HODJAPASHA ART and CULTURE CENTER,RUMI,The name Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi stands for Love and ecstatic flight into the infinite. The Mevlevi, or Mevleviye, one of the most well-known of the Sufi orders, was founded in 1273 by Rumi's followers after his death, particularly his son, Sultan Veled Celebi (or A‡elebi, Chelebi) in Konya , from where they gradually spread throughout the Ottoman Empire. The Mevlevi Order is also linked to other Dervish orders such as the Qadiri (founded in 1165), the Rifa'i (founded in 1182), and the Kalenderis. Following a recommended fast of several hours, the whirlers begin to rotate on their left feet in short twists, using the right foot to drive their bodies around the left foot.
The Mevlevi Sema Ceremony is proclamated as an INTANGIBLE WORLD HERITAGE in Traditional performing art social practices themes by UNESCO in October 2005. The unremarkable sound of one toe, tipped with vibrant pink polish, testing the waters of this cyber-ponda€¦ Not a big deal to jump in, right? The world is split amongst those who read novels on a pool chaise, some who slide torturously down the poolside ladder, those who bravely dive right in, and a few of us who first toe-check the temperature, knowing full well that, eventually, wea€™re going to get ourselves all wet. Maybe ita€™s the vestiges of eldest child hyper-responsibility or a sideways glance into the dressing room mirror to view my full amount of exposure. One of the a€?givensa€™a€¦ The attitudes and perspectives we surreptitiously tuck away inside of us ultimately reappear in one form or another along the way. My kids made that not-so-subtle shift from "No more school!!" to "What is there to do?" this past week. Well; they'll have a couple of weeks of local vacation time with their dad next month, time that I've marked off for my own yet-to-be-planned venture. Knowing that I will likely succumb to a last fling of adventure with the kids over some long weekend in August, I find I can really look forward to a trip with just "me" in the meantime.
Because I've since found alternate, equally valid renewal in the perfect moments that live on in my mind alone. Whether traveling alone or with your favorite people, it's always about who you're with, and I've found my unadulterated self to be good company.
Enjoy your summer travel, check out my blog for some fun kiddo adventures that stimulate the mind as well. My point is that, when in exploration mode, it's preferable to search for the more compelling camera perspective, rather than the closest ATM machine.
When the kids and I traveled to Akumal, Mexico last April, I had a single mom's typical questions.
On the Virtual Tourist website, I was able to post practical, detailed questions and get quick responses from recent travelers to the area.
Last August, when my daughter and I brain-stormed destinations for a quick week-end get-away, Niagara landed solidly atop her list.
A week later, with reservations secured at the Embassy Suites in Ontario, we were on our way. The kids have learned to call such setbacks "adventures"; an early part of their training meant to minimize (my) whining and encourage problem solving, and it works! Air travel can have the feel of an odd sort of zoo outing in which you are actually confined with the fascinating creatures. She smelled of something alcoholic at ten in the morning and hated flying, not out of fear but more for the tie-down it represented. Macy and Robert were traveling with another couple to a friend's time-share while this same friend was in the hospital awaiting surgery for a heart ailment. PRIVATE ISTANBUL TOUR ,A Day in Istanbul filled with History & Culture,Les Arts Turcs Tours are offering you a nice full day visit in the historical peninsula.
Tour of "Sultan Ahmet Center", the heart of the "Old City" from where the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires were ruled. Istanbul Life ORG Tours are offering you a nice full day visit in the historical peninsula. Tour of "Sultan Ahmet Center", the heart of the "Old City" from where the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires were ruled. Hippodrome, center of sportive (chariot races, athletics) events and political activities of the old city. Topkapi Palace Museum , this extraordinary and secret palace was the residence of the Imperial Ottoman Sultans and the center of the Ottoman might for nearly 400 years.The building are a typical example of Ottoman architecture and the rooms exhibit rich collections of porcelains, robes, weapons,shields,armors,Ottoman miniatures, Islamic calligraphic manuscripts as well as Ottoman treasures and jewellery.
