then laboriously dragged 10 kilometers to the city. If we emulated the ancient design successfully, the boat's porous nature would have filtered out water from the waves kicked up by the fierce winds of the Altiplano.
The Viracocha Expedition is an educational, humanitarian, and ethnographic adventure - a primitive reed ship voyage around the globe. There exists archaeological, linguistic and botanical evidence that these routes were indeed traveled, yet modern scholars deny the possibility that these primitive ships could endure such distance.
Kitin Munoz set out from northeastern Spain to traverse the Atlantic in a 65-foot (20-meter) vessel. After a first failure on "Ra I", Munoz' mentor, the famous Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl of the "Kon Tiki" (the balsa boat that crossed the Pacific Ocean from Peru to French Polynesia in 1947) had already rallied Barbados from the Moroccan port of Safi aboard another reedboat, "Ra II", in 57 days, in 1970. The Mata Rangi III left Barcelona on May 6th and has stopped at several ports of the Mediterranean Sea including Valencia, Alicante, Cartagena, Malaga, and Cadiz in Spain. On May 17th 2002 ABORA 2 started with an international crew from Alexandria (Egypt), sailing a back and forth journey across the Mediterranean Sea. The main aim of the expedition was to demonstrate the full sailing capabilities of prehistoric vessels. The boat was built in Bolivia and shipped over to Europe where it was rebuilt for the launch in Alexandria. Following in the footsteps of Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl, Goerlitz hopes to prove the links between prehistoric communities in Asia Minor and the Americas. Goerlitz wanted to take the studies a step further and open possibilities of Mediterranean civilizations having influence on the New World. The Viricocha made the world's first successful reed-boat voyage in 2000 from Chile to Easter Island, a 2,850-mile stretch and the trip was hailed a scientific breakthrough by the late Thor Heyerdahl, the Norwegian explorer whose famous 1947 "Kon-Tiki" expedition aboard a balsa raft inspired the Viracocha adventure.

Besides satisfying an appetite for adventure, Phil Buck hoped to promote a scientific theory that pre-Incan cultures were capable of navigating the high seas on similar reed boats and may have colonized Easter Island and other parts of Polynesia. March 17,2003 was the day the Viracocha II finally left Vina del Mar, Chile to begin the planned voyage to Sydney, Australia. ABORA III is the prehistoric style vessel intended to sail across the North-Atlantic from New York, USA to Pontevedra, Spain. Abora III made substantial porgress towards the Azores but after the stern of the boat was destroyed in a storm, the vessel had to be abandoned. How did traces of both cocaine and nicotine find its way to ancient mummies in Egypt when these substances were native to only South America during the time of the pharoahs? From Puerto Quijarro at the foothills of the Andes to Buenos Aires in Argentina, the Kota Mama expedition's reed boats sailed over 2,770 kilometers in a quest to prove the existence of early trading links between South America and Africa.
In the construction of reed boats it is important to note that this is a traditional craft handed down from generation to generation. The charm of the boat lies in the fact that it is constructed by traditional methods depending largely on the skills of the builder. The technique used for building a reed boat in the area of Lake Titicaca is the most ancient, and it is also very effective for navigation because it has remained constant and well defined in its operation resulting in a consistently stable craft. The reed boat comprises two individual hulls or cylindrical cores which are bound together by attachment to a smaller central core using a single continuous rope in a spiral fashion thus forming a single united hull from the component reed cylinders. 1 It is important to select the best totora stems for weaving the fabric which is also part of the cover of two cores which will make the boat. 2 Once we have the right totora, we proceed to make the longitudinal cores, weaving the reeds so each stem can trap the ends of the adjacent stems.
3 In each section, the plaiting of the weave has a knot which joins the stems of the totora.
4 After the weaving is done, each core will be laid and they will be used as the bases for the main body of the boat. 5 Fabric of the covers or outer layers; those layers are woven with reeds especially selected and we follow the same process as the one used for making initial main bases. 7 Joining the two hull cores; joining of the two main bodies comprising the hull with the central core is done using a system of plaited ropes using straw which grows in the Bolivian Altiplano.
