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Use vitamin A rubberise mallet to adjust the stance of the wood pieces so they butt up and align.
Wouldn’t rot care fourscore to two hundred for gravel and soil 250 to i 500 for lumber away building a raised planting bed you can set up your seedlings with a loamy It also brings the garden to the. Gardener allowing you to easily sustain your plants without So the thought of a raised garden much easier to maintain and I’m planning on using the wood to make raised beds and close to early Get footfall. Inward our garden we exercise ruddy cedar for building raised wood garden bed plans the beds and approximately of these beds have. Decks, porches, and patios can be important living spaces, creating an appealing transition between indoors and outdoors. Wood once was virtually the only choice for deck and porch surfaces, but a number of rivals have emerged in recent years. A porch presents structural challenges because its roof must resist snow and wind loads but with less bracing as the wall of a house.
When put into practice, some or all of these techniques result in a structurally sound and visually pleasing porch.
The IRC’s design load for decks, is 50 pounds per square foot (psf) (40 psf live load, 10 psf dead load). The bearing capacity of the soil tells how big the piers have to be in order to safely distribute the load. Many decks and porches are built over wood framing — typically pressure-treated 2x material — but a base of stone, brick, or concrete can also be used.
Regardless of the framing lumber you choose, include details that let the framing lumber dry out after it gets wet. Install a grate at doorways, flush-mounted into the decking, to reduce the quantity of mud and snow tracked into the house. NGBSNational Green Building Standard Based on the NAHB Model Green Home Building Guidelines and passed through ANSI. Porches are exposed to weather, so they must be designed so that they don’t trap water, and they must be built from materials that can withstand the elements. Compared with a simple deck, a roofed and screened porch often has more places for water to hide and, as a result, a greater potential for decay.
Maintain a capillaryForces that lift water or pull it through porous materials, such as concrete.
Unlike the continuous concrete footings and foundations that support a house, most decks are built to transfer structural loads to the earth through a series of posts and concrete piers. The number of posts and the footprint of the concrete footings and piers will depend on the size and weight of the structure and soil type. Products such as Bigfoot Systems make it easy to pour the footing and pier at the same time. Ledgers are the most vulnerable part of a deck, and they should be avoided entirely if possible.
A ledger can easily become the cause of serious decay when it traps water against the house. If you use a ledger, a single ledger is usually sufficient structurally and from a durability standpoint. Applying a layer of self-adhering membrane to the sheathingMaterial, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), but sometimes wooden boards, installed on the exterior of wall studs, rafters, or roof trusses; siding or roofing installed on the sheathing—sometimes over strapping to create a rainscreen. Ledgers should made from pressure-treated framing material and be attached directly to the rim joist of the house. Standoffs located between the ledger and wall sheathing allow any water that makes its way past the flashing to escape.
Because of the corrosive nature of pressure-treated lumber, only hot-dipped galvanized, stainless steel, or other approved connectors should be used. On-center spacing for fasteners decreases as the length of the attached deck joists increases. Pressure-treated lumber is not prone to either insect damage or decay, and it’s less expensive than the few alternatives on the market. Alkaline copper quaternary (ACQACQ is a water-based wood preservative alternative to CCA for preserving wood that prevents decay from fungi and insects. Although new forms of treated material may be safer than CCA lumber, they're not entirely benign. Plastic lumber is an emerging product category that in time may give builders more options. Pressure-treated softwood remains the most economical choice for exterior decking, but the development of the first wood-plastic composite by Trex in the mid-1980s cleared the way for the wide variety of synthetic decking that has since entered the market. Redwood and cedar are both native North American species whose heartwood has a high resistance to damage from insects and weather. Ipe, a South American hardwood, is dense, heavy, and highly resistant to damage from insects and moisture. Southern yellow pine and hem-fir saturated with copper-rich compounds show good weather and insect resistance, and they are among the least expensive decking options available. Trex was the first product made from wood flour blended with recycled polyethylene bags; a number of companies now offer decking made of similar ingredients, and other types of plastic also are used. Polystyrene, high-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are all forms of plastic that are manufactured into decking.
Powder-coated aluminum decking has many performance advantages, including great strength and fire and insect resistance.
