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Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) supports installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes, and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS). To start ASMCA, enter asmca at a command prompt inside the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. The GUI tool displays and attempts to connect to the Oracle ASM instance identified with the Oracle system identifier (SID) set to +ASM. If ASMCA detects an Oracle ASM instance that is not running, then ASMCA prompts whether you want to start the instance. If ASMCA detects an Oracle ASM instance from a previous release, then ASMCA prompts whether you want to upgrade the instance. To continue the upgrade process with ASMCA, see "Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant". To start the command-line ASMCA, see "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface". Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create an Oracle ASM instance if an Oracle ASM instance is not found on the host, as shown in Figure 11-1.
On the Create ASM page, you enter the SYS password for the administrator of the Oracle ASM instance and the password for the ASMSNMP user that can monitor this Oracle ASM instance. When you can click ASM Parameters in the Create ASM page, you can update initialization parameters for an Oracle ASM instance on the Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant page, as shown in Figure 11-2.
For information about Oracle ASM instance initialization parameters, see "Configuring Initialization Parameters for Oracle ASM Instances".
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant also enables you to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM instance to the current software level. If Oracle Clusterware has been upgraded, then there is no need to upgrade the Oracle ASM instance in that Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure software 11g Release 2 (11.2) is installed in a separate home. The Oracle ASM instance 11g Release 2 (11.2) is set up as an Oracle Restart (single-instance) configuration.
Shut down the Oracle Enterprise Manager agent, Oracle Database instance, and the listener in the older database home. Connect to the database instance with SQL*Plus as a privileged user and run the SHUTDOWN command. Run Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and select the Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure Software Only option. Complete the screens in the OUI installer and run the scripts as prompted by the OUI installer. When you run the root.sh script on Linux, note the instructions in the output of that script. After the OUI has completed, perform the procedures that are described in the output of the root.sh script that you ran during the installation. For example, for a standalone (single-instance) configuration on Linux, run the following script as root to upgrade the necessary services, including Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS). For an upgrade, you must update the node list by running OUI as the installation user in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
Ensure that the current Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) are running in the home where the Oracle ASM instance is located. On Windows, you can use the crsctl and localconfig commands or the Windows Services GUI tool. Start Network Configuration Assistant (NETCA) in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home with netca.
When ASMCA detects an earlier version of Oracle ASM, the assistant automatically determines the location of that instance and the location of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, as shown in Figure 11-3. When upgrading an Oracle ASM instance to the current software level, ASMCA moves the Oracle ASM instance pre-11g Release 2 (11.2) to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home and updates the appropriate environmental variables. Ensure that the Oracle Database instance and Oracle Enterprise Manager agent are running in the Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) home. Connect to the Oracle Database instance with SQL*Plus as a privileged user and run the STARTUP command. Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to configure or create Oracle ASM disk groups with the Configure ASM Disk Groups tab, as shown in Figure 11-4.
You can right click a selected disk group in the screen to display the configuration options menu. There are additional options for creating a disk group, mounting all disk groups, and dismounting all disk groups.
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create an Oracle ASM disk group by clicking Create on the Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant disk group page. On this page, you can enter a name for the disk group, select the redundancy level, change the disk discovery path to locate disks in a different directory, identify the disks to be in the disk group, enter a name for a failure group, and specify if the failure group is a quorum type. You can choose to show advanced options when creating a disk group, as shown in Figure 11-6. For more information about managing disk groups, see Chapter 4, "Administering Oracle ASM Disk Groups". Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create or configure an Oracle ADVM volume, as shown in Figure 11-7. Right click a selected volume in the Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant screen to display the configuration options menu. Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create Oracle ADVM volumes, as shown in Figure 11-7.
If the number of stripe columns is set to 1, then striping is disabled and the stripe width is equal to the volume extent size. Before creating an Oracle ADVM volume on AIX, ensure that the necessary user authorizations have been created.
For information about creating a volume with the ASMCMD volcreate command, refer to "volcreate". Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create or configure an Oracle ACFS file system, as shown in Figure 11-9.