Turkish Islamic Arts Museum, orginally built 1524 as the palace of Ibrahim Pasha - Grand Vizier and brother-in-law of Sultan Soliman the Magnificient, it is now a museum presenting notable examples of Islamic calligraphy, tiles, rugs as well as ethnographic displays of various cultyres in Turkey, particularly nomad groups. Rumi is one of the great spiritual masters and poetical geniuses of mankind and was the founder of the Mevlevi Sufi order, a leading mystical brotherhood of Islam. He is the Divine Voice giving the good news to those seeking beauty , truth , goodness , light and Divine Truth. Today, Mevleviye can be found in many Turkish communities throughout the world but the most active and famous places for their activity are still Konya and Istanbul. The Mevlevi Order was outlawed in Turkey at the dawn of the secular revolution by Kemal AtatA?rk in 1923.he Mevlevi Sema Ceremony Mevleviye are known for their famous practice of whirling dances. The body of the whirler is meant to be supple with eyes open, but unfocused so that images become blurred and flowing.
Explore Old Istanbul, from the ancient tradition of the Turkish bath to the mystic Whirling Dervishes, from the Egyptian Spice Market to the trade secrets of the Silk Road linking Europe with China. A The fluid tones are familiar, heard before in movie soundtracks and traditional Chinese music, but the instrument is not. Maybe ita€™s blessed anticipationa€¦ Kind of silly; I write with the same regularity that I floss my teeth, and Ia€™m a hygienista€™s dream. I travel to discover and am often delighted to discover adventures within the confines of an ordinary day.
With on-line travel guides, recent photos, and useful tips compiled by like-minded individuals (meaning those that deem travel to be a necessity, just slightly below food, water and shelter), the website has the up-to-the-minute details that you aren't likely to carry out of your local bookstore.
We organise the tours as private or in small number of groups upon the date & requests.
Obelisk of Theodosius, Serpentine Column, German Fountain of Wilhelm II are the monuments decorating Hippodrome. One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. Rumi was born on 30 September 1207 in Balkh in present day Afghanistan to a family of learned theologians. The Mevlevi were a well established Sufi Order in the Ottoman Empire, and many of the members of the order served in various official positions of the Caliphate.
At their dancing ceremonies, or Sema, a particular musical repertoire called ayin is played.
The Sema takes place in a large circular-shaped room that is part of the mevlevihane building. Each of these intimate half-day and full-day tours will immerse you in a unique aspect of Turkish history and culture.Get expert help choosing the best hotels for yor needs and budget for your stay in A°stanbul and Turkey, Fethiye, Antalya, Marmaris, Bodrum, A°zmir, Gaziantep, Canakkale, Cappadocia, Black Sea, Gallipoli, Ephesus, East Turkey. I guess ita€™s a matter of choosing to sing original lyrics in the park rather than only within the relative acoustic safety of my tiled shower. And writing is also a decent way to move from one loop to the next before I get sick on the ride.
By the time we arrive in our eighties, our attitudes are etched with particular emphasis onto our faces. With kids, you don't even leave the dock without first checking for life jackets, extra towels and t-shirts, and enough emergency food to sustain your teen-ager. I guess that realization was what opened my mind and heart to "just go", with or without a travel companion. Obelisk of Theodosius, Serpentine Column, German Fountain of Wilhelm II are the monuments decorating Hippodrome. Escaping the Mongol invasion and destruction, Rumi and his family traveled extensively in the Muslim lands, performed pilgrimage to Mecca and finally settled in Konya, Anatolia, then part of Seljuk Empire. This is based on four sections of both vocal and instrumental compositions using contrasting rhythmic cycles and is performed by at least one singer, a flute-player (neyzen), a kettledrummer and a cymbal player. In all those areas in Turkey you can find different variations of tour programmes from walking tour to Full package tours according to our all budget guests. I loathed geometric theorems and proofs, but from this safe distance, can vaguely recognize the value of establishing some a€?givensa€? from which to build onward and upward. Maybe if you can map your last steps, however, you can gain sensitivity to the tremors of today and tomorrow. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. When his father Bahaduddin Valad passed away, Rumi succeeded his father in 1231 as professor in religious sciences. There is also a Mevlevi monastery or dergah in Istanbul, near the Galata Tower, where the sema ceremony is performed and accessible to the public.During Ottoman Empire era, the Mevlevi order produced a number of famous poets and musicians such as Sheikh Ghalib, Ismail Ankaravi (both buried at the Galata Mevlevi-Hane) and Abdullah Sari. The oldest musical compositions stem from the mid-sixteenth century combining Persian and Turkish musical traditions. In the 1950s, the Turkish government, began allowing the Whirling Dervishes to perform annually in Konya on the Urs of Mevlana, December 17, the anniversary of Rumi's death.