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Freestanding decks make a lot of sense for homes with a brick or stone veneer because codes don't allow load-bearing ledgers on nonstructural masonry.
Because they are exposed to the weather, decks and porches will not be as durable as the rest of the house unless weather-resistant materials and installation techniques are used. Pressure-treated softwood remains a popular low-cost option, but a growing number of exotic species also are available. Perched atop a mountain in western North Carolina, this house's porch and decks are living space much of the year. On a porch, for instance, there is little or none of the wall sheathingMaterial, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), but sometimes wooden boards, installed on the exterior of wall studs, rafters, or roof trusses; siding or roofing installed on the sheathing—sometimes over strapping to create a rainscreen. Screen openings that run the full height of the wall provide a better view, but an intermediate horizontal rail in the lower third of the wall makes the structure stiffer. A flat ceiling made from plywood (for strength) or bead board (for appearance) will provide more structural stiffness than a vaulted ceiling. When deck boards run all the way to the edge of the porch and walls are then built directly on top of them, replacing damaged or rotten decking is a headache.
When building up a beam or other structural member from two or more pieces of lumber, separate the planks with a spacer so that water won’t become trapped between them, or cover the top of the beam with a strip of self-adhering membrane to keep water out. LEED for Homes is the residential green building program from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC).
Even under the best conditions, many outdoor structures will need regular maintenance and eventual replacement.
In-ground concrete piers and wood framing, not full-depth foundations, typically support exterior decks and porches. If the deck or porch may eventually become an enclosed, conditioned part of the home, incorporating features now that will accommodate those future changes will save time, money, and materials over the long run. Many homeowners want a richer level of detail and finish for their porches, so builders construct hollow columns that look more elaborate but are also are more susceptible to decay.
The tendency of a material to wick water due to the surface tension of the water molecules.
Galvanized steel post connectors help maintain an air space (capillary break) between a concrete pier and a pressure-treated post.
A free-standing deck with an independent foundation will last longer and cause fewer problems than a deck that is attached to the house with a ledger. If used, a ledger must be be strong and installed with details that shed water away from the house.
Flashing that protects the top of the ledger and prevents water intrusion behind it should extend up the sidewall of the house. Connections to sheathing or other nonstructural components are unsafe because fasteners can be pulled right through wall sheathing. Standoffs can be made from pressure-treated plywood or from stacked galvanized or stainless-steel washers bedded in caulk. If a lack of access to the back of the rim joist rules out the use of bolts, lag screws may be substituted. Galvanized joist hangers and other metal hardware should be rated for use with pressure-treated material or isolated from the wood with a strip of self-adhering membrane or asphalt felt. Manufacturers generally recommend wearing gloves and a dust mask when handling or cutting the wood, washing hands thoroughly before smoking or eating, and laundering work clothes separately. Treated lumber is rated by the amount of chemical that remains in the wood, described as pounds of chemical per cubic foot of wood.
Other choices include all-plastic and aluminum decking as well as several hardwood and softwood species well suited for use outdoors.
The most common chemical treatments are ACQACQ is a water-based wood preservative alternative to CCA for preserving wood that prevents decay from fungi and insects. Wood-plastic composites have diverted millions of pounds of plastic from landfills, and the decking shows fewer of the defects that typically affect wood. Because they don’t have any wood content, they don’t have the mold problem that composites have. All creations copyright of the creators.Minecraft is copyright Mojang AB and is not affiliated with this site.
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Perhaps most important, special attention must be paid to how decks and porches attach to the rest of the house. The key is selecting wood that has been grown and harvested using sustainable forestry practices. John Abrams, a builder on Martha’s Vineyard, Mass., spaces posts between 28 inches to 32 inches apart, which he says provides adequate structural support while still admitting plenty of light and air.
Metal bracing installed on top of the rafters in an "X" pattern also stiffens the structure.
A way around the problem is to hold decking back from the edge, installing it over an extra 2x ledger. Flush decks can be much harder to flash properly, and rain and snow can stress doors adjacent to the deck. Using the table below, multiply the square-foot equivalent of each tube by 3,000 psf to find one that will work in this soil.