To configure an existing file system, right click a selected file system in the Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant screen to display the configuration options menu. Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to create an Oracle ACFS file system, as shown in Figure 11-9.
Select Create, then select an existing Oracle ADVM volume from the list and determine the mount point field, show in Figure 11-10.
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant enables you to configure security and encryption for an Oracle ACFS file system, as shown in Figure 11-11. You must initialize the security system as the first step in configuring security for an Oracle ACFS file system.
After you complete the entry fields in the dialog shown in Figure 11-11, click Show Command to display the commands you must run as a root or Administrator user at an operating system prompt.
For information about the acfsutil sec init and acfsutil encr init commands, refer to "acfsutil sec init" and "acfsutil encr init". After security has been initialized, you can use the menu options to manage security and encryption for an Oracle ACFS file system, as shown in Figure 11-12.
For information about the acfsutil encr and acfsutil sec commands, see "Oracle ACFS Command-Line Utilities for Multiple Environments". To create an Oracle ACFS file system for a database home, you can select the Create ACFS for Database Home from the disk group configuration options menu, as shown in Figure 11-4. This is the operating system name of the user that installs the database and owns the software in the database home. The ASMCA command-line interface provides non-GUI support for configuring Oracle ASM disk groups, volumes, and Oracle ACFS. Upgrading an Oracle ASM instance with ASMCA only updates the Oracle ASM instance software and does not configure Oracle Clusterware or the listener.
Scripting on this page enhances content navigation, but does not change the content in any way.
This chapter describes how to administer Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) by using Oracle Enterprise Manager to provision and manage data file storage.
All Oracle ASM administration tasks begin with the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home page in Oracle Enterprise Manager, shown in Figure 9-1. A chart that shows the used and free space of each disk group and disk group internal usage. A list of Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) file systems that are serviced by the Oracle ASM instance. Links to the Oracle ASM Performance, Disk Groups, Configuration, Users, and Oracle ACFS pages. Under the heading labeled General on the left side of the Database Instance Home page, click the link next to the last entry in the General column labeled Oracle ASM.
If prompted for Oracle ASM login credentials, then enter the user SYS, provide the SYS password that was set for the Oracle ASM instance upon installation, and connect as SYSASM.
Log in to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control on any node that is running Oracle Management Service (OMS). OMS is automatically started on the node on which Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) was originally run to create the cluster database.
On the Cluster Database page, under the Instances heading, click a link to access an Oracle ASM instance.
You can configure Oracle ASM with the Oracle Enterprise Manager Configuration Parameters page similar to the screen shown in Figure 9-2. Click the Configuration link at the top of the page to view the Configuration Parameters page.
You can manage Oracle ASM users with the Oracle Enterprise Manager Users page, shown in Figure 9-3. Note that ASMSNMP is a less privileged user that is primarily used by Oracle Enterprise Manager to monitor Oracle ASM instances. To edit a user's properties, select the box in the Select column of the user to edit, then click Edit. To delete an Oracle ASM user, select the box in the Select column for the user to delete, then click Delete. Have disk groups with different redundancy levels (normal, high, or external), depending on availability requirements and storage system capabilities.
Separate different classes of storage, such as SCSI drives and SATA drives, into different disk groups. Click the Disk Groups link at the top of the page to display the Disk Groups property page. If you are not logged in, then the Log In page appears and you should log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSASM. Click Create and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a Create Disk Group page similar to the page in Figure 9-4. To display not only disks that are available to be added to a disk group, but all Oracle ASM disks, including disks that belong to a disk group (header status = MEMBER), select All Disks from the Select Member Disks list.
The page is re-displayed with the complete list of Oracle ASM disks that were discovered by the Oracle ASM instance. Enter the disk name, select a redundancy type (high, normal, or external), and optionally, you can enter a failure group name.
Optionally, you can enter a disk name, the size of the disk for Oracle ASM to use, and the failure group name. To force the inclusion of a disk in the disk group, select the Force Usage box for that disk.