10 Curving; the curve of the two ends, bow and stem, is obtained with an upside-down Y-shape support. 11 Compression of the hull bodies and adjustment of the ropes: This operation has to be done again and again in order to have the hull bodies very well compressed.
In this step, it is not only necessary to tension the ropes, but also to give uniformity to the surface of the boat. 12 Pre-finished boat: when the boat is finished with the two ends and the hulls very well compressed, we proceed to build two small reed cylindrical rolls which will be used as supports or sides, tied to the main hulls of the boat.
13 The side cores or bulwarks; are tied to the sides of the boat with a rope in spiral form which is bound to the two main bodies.
15 The boat is then equipped with accessories necessary for voyaging, like a sail, which can be made out of reed or fabric, two wooden (eucalyptus) masts which support the sail, and ropes or cords to manage the sail during use. The totora has constituted one of the prime materials for boat building since prehispanic times.
An important historic factor to take note of has been the construction of gigantic reed boats for the purposes of expeditions and exploration, such as the expedition of the boat Ra II with which Thor Heyerdahl crossed the Atlantic in 1970. Actually the totora is of great socio-economic importance for the population of Lake Titicaca and is also of great scientific interest for investigators.
Totoras are aquatic plants whose erect stalks support photosynthesis, they are rugged plants even though their roots are embedded, their leaves are set out in three vertical lines in such a manner that their base forms a closed vein surrounding the stalk, the flowers are small and marked by herringbone scales. The totora develops at a depth of between 2 to 5 metres approximately; they stick up out of the water at a short distance from the shore, their stalks reach out of the water to a height of 3 to 4 metres.
The totora has many uses, the white parts of the inside of the stalk are soft and tasty and are eaten like fresh vegetables, also for feeding cattle and sheep and are a remedy for kidney failure. The building of reed boats in totora on the island of Suriki is traditional, the technique used is thousands of years old and constitutes ancestral knowledge. After numerous VIP visits, the crew was invited by the General Consulate of Switzerland in Barcelona to share a typical Catalan meal aboard. The stopover on this island, independent from the British Empire since 1964, took place in a tropical atmosphere, with the support of SunPower.
The voyage continued north and stopped over on the Island of Beauty, in the bay of Porto Veccio, on the southwest coast of Corsica. Separation matters because of wave interference factors, in a slow conveyance like this the distance would need to be substantial, at least as much as sailing cats of like size.
Worth, Tx, USA There is already a widely reported trimaran rowed transatlantic boat. A passage of the Med may, with land often closer nearby, offer the additional possibility to reach a beach and pull the boat up on the shore to sit out the storm. Rather than reaching across the Pacific from South America, Savoy was convinced that the Andean empire of the Incas and the Mexican empire of the Aztecs had had regular contact along the western coasts of South and Central America. Savoy named his proposed vessel Kuviqu, his own contraction of the names of Viracocha, Quetzalcoatl, and the Maya figure Kukulcan. The Feathered Serpent began a meandering drift northward in search of the current that would sweep it across the Gulf of Panama.
A crucial point of similarity was the design of reed boats shown in Egyptian tombs and found on Lake Chad, the Andean Lake Titicaca, Easter Island, and Polynesia to which he had sailed in the balsa raft Kon-Tiki in 1947 across the Pacific. The polyglot crew consisted of Heyerdahl, Djibrine, Yuri Alexandrovich Senkevich (Soviet Union), Norman Baker (United States), Carlo Mauri (Italy), Santiago Genoves (Mexico), and Georges Sourial (Egypt).
Four Aymara reed builders from Bolivia were brought to Morocco for the project, which again used reeds from Lake Tana.
The first port of call was the island country of Bahrain, which many archaeologists have identified as Dilmun, the great seaport of the Gilgamesh epic.
