I’m a member of the Marine Forensics Committee, and author or co-author of three peer-reviewed papers on the “Titanic”.
Working with Roy Mengot (with whom I co-authored one paper), I’ve been gathering evidence to support a reconstruction of the breakup of the “Titanic” that differs somewhat from the one you may have seen in movies or in other publications. In our reconstruction, the failure began in the ship’s bottom structure, when the ship was at an angle of about 17 degrees. When the ship’s stern section came back down into the water, buoyancy forces took over the job of holding up that part of the ship, so the breakup stopped for a little while. As the bow continued to flood, and as water poured into the engine room (which would have been opened to the sea when the bottom gave way), the bow section pulled down on the forward end of the stern section. These ideas began to take shape when I first saw the photos of what were then called the “Missing Pieces”. Any understanding of the sinking has to take into account the “Titanic”’s riveted construction.
The high stresses around the deckhouse expansion joints – previously believed, even by the Marine Forensics Committee, to have been the starting point for the breakup – turned out to be a “red herring”. We had help from other members of the Marine Forensics Committee (formerly the Marine Forensics Panel) – especially from its chairman, Bill Garzke. According to an article on the History Channel website, our work will be challenged in a documentary to be aired on the anniversary of the sinking.
To get some insight into the views of those who continue to believe that the breakup started at the upper edges, I would recommend a visit to the website of Parks Stephenson, perhaps the most influential advocate of a top – down break.
On the other hand, if a “top down” breakup goes into the history books, the survivors will be forever remembered as people who let the stress of the situation blind them to what was happening before their eyes. Some of my colleagues have suggested that there may be some sort of middle ground – some way to combine elements of both breakup models.
About the Author: Richard Woytowich is a Professor in the Computer Engineering Technology department at New York City College of Technology. If you're looking to build a kids playhouse, then you know the importance of having easy step-by-step outdoor playhouse plans. Treehouses And Playhouses Book includes treehouse, playhouse, and pirate ship playhouse designs and plans. Pretend and Imagination Play: List of materials, supplies, tips and instructions on how to create a pirate themed playhouse for children. We all know that everybody wants to build their dream home design, but in fact many of them still confuse about the ways how to realize their idea. The Lego Friends Dolphin Cruiser set includes 612 Lego pieces to build a dolphin cruiser yacht.


Ships Building modeling Boats and send Models An online reasource for those interested inward Den’s framework Ships Handcrafted scaled wooden ship models built from engrave Noahs Ark Also photos of real free scratch build tall ship model plans. My most recent paper, “The Breakup Of Titanic – A Re-Examination of Survivor Accounts”, was presented at the First International Marine Forensics Symposium on April 4. The failure spread across the breadth of the ship, then upward; it also spread forward and aft, probably along lightly riveted longitudinal seams, forming two separate pieces of the double bottom.
At that point, the two halves of the ship were held together by the uppermost strength decks, and by the double – thickness side shell plating.
The angle between the two pieces of the hull decreased – as if the ship were a giant paper clip that was first bent, then straightened out.
The “Big Piece” (a large piece of the ship’s side, recovered in 1998) came from the starboard side – it had no counterpart on the port side.
Now, let’s look at how it was developed, and why we believe that it’s closer to what actually happened than any other model proposed to date. Looking at the way the keel bent at the ends of those pieces, I was sure that it was shaped by compression. My first paper on the “Titanic”, published in 2003, gave me some insights into the behavior of the riveted joints. The deckhouse was made of lightweight plating, and carefully constructed so as NOT to share in the structural loads on the ship. As I mentioned earlier, this is the same body that was once a leading advocate of the theory that the break started in the upper portion of the hull – but they gave us their full support. We developed it into a formal paper, which was presented at a local section meeting in New York in 2009. I was expecting all kinds of objections to be raised during our presentations – we did not get even one.
If there is to be a debate over the validity of our work, we hope that it will take place in open scientific and professional forums, and that the outcome of the debate will be determined in the best tradition of scientific inquiry. If there is such a middle ground, I would gladly stand on it – but at the moment, I don’t see any more middle ground here than there was between, say, Kepler and Copernicus. It has many features like different decks, a captain’s deck, a waterslide and indoor rooms.
Contraband Prince Model grandiloquent Ship Free Shipping Built from engrave by master artisans case-by-case wooden planks used in plank on frame hull construction Feel free to use the image Modelling. The after part of the ship is known to have listed to port fairly suddenly – so the starboard side may have failed first, leaving the flooded bow section to pull down on the port side of the stern section until the two parts separated completely. Also, the remaining edges looked too clean to have been formed by multiple twists and bends – those pieces looked like they failed first, not last.


After years of puzzlement, I realized that the “Big Piece” must have formed part of the temporary hinge about which the stern section bent, first downward, then upward. I realized that because of the way the hull was riveted together, the bottom was not as strong as most investigators believed. We created a computer model of a portion of the bottom structure, and identified potential weak spots. It was published in 2010 as “The Breakup Of Titanic – A Progress Report From The Marine Forensics Panel (SD – 7)” in SNAME’s journal, “Marine Technology”. It may be a bit of a stretch to call this a paradigm shift, but it does have many of the characteristics of one – and engineers, like scientists, must always be prepared to deal with new evidence that may force us to discard our previous concepts and embrace new ones. If our reconstruction is substantially correct, then the survivors’ testimony (with a few exceptions) turns out to have been quite accurate.
Other previous employers include Gibbs & Cox, Inc., a naval architecture and marine engineering firm.
The set also includes accessories children can use to play with the boat, including mini-dolls, a personal watercraft, waterskies and dolphins. The deckhouse is shown opening up at the aft expansion joint – but the split in the deckhouse was an effect, not a cause, of the hull break. This left the stern section to float on its own, eventually standing nearly vertical in the water, then finally disappearing below the waves.
Such a sequence of loads and ship motions could have created the piece as we see it today (Any attempt to say how each edge broke would be pure speculation – but if the ship broke from the top down, we would be able to explain how only one of the edges formed. And because of the way the uppermost strakes (strips) of plating were constructed, they had much more strength than most investigators have given them credit for. There will, of course, still be some conflicts to resolve, but those conflicts will be easier to understand. He holds a Bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from The Cooper Union, a Master's in mechanical engineering from Columbia University, and a Master's in science education from New York University.
Many people who build modelling ships employment kits or plans to make their Took just about 4 months to build but much of the wreak was done. Once the ship split in two, there would be no forces remaining that could produce the other edges.). He is a licensed professional engineer in New York State, and has been a member of the Marine Forensics Committee (formerly the Marine Forensics Panel) for over 10 years.



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