Selecting the Force Usage box causes the disk to be added to the new disk group even if the disk belongs to another disk group and has valid database data. Specify a Disk Compatibility value for the disk group to enable your system to use the latest Oracle ASM features. Click OK to create the disk group or click Cancel to stop the disk group creation operation. You can control the power of a rebalance operation with the setting of the Rebalance Power.
For information about controlling rebalance operations, refer to "Manually Rebalancing Disk Groups" and "Tuning Rebalance Operations".
To display not only disks that are available to be added to a disk group, but all of the Oracle ASM disks, including disks that belong to a disk group (header status = MEMBER), select All Disks from the Select Member Disks drop-down list on the right hand side of the page. To force the inclusion of a disk in the disk group, select the Force Reuse box in the right-most column.
The Force Reuse box causes the disk to be added to the disk group even if the disk belongs to another disk group and has valid database data. Click the name of a disk in the Name column and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the General page for the disk group to modify. During the online process, Oracle Enterprise Manager first places a disk into online mode to accommodate write operations. You can also choose the By Failure Group view to perform this operation on a selected disk group. You can also select a disk that is online, but Oracle Enterprise Manager ignores that selection and only brings disks online that were previously offline. Click Yes on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Confirmation dialog to begin bringing the disk online or click No to cancel the operation. Depending on how much data is stale, the operation may require additional time to complete. By default, the Rebalance Power value uses the value of the ASM_POWER_LIMIT initialization parameter.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays an Offline Confirmation page and the text on this page explains that after Oracle Enterprise Manager takes the selected disks offline, the Oracle ASM instance waits for the time interval that is specified by the value that you have set for the DISK_REPAIR_TIME initialization parameter before Oracle ASM drops the disks.
If you have set DISK_REPAIR_TIME to a large value, for example, greater than one day, then this increases the possibility of data loss.
Click Yes on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Conformation dialog to begin the offline processing or click No to stop the operation. When you drop a disk from a disk group, Oracle ASM rebalances the disk group by moving all of the file extents from the dropped disk to other disks in the disk group.
If the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Login page appears, log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSASM.
Click a link in the Name column to select the disk group that contains the disks to be dropped. Under the Member Disks heading, in the Select column, select the boxes for the disks that you plan to drop, and then click Remove.
Optionally select the Force option or select a rebalance power in the Rebalance Power list.
You cannot reuse or disconnect the dropped disks until the drop and rebalance operations are complete. One reason to drop a disk group is to change the redundancy level (normal, high, or external). To delete the disk group even if it still contains files, click Show Advanced Options and ensure that the Including Contents option is selected.
To delete a disk group that belongs to a disk group that you cannot mount, use the FORCE option in the Advanced Options confirmation dialog. Use extreme care when using the FORCE option because the Oracle ASM instance does not verify whether the disk group is used by any other Oracle ASM instance before Oracle ASM deletes the disk group. The Disk Group list page, similar to the page shown in Figure 9-6, displays all of the disk groups and their space usage information.
The Usable Free column displays the space in megabytes that is available in the disk group. Use the FORCE option to mount a disk group when there are missing disks or missing failure groups.
Click the box in the Select column next to the disk that you plan to force mount, then click Mount. On the Mount Force Confirmation dialog as shown inFigure 9-8, select the Force option and click Yes. Perform the following steps to change the values for disk group attributes that can be altered after the disk group has been created.
On the Automatic Storage Disk Group List page, click a disk group name and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Disk Group Home page.
Specify the value that is the minimum software version required for an Oracle ASM instance to mount this disk group. You cannot modify the database compatibility for an Oracle ASM cluster that is in a rolling migration state.
Specify a value that is 11.2 or greater to use the Oracle ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) functionality. For information about Oracle ASM File Access Control, see "Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups".