With our professional team you will spend a nice and well organised holiday, TURKEY TOURS,tour,tours in istanbul,istanbul in tour,turkey tours,tours in turkey,istanbul hotels,istanbul hotel,hotels of turkey,anzac day tours,Tours in Istanbul,Welcome to Istanbul - Our company is recommended in Lonely Planet guide book & trusted since 2000. If I dona€™t write a€?eggsa€? on my shopping list, I will buy them in excess and still wonder if Ia€™m forgetting them when I drive by the grocery. Permanent gratitude or engraved displeasure for all to see and see througha€¦ There is no hiding of the heart. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak. Rumi 24 years old, was an already accomplished scholar in religious and positive sciences.The mevlevi brotherhood is founded completely on love and tolerance.
He teaches that every thing is within the human being and that the whole universe is under man's command.Mevlana is a great lover of the Divine Truth.
Music, especially the ney, play an important part in the Mevelevi order and thus much of the traditional "oriental" music that Westerners associate with Turkey originates with the Mevlevi order. The repertoire was continuously broadened, and the first notations were made from the early twentieth century onwards. A totally different travel experience, in that actually leaving is often a greater surprise than the eventual destination itself! She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. Indeed, if one buys a CD of Turkish Sufi music, chances are it will be Mevlevi religious music. They performed in France, for Pope Paul VI, and at the Brooklyn Academy of Music and other venues in the United States and Canada - under the direction of the late Mevlevi Shaikh Suleyman Hayati Dede. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. During the Ottoman period, the Mevlevi order spread into the Balkans, Syria, and Egypt (and is still practiced in both countries where they are known as the Mawlawi order). Many practitioners kept their tradition alive in private gatherings, and thirty years later, the Turkish government began to allow performances again, though only in public. The Bosnian writer Mesa Selimovic wrote the book Death and the Dervish about a Mevlevi dergah in Sarajevo.
From the 1990s, restrictions were eased and private groups re-emerged who try to re-establish the original spiritual and intimate character of the Sema ceremony. Calligraphy Lesson in Istanbul,Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction.
He is prejudiced toward none because he knows that everything is the manifestation and actualization of God and he reflects this as a spritual state to the mind and heart of man Mevlana is asuperior and saintly master . 3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. Just as the ocean can only fill the jug to its capacity , so mevlana can only fit into words and our perception in proportion to our capacity . He is a monument to spritually who , through his sublimity , displayed his moral values , his knowledge , wisdom love , intelligence , perception of God , behaviour , everything .
He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. His is the true representative of the prophets , the highest element and realization of love and intelligence. Choose love that you might be a chosen one."To give up one's own existence and become non-existent in God , th is , to bind ones's heart completely to God , is shortest way to God . Photo Safari Tour in Istanbul ,Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young.
He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
In this way that person no longer acts in accordance with his ego , doing the bad things that would cause harm to others.


Each year thousands of people from the far corners of the world, travel to Konya in response to Mevlana's call of 735 years ago: "Come, come again, whoever you are, come!Heathen, fire worshipper or idolatrous, come! Real Whirling Dervish Ceremony in Istanbul,We will take you Fatih and Silivrikapi Monestries in Istanbul , Sufism Speech with Dervish EROLKnown to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. At 16.00 pm our tour finishes and we take you to Kusadasi for free time and some shopping , we transfer you to Izmir airport for your flight to Istanbul and transfer back to your hotel. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D.
