I originally developed the first of these PT boat plans to build my own Elco PT-109 similar to the 1:32 scale Lindberg plastic kit I had as a teenager. There is a series of pages on this website showing my slow, but steady progress of the RC PT 109. Since its founding, the Navy has preserved the memories of those whose courage and ability have brought honor and victory to this nation. Jones' greatness was the result of his daring and bravery, as well as his unlimited initiative and his ability to get the utmost out of his men, who admired and respected him. This action soon proved disastrous because the Barbary Pirates began capturing our merchant ships and imprisoning their crews. Two of these, the Constitution and Constellation, are still in existence and in the possession of the Navy. Humphrey's six new frigates did not see immediate action, however, as in 1795 a treaty was ratified with Algiers requiring the United States to pay maritime stores amounting to $21,600 annually to Algiers; and in the next year a similar treaty was signed with Tripoli. New troubles appeared quickly when the French began to capture our merchant ships [during the period of the Napoleonic Wars]. Thomas Truxtun, who had served on a privateer during the Revolution, was undoubtedly the hero of the undeclared war with France. In the meantime our relations with the Barbary Pirates had not improved, and in 1802 it became necessary to maintain a Mediterranean Squadron to protect our merchant shipping. During the war with the pirates, two dramatic incidents occurred which were influential in molding the traditions of our youthful Navy. Perhaps no act of the first half of the nineteenth century thrilled Americans more than the destruction of the Philadelphia. In addition to Perry's victory on Lake Erie, there were Thomas Macdonough's triumph on Lake Champlain, Isaac Chauncey's on Lake Ontario, Commodore John Rodgers' and Captain David Porter's successful cruises, and Joshua Barney's privateering.
From 1815 until the War Between the States, this country enjoyed a long period of peace, interrupted only by the short-lived Mexican War.
An outstanding weakness of the service was the lack of disciplinary training and naval indoctrination of its midshipmen. An outstanding officer of this period of peace was Matthew Fontaine Maury, who often has been called the "Pathfinder of the Seas." It was he who collected data about winds and currents, paths of storms, and the quickest routes between ports.
The outstanding hero of the Civil War was David Glasgow Farragut, our first "Admiral of the Navy." It might be noted here that there have been only two other officers who have been Admirals of the Navy, David Dixon Porter and George Dewey. When the War Between the States broke out, Farragut had already served 49 years, having enlisted when very young.
The other important battle of the war was significant not so much as to the outcome of the war but as a preview of things to come.
Let us consider for a moment how warships had been revolutionized during the period from 1840 to 1865.
From this war the United States emerged with the majority of her present-day insular possessions, the Philippines, Guam, Midway, Wake, and some West Indian islands plus Cuba, which was later given complete independence.
The changes in the various navies of the world between 1900 and the beginning of World War I were primarily concerned with the development of the capital ship theory, and the development of the submarine and the airplane. From a naval point of view, World War I was a conflict of two blockades, the Allies maintaining a long-distance blockade of German ports, and the Germans with the submarine trying to blockade British and French ports by attacking ships as they sailed the seas. The Allied victory was at least in part the result of the combined navies' safely transporting about 2 million American soldiers and marines to France, plus the convoying of the munitions and supplies needed to sustain them and their allies.
The limitations set down in the Washington Conference were continued in the main by the London Conference of 1930.
As a result, when the present global conflict began, we were without an energetic naval construction program. We all know how the Japs' sneak attack on Pearl Harbor put almost half of our battleships and also other types of ships out of service, at least temporarily.
It is naval custom to salute only when covered, using the right hand when possible, and to supplement the salute with a brief greeting, depending upon the time of day.
In general, salutes are exchanged on every occasion of meeting, passing, or being addressed. Upon entering boats or automobiles, juniors enter first, saving the best seats for the seniors. A senior sends his "compliments" to a junior, but a junior always sends his "respects" to the senior.
The junior officer should remember that the wardroom is a gentlemen's club and conduct himself accordingly. Every officer and man, upon reaching the quarter-deck, either from a boat, from a gangway,, from the shore, or from another part of the ship, faces aft and salutes the national ensign. When an officer has permission to leave his ship, he reports to the officer of the deck, at the time of departure, "I have permission to leave the ship, Sir." "I report my return aboard, Sir," is the correct form to be used upon returning to the ship.