You can manage Oracle ASM File Access Control with Oracle Enterprise Manager Integration for Oracle ASM File Access Control, shown in Figure 9-10. On this page, you can add or remove users from a user group and create or delete user groups. For more information about Oracle ASM File Access Control, see "Managing Oracle ASM File Access Control for Disk Groups". You can manage directories, files, and aliases with the Files tab of the Oracle Enterprise Manager Disk Group page, shown in Figure 9-13. You can select a file with the Select box, then click Rename to rename the file, click Edit to change the properties of a file, or click Delete to remove a file. For more information about managing Oracle ASM files, directories, and aliases, see Chapter 7, "Administering Oracle ASM Files, Directories, and Templates".
You can manage disk group templates with the Templates tab of the Disk Group page, shown in Figure 9-14.
You can click Create to add a new template, click Edit to change a page, or click Delete to remove a template. If you click Create, then the Create Template page displays and you can enter a name in the Template Name field.
You can monitor Oracle ASM performance with the Oracle Enterprise Manager Performance page, shown in Figure 9-15.
Determine the view and refresh rate of the performance graphs with the View and Refresh options. When you check the integrity of Oracle ASM disk groups, Oracle Enterprise Manager performs consistency checks on all of the disk group metadata. From the Disk Groups Administration page click Check and Oracle ASM displays a confirmation dialog for the check disk group operation. Select Check Without Repair to record information about disk group inconsistencies in the alert log. For information about migrating data with RMAN, see Chapter 8, "Performing Oracle ASM Data Migration with RMAN". For additional information about RMAN, refer to the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide. The procedures that you use in Oracle Enterprise Manager to perform bad block recovery correspond to the steps that you could manually perform with the remap command using the Oracle ASM Command utility (ASMCMD). Click a disk group name and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the disk group home page for that disk group. Click a box in the Select column to the left of a disk in which to recover bad blocks, then click Recover Bad Blocks.
You can only recover bad blocks for disk groups that you have configured with normal or high redundancy; you cannot use this feature for disk groups that you have configured with external redundancy. This section explains how to use Oracle Enterprise Manager to migrate your database storage to use Oracle ASM. At the top of the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Instance Home Page, click the link labeled Server. On the top left-hand side of the Database Server Page under the Storage heading, click the link labeled Migrate to Oracle ASM.
If prompted for Oracle ASM login credentials, then enter the user SYS, provide the SYS password that was set for the Oracle ASM instance during installation, and connect as SYSDBA. For more information about authentication, see "Authentication for Accessing Oracle ASM Instances". On the Migrate Database To ASM: Migration Options Page, which is the first step in a four-step process, verify the information about the files that you plan to migrate to Oracle ASM. Additionally, you can enter an e-mail address to which Oracle Enterprise Manager sends a message to notify you about the suspension.
On the Disk Group Options page under Database Area, verify the location where Oracle ASM should create data files, temporary files, redo log files, and control files.


If you chose to use a fast recovery area and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a warning that the available space on the disk group is less than the specified fast recovery area size for the migration, then you can either continue by clicking Yes, or click No to stop the operation and modify your storage.
When you continue, Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Schedule page on which you can specify a job name and a date and time for the migration job to begin.
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Review page on which you can review all of your selections before beginning your migration operation. If your migration job fails, then do not start your database until you complete a recovery operation. After you submit your job, Oracle Enterprise Manager should display a confirmation dialog indicating that the migration job was successful.
After the migration job has completed, the Oracle ASM links on the Oracle Enterprise Manager page may not display immediately. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides Oracle ASM Support Workbench to monitor Oracle ASM alerts and incidents. Click Support Workbench(ASM_instance_name) under the Related Links section on the Support Workbench page. To create a package, select an incident and click Package on the Support Workbench Problems page. You can view additional details for a problem by selecting a problem on the Problems tab, and then clicking on View.
This appendix discusses using Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) to provision and manage storage for the Oracle Database datafiles. Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is an integrated, high-performance database file system and disk manager. Striping—ASM spreads data evenly across all disks in a disk group to optimize performance and utilization.