Mevlana's books are translated to many languages and are among the best selling books of their sort all over the world.
At present, Mevlana, better known there as Rumi, is the "best selling poet" in United States of America. He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". The Essential Rumi by Coleman Barks has sold more than a quarter of a million copies and is one of the top 1000 best selling books at Amazon. 17.00 our tour finish and we transfer you to Kayseri airport for flight to Istanbul and transfer back to your hotel.
Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career.
It is by far the largest selling poem book ever!Sufism is a mystical Muslim school of thought and aims to find love and knowledge through direct personal experience of Allah. Sufism, often referred to as the mystical dimension of Islam, was formerly understood in Orientalist scholarship as a spiritual movement that reached its apogee during the medieval period of Islamic history, with its crowning achievement being the brilliant literary productions in Arabic and Persian that became the classics of the Sufi tradition.
He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations. He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication. His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite. Some Sufis (primarily in "the West") are involved with other religions, or no formal religion -- as directed by the higher source of wisdom within the human heart. Shopping Tour in Istanbul,Shopping Tour is one of our most requested tours for the people who wants to nice & unique things for themselves or for the friends, relatives etc. He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. Graveyard ( Cemetary ) Tours in Istanbul,Cemeteries in Turkish cities were originally made on the outskirts of the cities, so that as cities expanded, the grave yards became part of the inner city landscape. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883.
She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before.
One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way.
5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college.
She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years. From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life.
In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson.
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland.
By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health. After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae. She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous".
By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out.
I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets. Sufism Speech with Dervish EROL,Known to the west as Whirling Dervishes, the Mevlevi Order was founded by Mevlana Rumi in the 13th century. By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall.
The Order wrote of tolerance, forgiveness, and enlightenment.Istanbul Day Tours, Istanbul city tours, Sultanahmet Tours, Walkig Tours in istanbul, Art Tours in istanbul, walking tours in istanbul, group tours in istanbul, private tours in istanbul, hire a guide in istanbul, off the paths tour in istanbul, excursions in istanbul, ottoman tour, byzantine tour in istanbul, classical sightseeing tours in istanbul Swimming Tour in Istanbul,Kilyos is a small Black Sea village which is surrounded by green forests. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities.
The village is just a forty five minutes drive from Istanbul.Turkish Music Lesson in Istanbul,The last august 2004 I stayed in Istanbul, during a holiday trip. Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf.
Yoga Lesson in Istanbul,Yoga is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure.
A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. Jewish community have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor for more than 2,400 years. In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor.
At the end of the 15th century, a large number of Sephardic Jews fleeing persecution in Spain and Portugal settled in Asia Minor on the invitation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library.
The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2,500 in A°zmir and other smaller groups located in the rest of Turkey. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity. In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find. In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbula€™s scenic panoramas.
The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found. Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help.
It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under SA?leyman I the Magnificent.
It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication. We will transfer to your hotel MINA Hotel, 3 Days Special Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,4 Days Special Hotel and Tour Reservation in Istanbul,3 Days Yoga Tour in Istanbul,You will be able to learn the basic or advance techniques about yoga and have a nice time during your visit in istanbul . Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work. He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies.
His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt.
13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut. The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time.
Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic.
14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet).
The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure.
Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation.
Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo. Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier. The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number. Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys.
Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator.
It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues.


I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying. 18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday. She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries.
The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked.
Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls. At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus. In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find.
Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England.
When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it.
We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue.
When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus. 20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds. He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum. The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time. The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion.
One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III. 21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design.
In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games. For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity. The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her.
She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site.
She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896.
After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation.
The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance.
By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years".
Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings.
They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago. A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier. With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone. She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding. Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period. During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt.
Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary. Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22.
In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections.
It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court.
The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple. Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators. A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen.
The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place.
These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler.
The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it.
A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple.
Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls. In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues. As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.



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