Never appear on the quarter-deck unless in the uniform of the day, except in crossing to enter or leave a boat or as your duties may require. When a naval ship is underway, the jack is not hoisted, but the ensign is flown at the gaff. Navy Regulations requires that when any vessel registered by a nation formally recognized by the Government of the United States salutes a ship of the Navy by dipping her national ensign, it must be returned dip for dip.
In half-masting the ensign, it is first raised to the truck or peak and then lowered to half-mast. Nevertheless, officers should be prepared to render honors when appropriate and, on watch, must guard against surprise visits.
An officer's rank is indicated by the gold sleeve stripes on the service dress blue uniform. The uniforms of reserve midshipmen are similar to those of officers but with clean sleeves. Sharing Ireland’s amazing archaeology as well as interesting sites and finds from around the world. Below the Surface presents its sixth talk in the maritime series on board the Jeanie Johnston tall ship. This replica famine ship is currently docked on the Dublin quays and the creaking sounds of its wooden hull will undoubtedly create a very atmospheric location for the lecture series. Poul also reveals that thanks to their superior naval technology the Norse created an international slave market in Dublin that made the town one of the most important trading centres in the western Viking territory. The plan is intended for balsa construction and should not pose too big a task for someone with a couple of simpler boats under their belt.Balsa is inexpensive, light and require a minimal set of tools to build. I don't perceive the larger boat to be much harder than the smaller to build, but will cost a little more in materials.
While more than a brief discourse on naval history is beyond the scope of this manual, it is only fitting that some mention of this rich heritage be made. There were Wickes and Conyngham, who operated in European waters, and Biddle and Barry, who battle din American waters.
Public sentiment soon caused Congress to re-establish the Navy, and to order the building of six new frigates.
All were very much alike, and their classification into war craft and merchant craft served to distinguish purpose, not type.
Sloops-of-war were the small cruisers or destroyers of the sea, and carried all armament on the spar deck. This spurred Congress to increase our still pitifully small Navy, and to establish in 1798 the office of the Secretary of the Navy, to which Benjamin Stoddert, was appointed, this function previously having been performed by the Secretary of War. He commanded the Constellation, and in 1799 defeated the Insurgente, and the next year the Vengeance.
When war finally broke out, Commodore Edward Preble was sent to the Mediterranean on the Constitution to command the squadron.
He introduced iron discipline in to the service when it was most needed, and yet he became the idol of his officers and men because he was interested in their success. The Philadelphia had fallen into the hands of the Tripolitans and was making an important addition to their harbor defenses.
Commodore Preble decided to send the Intrepid into the harbor of Tripoli and explode it in order to destroy the ships and harbor defenses.
During this interval, the practice of dividing the Navy's cruising vessels into several squadrons, assigned to particular geographic areas in the Atlantic and elsewhere, was inaugurated.
Until 1854, young officers received only rudimentary instruction under unfavorable conditions on board receiving and cruising ships.
He was a midshipman when 10 years old, in command of a ship at 12, and a prisoner of war at 13. So sudden and so great was the change that it has been aptly said that a sailor of the Invincible Armada of 1588 would have been more at home on a frigate in 1840, than a sailor of 1840 would have been on the new-fangled ships that were emerging at the end of the War Between the States.
It had not been so weak since this country was compelled to pay ransom to the Barbary Pirates. It must be emphasized that since 1815 the framers of American naval policy had proceeded on the assumption that commerce raiding and passive coast defense were the Navy's two basic functions in war. He was the advocate of the capital ship theory; in other words, he believed the backbone of the fleet should be the battleship.

This war with Spain was an overwhelming victory for the United States, with the Navy playing a very notable part by defeating two big Spanish fleets.
The American Fleet had been blockading the Spanish Fleet, bottling them up in the harbor, when suddenly the Spaniards steamed out of the harbor intent on escape.
Beginning with the Revolution, the rule had been on the termination of hostilities to decrease the naval establishment both in men and ships.
It must be admitted that although the ideas for these new inventions were the result of American genius, the Navy was not always prompt in recognizing their potentialities. Within a month after our entry, the first American naval forces began arriving in Britain ready for duty.
This unrestricted sinking of American merchant ships was a factor in our entry into the war. The only real changes were the concessions to Japan of a 7 to 10 ratio in cruisers and equality in submarines. Finally, the necessity for a rapid expansion in our Navy became evident, and steps were taken to provide the ships that we would need if we became embroiled in the conflict.