For example, if there are six disks in a disk group, pieces of each ASM file are written to all six disks. ASM supports 2-way mirroring, where each file extent gets one mirrored copy, and 3-way mirroring, where each file extent gets two mirrored copies. Online storage reconfiguration and dynamic rebalancing—ASM permits you to add or remove disks from your disk storage system while the database is operating. Managed file creation and deletion—ASM further reduces administration tasks by enabling files stored in ASM disk groups to be Oracle-managed files. Oracle recommends that you use ASM for your database file storage, instead of raw devices or the operating system file system. ASM is implemented as a special kind of Oracle instance, with its own System Global Area and background processes. You configure ASM by creating disk groups that become the default location for files created in the database. By default, when you create a disk group, every disk in the disk group belongs to exactly one failure group.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for additional information about failure groups, and for instructions on how to configure and use failure groups. This appendix assumes that Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is already installed and configured on your single-instance server or on your Real Application Clusters (RAC) nodes.
All Automatic Storage Management (ASM) administration tasks begin with the ASM Home page in Enterprise Manager. On the Database Instance Home page, under the General heading, click the link next to the label ASM. Log in to Enterprise Manager Database Control on any node that is running the Oracle Management Service (OMS).
OMS is automatically started on the node where Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) was run to create the cluster database. On the Cluster Database page, under the Instances heading, click the link for the desired ASM instance. To start up or to shut down the ASM instance, all database instances that are serviced by the ASM instance must first be shut down, and you must have operating system user credentials and ASM SYS user credentials. The ASM instance must be started before you start any of the database instances that are serviced by it. If the Automatic Storage Management Login page appears, log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA.
The Usable Free column displays the space in MB that is actually available in the disk group. Separate different classes of storage (for example, SCSI drives and SATA drives) into different disk groups. If you want to display not only disks that are available to be added to a disk group, but all ASM disks, including disks that already belong to a disk group (header status = MEMBER), select All Disks from the Select Member Disks drop-down list. The page is redisplayed with the complete list of ASM disks that were discovered by the ASM instance. Select the check box to the left of each disk that you want to include in the new disk group.
If you want to force the inclusion of a disk in the disk group, select the Force Usage check box for that disk.
The Force Usage check box causes the disk to be added to the new disk group even if the disk already belongs to another disk group and has valid database data.
The discussion of the V$ASM_DISK view in Oracle Database Reference for information on the various header statuses of ASM disks. On the ASM Administration page, under the Disk Groups heading, click in the Select column to select the disk group that you want to drop. If you want to delete the contents of the disk group, click Advanced Options, ensure that the INCLUDING CONTENTS option is selected, and then click OK. You add disks to a disk group to increase the total amount of storage space in a disk group.
See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about controlling rebalance operations.
On the ASM Administration page, under the Disk Groups heading, click a link in the Name column to select the disk group to which you want to add disks. The Disk Group page appears, displaying a list of disks that are already in the disk group. Optionally change the rebalance power by selecting from the Rebalance Power drop-down list.
If you want to force the inclusion of a disk in the disk group, select the Force Usage check box at the right. The Force Usage check box causes the disk to be added to the disk group even if the disk already belongs to another disk group and has valid database data.
When you drop a disk from the disk group, the disk group is rebalanced by moving all of the file extents from the dropped disk to other disks in the disk group.
You want to reallocate the disk to a different disk group, or reallocate the disk to a different storage system.
On the ASM Administration page, under the Disk Groups heading, click a link in the Name column to select the disk group from which you want to drop disks. Under the Member Disks heading, in the Select column, select the check boxes for the disks that you want to drop, and then click Remove.
On the Advanced Options page, optionally select the FORCE option or select a rebalance power in the drop-down list. You cannot reuse or disconnect the dropped disks until the drop and rebalance operations are complete—that is, until the dropped disks no longer appear in the disk group. En el siguiente documento, les explico paso a paso como convertir una base de datos Stand Alone en una base de datos en RAC, además se menciona como incorporarlo al clusterware de Oracle, tanto la base de datos como las instancias del RAC. Oracle posee un área especial llamada Cloud, que ha venido potenciando hace bastante tiempo y que resultan muy interesantes de analizar.