Not until thirty years later, however, with his Tigris expeditions, did Heyerdahl learn exactly how long a reed ship, constructed from properly harvested reeds, could stay afloat. Munoz had every intention of continuing his voyage to Tahiti, but a severe storm set the reed boat adrift until its rescue by a Tahitian fishing vessel in October. One of these was a German film crew who sought to sail a reed ship from a port in northern Peru to the Galapagos Islands. Heyerdahl suggested to the film crew that they try to build a double-stern reed boat, one that was of Moche design. Almost immediately, the Germans, along with Esteban and a local Peruvian fisherman, sailed into a storm, but not one of nature’s creation. The crew speculated that the Ecuadorian government resented the Chimok expedition specifically because Heyerdahl had harvested the balsa logs for Kon-Tiki in Ecuador yet sailed from Peru. They were rescued by the Stray Dog, a sailboat that had been visiting Rapa Nui but which left to join in the rescue effort.
New discoveries on the larger Mediterranean and Canary islands have indicated that early cultural centers had contact with each other over thousands of miles of the sea. After two stopovers in Castelsardo and Santa Teresa, Abora I reached Bonifacio on the southern corner of Corsica. In 1988, he successfully sailed from Peru to Polynesia in a reed boat, but in 1997, the Mata Rangi I, which was bound for Polynesia, sank about 20 days after the trip started some 300 kilometers off Easter Island, where it had set out. It has three 12-meter high masts and one small shelter where the nine crew members will sleep, eat and navigate. The crew had to abandon half the 95-foot (29-meter) boat -- made from 13,000 reeds from Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake -- on the high seas as molluscs ate away at its structure. Its monumental ruins have often been compared to Stonehenge in that no one knows how an ancient civilization could have made them. We wanted to test this theory by recreating the Tiwanaku building process with a multi-national team of volunteers, aided by leading Aymara experts in totora reed boat building.
This expedition is significant because it will demonstrate the possibility of ancient migration and trade routes thought to be impossible by conventional wisdom. The Viracocha Expedition will unveil the potential for ancient peoples to have traveled across oceans and to the most remote places on earth.
He also aims at demonstrating that ancient peoples could realize intercontinental voyages on the seas. Their aim has been reported as to cross the Atlantic Ocean within some 50 days and to keep sailing in the Caribbean Sea in order to test the ultimate strength of this sailboat built according to a Pre-Colombian technique. The route was from Alexandria to Beirut, then to Cyprus, and then back to Alexandria for a total distance of approximately 2150 kilometers (1100 nautical miles) within 61 days. Consequently all Mediterranean civilizations could be within regular contact of each other by sea. With a crew of nine, including nationals from Germany, Egypt, Norway and Bolivia, Goerlitz and his team aim to prove that people from Asia Minor, before the age of Phoenicians, managed to conquer the seas and that these people reached Atlantic territories around 3000BC. Heyerdahl used models of Pharaonic boats to build two papyrus crafts, the Ra II and the Tigris, which succeeded in crossing the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean respectively.
This was not possible under Heyerdahl's expedition because he had sailed with the currents, being unable to maneuver his boat against the wind. The Viracocha II, was scheduled to begin construction on Easter Island the following November, and sail 8,000 nautical miles from there past Tahiti, to Cairns, Australia, starting in the spring of 2002.
The reed ship Viracocha II reached Easter Island after 75 days at sea (more than twice the anticipated time), in desperate condition - the crew was out of cooking fuel and low on food, the boat was dramatically lifted to one side (the side that was not beaten during the launch), the steering mechanism bad been rebuilt three times and was still failing, and the hull had sunk nearly 3 feet (50 percent).
Built entirely from reeds and rope, the hull is constructed by the Aymara-Indians on the shores of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Could a shipwreck full of Roman amphorae found off the coast of Brazil be evidence of cross Atlantic trading?
A 50-member team moved down the Rio Paraguay carrying out archaeological and ethnographic surveys, wildlife conservation programs and community aid projects in Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil.
Therefore there do not exist lines plans or drawings in the sense of constructing wooden boats or in modern materials such as fibreglass.

The totora has to be complete in unbroken stems for the laying and have a regular thickness. Then, on top of the main cores, we cover with several layers of totora reeds always in a longitudinal direction, which are tied with provisional binds which are later taken off. Afterwards, we proceed to build a smaller third core which will be installed in the centre between the two main hull cylinders, and will be used to join the two main bodies in the construction of the boat. This rope is wound as a spiral in order to fasten the two main bodies to the small body or central core from end to end. When doing the joining of the two bodies and arriving at the bow and stern, we leave openings for the boat to drain.