Officers customarily remove their caps when entering sick bay, the wardroom, and the warrant officers' messroom.
The Commanding Officer of a ship or station is addressed as "Captain" regardless of his actual rank, except that a flag officer in command of a shore establishment would, of course, be addressed by his rank. The wise division officer will make it a point to learn the names of all personnel with whom he has frequent contact. In written correspondence, a junior may "invite attention" to certain facts but does not "call attention" to them. Social calls ashore during wartime have been generally discontinued, but it is still incumbent on an officer to pay a visit of courtesy to his Commanding Officer within 48 hours of reporting on board. Naval ships at anchor or moored hoist the national ensign at the flagstaff aft at 0800 and lower it at sunset. In the absence of a band a bugler, if available, sound "To the Colors" at morning colors, and "Retreat" at sunset.
Before lowering from half-mast, the ensign is first raised to the truck or peak and lowered with the usual ceremonies. Whenever The Star Spangled Banner is played, all members of the Navy come to attention, facing the music, except at colors when they face the ensign. As has been stated, the rendering of honors to individuals has been largely eliminated for the duration of the war. If a table of honors is not posted on the quarter-deck, reference may be made to the Watch Officer's Guide or Navy Regulations, which should always be at hand. Includes draftsman, cartographer, plastics expert, telephone switchboard operator supervisors, etc. Poul Holm, Trinity College Dublin on Wednesday April 3rd, the talk discusses the Viking Fleet in Dublin during the middle ages and how their ships ruled the Irish Sea for three centuries.
The build log and plans have been popular with visitors to this site and I've received requests for a larger, dual-motor option.Both these plans consist of two sheets. In addition, this chapter also includes a short discussion of some of the service customs and usages which are the outgrowth of this resplendent past. Unlike the highly organized and efficient force our Navy is today, the Navy which fought in America's war for independence was small.
A mutiny on board one of his ships, in which the ringleader was killed, resulted in his coming to Fredericksburg, Virginia, and in his changing his name to John Paul Jones. After the Revolutionary War, the fortunes of the Navy declined, and it, in fact, ceased to exist.
Naval vessels were divided into three classes: (1) ships-of-the-line, (2) frigates, and (3) sloops-of-war.
About this time, Congress also passed an Act for the Better Government of the Navy of the United States. Soon our naval vessels and privateers were raising such havoc with French naval and merchant ships that the French agreed to a peace treaty. He instilled in his subordinates the necessity for obedience, courage and efficiency--qualities which have since been the standards for the Navy.
It was young Lieutenant Stephen Decatur who went to Preble and volunteered to destroy the ship. The period of war between the years of 1812 and 1815 has been called the Golden Age of the U.S. It served as a means of policing certain seas overrun with pirates, suppressing the slave trade, and protecting and promoting sea trade throughout the world, Each ship was considered a potential solitary raider rather than a unit of a fighting fleet. An incident occurred at sea in 1842 which shocked the country and was to have far-reaching effect. Today, Maury's pilot charts, brought up to date, are indispensable in making ocean travel safe and expeditious.
Although the Navy did not play a particularly big part in the War Between the States, it did accomplish two feats: (1) the blockading of Southern ports, and (2) the splitting of the Confederate States by gaining control of the Mississippi River.
Just as officers in the Royal Navy, when facing great crises seek guidance from the memory of Nelson and his great feats, so American officers look to Farragut for stimulation.
He was put in command of an expedition in the Gulf of Mexico, and at Mobile, while he was stationed on the Hartford, the incident occurred for which Farragut is best remembered. It has been said that probably no naval conflict in the history of the world ever attracted so much attention as did that between the Monitor and Merrimac. When the War Between the States ended, the United States had the strongest Navy in the world.
However, this also marks the turning point, for the Navy began to be rebuilt in the early eighties.
As the eighties witnessed the beginning of the "New Navy," so the nineties are to be remembered as the beginning of a new naval policy that stemmed from the teachings and writings of Commander (later Admiral) Alfred Thayer Mahan.