Algunas definiciones a tener en cuenta y que nos servirán para ubicarnos dentro del concepto de Cloud.
Este concepto implica la entrega al usuario del nivel más bajo del Cloud, la infraestructura, capacidad de procesamiento, memoria, CPUs, redes , firewall, routers, etc. Es como la palabra lo indica , el software como un servicio, si lo quisieramos simplificar, es como que desde un PC , sin muchas cualidades, nos conectamos a Internet y hacemos uso de toda la plataforma Microsoft Office , o desde el midmo PC hacemos uso de todos los software que nos proporciona Oracle, sin tener la necesidad de instalar nada, ni de hacer upgrades, ni de preocuparnos con nuestra capacidad de computo, simplemente pagamos por la cantidad de horas que utilicemos un software. En Oracle 12c existe un comando que nos puede hacer la vida muy sencilla, o ayudar en que sea más placentera. Pues bien, esto a partir de 11gr2 es sumamente sencillo, con una función muy poderosa llamada LISTAGG. A year ago I bought 16 GB of RAM for my laptop (paying about $100) and never regretted about this purchase. Given this trend of galloping RAM size, the entry-level laptop computers with 16 GB are not far away from now. Some steps were straightened or dropped making installation of 12c slightly easier than 11g. It's simply to allow you to get used to installing and using RAC and test various administration procedures. The article also explains how to save the images and restore RAC from the images in a matter of minutes. This inetrface will be used for public network, for example, for connection to the RAC datbase from other applications. Then finally click on the "Adapter 3", enable it, and attach to "Bridged Adapter" or "NAT". This will probably save some amount of space and avoid potential problems related to audio settings. Also if your system has 4 CPU cores or more, it will make sense to allocate 2 CPUs to the Virtual Machine. The virtual machine is now configured so we can start the guest operating system installation. Please note that during installation VirtualBox will be keeping the mouse pointer inside VM area.
Select "Storage" link on the right hand pane of the VirtualBox Manager screen to open "Storage" screen. In the Network Connections screen select "System eth1" interface, this will be used for private network, then press "Edit". In the software type installation screen select "Database Server" and check "Customize now" button.
When this happened, I was interrupting this wait with 'Ctrl-C' and then killing reported process, in this example 523: 'kill 523'. There are pros and cons of one or another way, you can find discussions on this topic in Internet.
Guest Additions allow better integration of mouse support and clipboard bidirectional copying.
Another important feature is support of shared folders making files in Host OS visible to Guest. Either configure NTP, or make sure it is not configured so the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service (ctssd) can synchronize the times of the RAC nodes. If you need to use another addresses, make corresponding adjustments and remember to stay consistent with those adjustments throughout the rest of the article. Instead is should be defined on the DNS to round-robin between 3 addresses on the same subnet as the public IPs. Obviously second option is much better because it doesn't use virtual disk of Guest VM and will result in smaller final image. It is assumed that you already downloaded oracle installation files and uncompressed them into the "grid" and "database" folders.
We can run one machine or another, but not both of them at the same time because MAC address must be unique. No changes will be made to rac1, we will pick up three new unused addresses and set them for eth0, eth1, and eth2 in rac2.
Please note that your setup will have a different set of MAC addresses because they are random-generated by VirtualBox.
After shutdown, return to the VirtualBox Manager, select rac2 VM and edit "Network" settings. Start both machines and check that they can ping each other using both public and private network. If you have problems, use 'ifconfig' command to check the configuration, then correct the problem using "Network Connections" tool. In the current version of VirtualBox, the only way to create a new disk in the GUI is through the "Storage" page in the virtual machine's settings.
If not sure, which icon to use, same action is available through the popup menu, right-click on the "SATA Controller" and select "Add Hard Disk". Although, because this disk is shared, it will be better to put it in the parent directory.
And, regardless of what you decide now, it will be possible to add more shared disks to the ASM group after everything is installed. Don't forget to select correct controller before attaching the disk and use "Choose existing disk" option.