This is obtained by hitting the two hull bodies with an oval rock while doing the adjusting of the ropes. Some of these ancestral plants have also been used as food by the inhabitants, for craftwork which is of high cultural value, for health, for roofing of houses, daily feed for cattle, fuel for cooking fire and other uses.
Taking practically the same course as 4 months prior, when PlanetSolar finished her world tour, the ship headed towards Monaco, in Hercules Port, where she stopped for several days. For me, the novelty of pedalling would have worn off within sight of the starting point, but each to his own amusements !
In 1961, Savoy “observed a petroglyph etched on a rock in the Jequetepeque Valley of northern Peru.
The Kuviqu, or Feathered Serpent, as it was more often referred to, took shape at a dockyard in the small fishing village of Huanchaco.
After nine days at sea and two ashore, the raft drifted into the port of Talara, some 350 miles north of its starting point at Salaverry. Heyerdahl hired Chadian reed boat builder Abdullah Djibrine and two Buruma colleagues to build a kaday from papyrus cut on Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. Provisions for the voyage were carried in 160 amphorae made according to a 5,000-year-old example in the Cairo Museum. Though 20 feet shorter than Ra I, Ra II carried eight crew, Madanni Ait Ouhanni (Morocco) and Kei Ohara (Japan) sailing in place of Djibrine. Modeled on early renderings of seagoing craft from the Persian Gulf and Egypt, Tigris was built by so-called Marsh Arabs of Iraq's Shatt al-Arab, who bundled the reeds, and Aymara Indians from Lake Titicaca, Peru, who turned the reed bundles into "a sickle-shaped ship that would neither capsize nor lose its shape in the ocean waves." She carried a single mast from which were set two square sails.
From there she sailed south and east out of the Strait of Hormuz before heading west along the coast of Oman. Beginning in the late 1980s, a new generation of expeditions sought to use this knowledge to test the limits of the reed boat on experimental voyages from South America into the Pacific.
It was built by the same reed-boat builder, Paulino Esteban, who along with other Aymara Indians had built Heyerdahl’s successful transatlantic reed vessel. They would thereby provide an experimental linkage between pre-Incan cultures of the coast of South America and the pre-Incan pottery shards found in the Galapagos by Heyerdahl and Arne SkjolsvoId during an expedition to the archipelago in January 1953. As the reed ship floated perfectly atop the waves, the crew received word that tensions along Peru’s border with Ecuador had escalated almost to the point of war. On the 8th of May, two stowaways were found: Sergio Tuki Hito and Ricardo Hito had hidden themselves in the hold of the boat. They had expected to have traveled 600 miles by that time, and thus declared that they would not stop at Pitcairn but head directly for Mangareva. They found her lying somewhat submerged and with water coming in the hole where the mast had been. Mata Rangi was only 185 northwest of Rapa Nui; the boat had been in the water for a mere 20 days. It's a great success up to now." He had said the Mata Rangi II was a much better craft than the earlier version.
It is puzzling not only because some of the stones weigh as much as 130 tons, but because there are no quarries nearby, but rather on the other side of Lake Titicaca. Would our reed boat sink under the weight of a 9 ton stone, or would it simply fold and collapse around it as some experts had claimed? The team has already completed one monumental voyage of nearly 2,500 miles from Chile to Easter Island. They are trying to prove that long before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas local sailors would have been able to cross the Pacific Ocean to Asia in similar boats.
Behind this new challenge for Kitin Munoz, inspired by Thor Heyerdahl, was the will to prove the maritime capabilities of ancient peoples and their consequences in the intercontinental population migrations. The practical proof of this navigational performance would supply new evidences for the importance of the prehistoric navigation in the development of the first civilizations in the Old World.
His expeditions called into question the notion that Columbus was the first transatlantic navigator and demonstrated how the ancient Sumerians could have traveled widely. The captain and crew decided it would be unsafe to attempt to sail beyond Easter Island, and so the expedition halted, covering less than 25 percent of its intended route.