First, Dewey had sailed into Manila Bay early one morning and, when in position, had calmly said, "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley."1 In a few short hours, the entire Spanish Fleet was resting on the bottom of the bay. As a result, it was the cruiser, the destroyer, and the newly constructed subchaser, which saw most of the action as they tracked down the German submarines. This treaty expired in 1936, and at that time Japan would not agree to anything but equality in all types. It was uphill going for a time, but that did not prevent us from raiding the Gilbert and Marshall Islands and Wake Island. The salute is an act of military courtesy which is exchanged between officers, and between officers and enlisted men.
When under arms, of course, the method of saluting is the appropriate one for the particular arm in hand. No officer who conducts himself according to the ordinary civilian standards of gentlemanly behavior need have concern about committing any serious breaches of naval etiquette.
When passing through the crew's mess hall or chief petty officers' mess at mealtime, officers uncover. Officers of the rank of lieutenant commander and below are properly addressed as "Mister," or "Doctor" in the case of medical and dental officers. In acknowledging salutes from enlisted personnel whose names are unknown to the officer concerned, it is common to address all chief petty officers as "Chief" and other petty officers by their rates. A junior overtaking a senior and desiring to pass requests "By your leave, Sir?" and passes on the left.
It embraces as much of the main or other appropriate deck as may be necessary for the conduct of official and ceremonial functions. If in uniform and covered, they salute at the first note of the anthem, retaining the position until the last note has been sounded. When such ceremonies are to be carried out, there is usually sufficient advance notice to allow for adequate preparation. A balsa hull will definitely be the lightest and potentially fastest, but the least durable.
It consisted of ships collected by the Continental Congress, the navies of the individual states, and privateers (privately owned craft outfitted for war). Shortly after the war broke out, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the newly-founded Navy.
The new government, with an empty treasury and also with a public apathetic toward maintaining either an army or a navy, either sold or gave away all its naval vessels. Ships-of-the-line were heavy vessels with 2 or 3 gun decks, carrying 75 to 125 guns, and were the battleships of that period. This act embodied a set of regulations taken almost work for word from the rules governing the Royal Navy. When severe damage to the mainmast was reported to him buy a sailor who begged him to come down before the mast fell, he replied, "If the mast goes, we go with it. In that year Midshipman Philip Spencer, son of the Secretary of War under President Tyler, and two seamen were hanged at the yardarm of the U.S.

It revolutionized the navies of the world and showed that wooden ships, which had long held control of the ocean, were of little or no further use for fighting purposes. A scientist and an inventor, an officer of genius and unusual force, he finally succeeded in arousing the Navy from its lethargy. During the next 20 years, the shadow of neglect well-nigh obliterated the once powerful Navy as it rotted away in the navy yards.
This book was widely acclaimed throughout the world's navies, especially by those of Great Britain, Germany, and Japan.
While it is true that the Spanish defenses were inefficient, it was, nonetheless, a great victory. Some of our capital ships were stationed in Britain to help patrol the North Sea in case the German Fleet came out for battle, but such a battle never occurred. The limitations on naval building were, therefore, allowed to lapse, with the exception of an agreement between Great Britain and ourselves not to compete in naval construction. We have slugged it out with parts of the Jap Fleet in the Solomons, at Midway, and elsewhere, and have come out on top. Juniors always salute first, but it is to be remembered that this is not an act of subservience, and it is the senior's responsibility to return the greeting. A few hints about certain of the more common courtesies of the service should prove helpful, however.
Some common abbreviations for rates are: "Boats," for boatswains' mates, "Guns," for gunner's mates, "Flags" for signalmen, "Chips" for carpenter's mates, and "Stores" for storekeepers. Other officers are assigned permanent seats at the table alternately, in order of rank, to the right and left of the presiding officer, except that the mess treasurer sits opposite the presiding officer.
Nonetheless, it is important that midshipmen be familiar with some of the traditional practices which are still a part of naval life. Commissioned officers and their visitors use the starboard gangway in reaching the quarter-deck; the port gangway is used by all other persons. In leaving the quarter-deck, the same salutes are rendered in the reverse order, the officer of the deck being saluted first.
At both morning and evening colors, "Attention" is sounded, and all officers a men face the ensign and render the salute. Yet even this small force was able not only to destroy and capture British ships and supplies, but also to hurt British morale.