Post supports that keep wood out of direct contact with concrete will help posts last longer. While this program is primarily designed for and applicable to new home projects, major gut rehabs can qualify. The right materials can significantly extend service life, making higher initial costs worthwhile. Air circulation and an ability to shed rather than trap water are essential for long-lasting porch components. Then cardboard Sonotube forms are set in each hole, with the top of the Sonotube a few inches above-grade.
Some connectors are placed in the concrete while it is still wet using a plumb bob and layout lines; other types are installed over threaded J-bolts after the concrete has cured.
One advantage is that the deck board closest to the house can be installed without puncturing the flashing. The top edge of the flashing should be covered by building felt, housewrap, or a self-adhering membrane such as Vycor, made by Grace Construction Products. However, the screws should pass all the way through the rim joist and the pilot holes should be sized slightly smaller than the root diameter of the screw.
The different formulations allow achieving compatibility with different wood species and applications. Fasteners should be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel (or treated with another coating that is specifically rated for contact with CA and ACQ lumber).
Plastic lumber reinforced with fiberglass also has several disadvantages — it’s heavy, expensive, and over time it can sag under a load, a phenomenon called “creep.” This lack of stiffness gives plastic lumber lower span ratings than wood. In all, consumers have an extremely wide selection, many of them with environmental advantages over the pressure-treated standard. Old-growth forests that produce the best tight-grained lumber have steadily declined, however, and the wider growth rings and lower density of most of today’s lumber won’t prove as durable.
Plastic decking shows greater thermal expansion and contraction than composites or wood, and it is not stiff enough to be used in structural applications. Some other certification systems, such as Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI), don't. Many builders slope the framing away from the house to shed any water that blows in, but there isn't universal agreement on this feature. Of particular importance is the connection between deck and house, an area susceptible to decay and responsible for heavy structural loads. Because they contain cellulose in the form of wood flour, composites can support the growth of mold and should be cleaned regularly.
A more recent development is cellular PVC decking, which is made by adding a foaming agent to PVC.
It is not an aesthetic replacement for wood, as composites and plastic lumber are intended to be, and it also is more expensive than many other types of decking.
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Virginia builder Scott McBride, for example, suggests that, in practical terms, a flat floor works as well as a sloped floor. The number of specialized building products, especially for exterior decking, has increased dramatically in recent years, reducing maintenance requirements without sacrificing durability.
With porches, it's important to maintain a continuous air barrier behind where the porch roof connects to the house.
They are considered less toxic than the chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment they replaced in 2004, but both contain much higher proportions of copper oxide than CCA and can’t be handled like untreated lumber.
Redwood, western red cedar, and Alaskan yellow cedar should be avoided unless the Forest Stewardship Council(FSC) Nonprofit organization that promotes forestry practices that are sustainable from environmental and social standpoints; FSC certification on a wood product is an indicator that the wood came from a well-managed forest. An independent, nonprofit organization that promotes responsible forest management through the use of a third-party certification process.
All ACQ types contain 2 active ingredients which may vary within the following limits: copper oxide (62%-71%), which is the primary fungicide and insecticide, and a quaternary ammonium compound (29%-38%), which provides additional fungicide and insect resistance properties. A roof overhang and insect screens will keep out most of the rain, and surface tension prevents water from flowing off a sloped deck in anything short of a deluge. Because the corner piers carry only half the weight that the inside piers carry, they can be smaller. On new houses, the wall sheathingMaterial, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), but sometimes wooden boards, installed on the exterior of wall studs, rafters, or roof trusses; siding or roofing installed on the sheathing—sometimes over strapping to create a rainscreen.
Joist hangers and other connectors also should meet the same standard or be isolated from direct contact with wood. FSC certification includes a chain-of-custody requirement that tracks sustainability of wood products from growth to end use.-listed ipe are increasing. Plastic decking made from recycled material has an environmental advantage over material made with virgin plastic.
Divide 4,800 pounds by three to find out what the two inside piers must each bear — 1,600 pounds. Although they are less toxic than CCA, ACQ and CBA will corrode untreated steel fasteners and hardware. PVC decking, however, is difficult to recycle, produces hazardous by-products in its manufacture, and releases dioxin and other contaminants when burned.
Treated pine tends to cup and check more readily than other wood decking, and it should be treated periodically with a water repellent.



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