Once the new disk is partitioned, the result can be seen by repeating the previous "ls" command. This configuration needs to be done on both nodes, you can do it step by step in parallel on both nodes.
Select the "Install and Configure Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster" option, then press the "Next" button.
Click the "Setup" button to configure SSH connectivity, and the "Test" button to test it once it is complete. On the "Specify Network Interface Usage" screen check the Public and Private networks are specified correctly.
On the "Grid Infrastructure Management Repository Option" screen check "No" and press the "Next" button.
On the "Storage Option Information" screen keep Oracle ASM option selected and press "Next". Keep suggested Oracle base unchanged, and adjust Software location on the "Specify Installation Location" and press "Next". Provided these are the only errors, it is safe to ignore them and continue by clicking the "Next" button. If there were serious problems during installation, the components of clusterware wouldn't start.
Select "Oracle Real Application Cluster database installation" and then press "Next" button. We are going to create a reqular (pre-12c type) database, the "Create As Container Database is unchecked. At any point earlier we could save the image of created virtual machine and then restore it at will. The export of VM is a straightforward process and saving RAC images would be an easy task if not dealing with the shared disk. In the end there will be three files: two files for VMs and a file representing the shared disk. These three files can be further zipped by your favorite archiver into one file which can be used for storage or transfer. Same is true for the import of VMs back into VirtualBox along with the copy of shared disk - the shared disk is attached to the imported VMs as an extra step. But first, we need to shutdown servers in nice and clean manner because we want save them in a robust state. Now you should have 3 files that can be further zipped into a single file with the size about 12 GB. Fix our current working RAC setup by re-attaching shared disk to rac1 and rac2 VM using "Storage" page. It is interesting to note, that disks are going to be imported in VMDK format different from the original VDI format. Import both VMs and copy Shared Disk rac_shared_disk1_copy.vdi file into the parent directory (Virtual VMs). If you have a newer version and the type is "Shareable" then this bug has been fixed, and you can proceed to another VM.
If you don't have compressing tools and there is enough disk space, you can copy these three items to another location. During the GRID installation, I encountered error PRVF-7617 on "Setting Up Grid Infrastructure Step 8 of 19". CAUTION: By shutting down the Firewall as I did, I made the system vulnerable from a security standpoint. Required disk space can fluctuate and each new installation can be different, I didn't keep exact numbers, but it was not very big.
I think it is possible to resize .VDI disk using 'VBoxmanage modifyhd' command and then modifying Linux partitions by 'GParted' but I never tried that. It will be safe to Execute below Two Commands Followed by "Reboot" for Smooth addition of Shared Folder.
I successfully create a two node rac 12c using oracle virtual box (node ol6-121-rac1, ol6-121-rac2) system works fine.
Since the node1 and node1 are using Grid Infrastutue and ASM, my node 3 clone has what node one had install.
Removing and adding nodes is a standard procedure covered in Oracle documentation, also available on many web sites. I have also have to do a disk resizing in the Linux environment when starting up the rac vm's. I was able to do the install; I did run in a few issues, but nothing that patience and google search could not solve.
BTW Sergei, since the first time I had more errors than expected after installing the Grid, then I deleted the old rac1 and rac2 and have done a re-installation, but got the same errors as below. It would be nice if you write posts on node addition and node deletion and standby setup in 12c. This chapter describes how to administer Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
All Oracle ASM administration tasks begin with the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home page in Oracle Enterprise Manager.
For information about using command-line tools to administer Oracle ACFS file systems, see Chapter 13, "Oracle ACFS Command-Line Tools".
This section discusses how to manage Oracle ACFS volumes and file systems with Oracle Enterprise Manager. Enter the volume name (maximum 11 characters), disk group name that contains the volume, and the initial size of the volume.
You can also select the redundancy setting for the volume and the region settings for primary and mirror extents. To create an Oracle ACFS file system on a volume in a disk group, perform the following steps. After a directory has been selected, click Show Command to have Oracle Enterprise Manager generate the commands that you can run at an operating system prompt.