It was not long before he was promoted to the rank of Captain, and given command of the Ranger. In short, the discipline and traditions of the British Service, at that time the best in the world, were adopted as the standards of our own. Our post is here." The next roll sent the tall mast splintering over the side, throwing Jarvis to his death. Navy, for his squadron was a training school for most of the young officers who later distinguished themselves in the War of 1812. Within five minutes they had complete possession of the ship, cutting down the foe or driving them into the sea. Fuzes were installed that would burn 15 minutes before igniting the explosives, and thus give the men time to escape in the small boats. Although our Navy in the War of 1812 was outnumbered 40 to 1 by the British Navy, it fought a series of frigate and sloop-of-war duels which resulted in astounding victories.
Knowing that the Tecumseh, with almost all hands had just gone down in that area, he shouted, "Damn the torpedoes!
The futility of the long and furious cannonade, contrasted with the outstanding victories of the Merrimac over unarmored ships on the previous day, made the battle a landmark in the development of the warship. His career was not a romantic story nor was he a popular hero, but his enthusiasm and love for the Navy have rarely been surpassed. Despite the fact that the War Between the States had demonstrated the advantage of steam propulsion, when the war was over, the Navy went back to sail. The two reasons for this continued expansion were the need for a large navy to protect our new possessions, and the enthusiasm of President Theodore Roosevelt for the Navy since his holding of the office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Not only that, but we have been so effectively combating the German submarines in the Atlantic that we now have the upper hand. On shipboard, seniors are saluted on the first daily meeting only, except that flag officers, captains of ships, and seniors attached to other ships receive salutes on every occasion of meeting. These include the etiquette of the quarter-deck, honors to the colors and National Anthem, side honors, and passing honors. The talk gives a fresh view of Norse sea power before and after the battle of Clontarf in 1014. The plans show a lot of detail, without being intimidating, and could produce a truly handsome boat.The two plan sets are available in a single zip file. He did so well harassing the British in American waters that he was sent across the Atlantic to raid British shipping in its home waters. These may be explained, in part, by the fact that our frigates were the best constructed in the world and our gunnery more accurate than the British.
The result of the Spencer incident, which clearly showed the demoralizing influence of taking undisciplined young men into the service, was the founding the U.S.
Go ahead!" So that he might command the engagement from the best vantage point and yet not be in danger of falling overboard if wounded, he climbed the rigging and lashed himself to it. It was the first conflict in which ironclad fought ironclad, and on that occasion armor proved superior to armament. Also it did not heed the revolution taking place in armament, armor, and naval architecture mentioned previously. This enormous expansion, after years of neglect, was carried out in spite of an almost total lack of shipbuilding material and equipment.
In 1921 at the Washington Naval Conference, we suggested the scrapping of 66 of the world's capital ships already completed or under construction, and the establishment of a 10-year naval building holiday.
And, in addition to all this, we have convoyed hundreds of thousands of men, plus equipment, munitions, and supplies to the far-flung battle fronts. The executive officer or other senior officer is saluted when he is making an official inspection. For a single-motor setup, I'd consider up-sizing and centering the rudder for better control. While non one knows exactly what happened, it seems evident that the ship was intercepted by the enemy. The old ironclads were allowed to deteriorate, and in 1872 several of the obsolete type wooden vessels were ordered.
Limitations on the size of battleships (35,000 tons) and on the size of guns were also agreed upon. Now we are on the offensive and already have engaged in the amphibious operations in the Solomons and Southwest Pacific, and in Africa, Sicily, and Italy. While in command of her, he fought the historic battle in which he captured the bigger British ship, the Serapis. Rather than surrender, they must have thrown a match into the explosives; and the crew and ship went up together. Regardless of many old timers, who laughed at the idea of "teaching sailors on shore," the institution was established. Public apathy was opposed to maintaining a Navy primarily because we had no colonies to defend, no incentive to interfere in European affairs, and little merchant marine to protect. There were no mills in this country capable of producing the steel plates required for the new ships, and this demand gave birth to our huge American steel industry. Until thoroughly familiar with these regulations, a fairly safe rule to follow is: When in doubt, salute.
Thus another gallant deed was added to those which form the basis for the traditions of the Navy. It was opened mainly through the efforts of George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy at the time, and was placed under the direction of Commander Franklin Buchanan with 50 midshipmen and 7 instructors. It might also be stated that, in order to obtain Japan's approval of this ratio, we agreed not to fortify our possessions in the Orient.
Time has proved this to have been an essential step toward producing a thoroughly competent officer corps. The Academy, furthermore, has nurtured a high degree of unity, general efficiency, and morale in the Navy.

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