The German biologist leading the expedition, Dominique Goerlitz, argues that traces of cocaine and nicotine found a few years ago in the stomach of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh, Ramses II, were native to the Americas, so must have travelled to Africa by sea. Both boats used in the expedition survived the journey proving that similar voyages could have been undertaken hundreds of years ago.
The expedition members then proceeded through a 500 km stretch of rapids and falls between Bolivia and Brazil. When the cores take the shape of two oval "sausages", they are ready to be covered with what is in fact an extension of the laying of the main bases. The final fitting out of the Feathered Serpent took place at a naval dockyard at Salaverry, eighteen miles south of Huanchaco.
The design was worked out in consultation between Djibrine and Bjorn Langstrom, a Swedish authority on ancient Egyptian boat design. The second attempt, setting out on May 17, 1970, was a success, the voyage from Morocco to Barbados being completed in only 57 days. Landing at Muscat, the Tigris crew were among the first westerners to visit the remains of the ancient copper mining center at Shohar.
He had shown that a reed vessel could in fact survive the nearly two-month voyage from South America to the nearest islands of Polynesia. The Ecuadorian government insisted that the Chimok sail into the port of Guayaquil and obtain proper clearance papers before attempting to sail for the Ecuadorian-controlled Galapagos. These two brought the number of persons on the boat up to 13, and some noted that it was an unlucky number.
These claims need experimental proof, which shows that our ancients did possess the technology to build steerable vessels 6000 years ago. A strong current with southern direction forced the crew to sail very close to the coast, to be ready for a fast anchoring, in the case of slow wind.
He says he is also hoping to overturn current thinking that says the prevailing Atlantic winds would have allowed ancient mariners to sail west to the Americas, but would have prevented them from returning home.
Observing this and other similarities, Savoy concluded that a regular prehistoric trade had clearly existed between the two culture areas, and that that trade was conducted over the water. The twin hulls were attached to the decking, and the cabin built and the double mast stepped. Savoy himself went off for a month of exploring Maya ruins, and when he returned, he discovered that a storm had blown his raft to sea.
Although Ra made it most of the way across the Atlantic, covering about 60 miles a day (2.5 knots), the crew were forced to abandon Ra near Barbados, because much of the stern had sagged and the raft was breaking up. After heading for Africa, a change in the wind enabled them to sail for Pakistan's Indus Valley, the site of an ancient civilization centered on Mohenjo Daro and Harappa that evidently traded with Sumer.
No satellite tracking of the Chimok was apparently possible before it was abandoned, so it is not known for how long nor how far the reeds drifted before they became waterlogged and sank.
Such vessels should have been able to navigate in sufficient distance to the coast line across the wind. The last part of the expedition was going to Elba and then to Piombino, where the expedition ends.
Once the stone was loaded she drafted about double that in the center where the weight was, but considerably less away from center. However, it is believed that early civilisations were able to negotiate these terrifying cataracts.
On May 6, 1969, the raft was towed into Manta where Savoy requested that the raft be lifted out of the water so he could inspect the wear on the totora reed. From there they sailed west until they passed through the Bab al-Mandeb at the mouth of the Red Sea and on to Djibouti, where they arrived in March 1978.
We had 5 oars to row the Qala Yampu when there was no wind and we felt particularly energetic and strong. The expedition members successfully proved that it was possible for reed boats to negotiate through these difficult waters.
The stems which are found on the water surface are dried by the effect of the sun and wind which gives them a yellow colour, this type of totora is used in handicrafts, mattresses, mats, roofs for houses and construction of reed boats. At one point, all Savoy’s cameras on board were subsequently waterlogged, destroying his visual record of the expedition. At Djibouti, on April 3, 1978, they burned Tigris to protest the conflicts that had prevented them from landing in North or South Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, or in war-torn Somalia or Ethiopia. If poles were placed correctly on the deck of the boat to distribute the weight, the Qala Yampu could have easily carried double the weight! Totora is also a habitat for numerous fish and aquatic birds and aids the ecology and beauty of the lake as well as purifying the water. The shock of impact broke the vessel’s back, canted the deckhouse, and collapsed the double mast.
In no position to repair the damage at this stage of the expedition, Savoy transformed what had been a sailing reed boat into a true drifting cargo raft.

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