You can also generate the commands to register or mount an Oracle ACFS file system on the ASM Cluster File System tab. To view and modify information about Oracle ACFS file systems, click the ASM Cluster File System link in the Oracle ASM home page.
On this page, you can choose to mount, dismount, delete, create snapshot, view content, register, and deregister a selected file system. For each Oracle ACFS, the columns provide information for Mount Point, Availability, State, Snapshots, Used (%), Used (GB), Size (GB), Allocated Space, Redundancy, Volume, and Disk Group. To view information about a specific volume, click the volume name in the Volume column on the ASM Cluster File System page. To view information about a file system, click the link in the Mount Point column on the ASM Cluster File System page. To view information about a disk group for an Oracle ACFS, click the disk group name in the Disk Group column on the ASM Cluster File System page. To view information about volumes in a disk group, click the Volumes tab at the top of the Disk Group page.
To view and modify information about existing snapshots or create snapshots for a file system, perform the following steps. Optionally, you can click a number link for existing snapshots in the Snapshots column on the ASM Cluster File System page to display the Snapshots page. On the Snapshots page, you can create snapshots or search for and display specific snapshots. When you have completed the screen, you can click OK to run the command, or click Show Command to view the generated command.


You can also open a Telnet session from the Create Snapshot page to manually enter the generated operating system command.
To drill down in a snapshot directory, click the snapshot name in the Snapshots page to display the Search and List Directory page. OUI automatically defaults to upgrade mode when it detects an Oracle ASM instance at a previous release level. However, the recommended practice is to upgrade an Oracle ASM instance with Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). You must run different scripts as root to configure either a standalone (single-instance) or cluster configuration after OUI has completed. To use Windows Services GUI tool, double-click the Services icon in the Windows Control Panel and locate the OracleCSService service.
Follow the prompts in the wizard to add and configure the listener in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. If the Oracle ASM instance has been shut down during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration, start that instance when ASMCA prompts you to start that instance. After copying or moving the SPFILE, you must restart the instance with the SPFILE in the new location to use that SPFILE. The disk group tab displays selected details about the disk group, such as name, size, free space, usable space, redundancy level, and state of the disk group. A quorum failure group is a special type of failure group and disks in these failure groups do not contain user data and a quorum failure group is not considered when determining redundancy requirements with respect to user storage.
The advanced options page enables you to set additional options, such as disk group compatibility settings and allocation unit (AU) size. You cannot revert to a lower compatibility setting after you advance the disk group compatibility settings.
You must provide a unique volume name for the existing Oracle ASM disk group that you select from the list.
You can optionally choose to display advanced options for creating a volume which enables you to specify the redundancy level and striping characteristics.
The volume extent size is 8 MB if the disk group allocation unit (AU) is less than or equal to 8 MB. Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant generates the command for you to run manually as root or as a privileged user.
For more information about creating a file system for a database home, see "Creating an Oracle ACFS File System for a Database Home".
For a summary of the basic steps for creating an Oracle ACFS file system, see "Basic Steps to Manage Oracle ACFS Systems".
You must also initialize the encryption system as the first step in encrypting an Oracle ACFS file system. For a summary of the basic steps for setting up security on an Oracle ACFS file system, see "Securing Oracle ACFS File Systems".
For a summary of the basic steps for setting up encryption on an Oracle ACFS file system, see "Encrypting Oracle ACFS File Systems". The file system that contains the database home should not be located under the Oracle Grid Infrastructure base (ORACLE_BASE for grid) directory. The operation stops and an error is raised if there is a database using the Oracle ASM instance. For information about mounting an Oracle ACFS file system, see "mount" for Linux environments and "acfsmountvol" for Windows environments. Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home page similar to the page in Figure 9-1. Access this page by clicking the Users tab that is near the top center of the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home page. When you add users, Oracle Enterprise Manager displays a Create User page in which you must enter user login credentials that include the user name, password, and password confirmation. On the confirmation dialog, click Yes to delete the user or No to stop the user deletion procedure. The Create Disk Group page displays a list of Oracle ASM disks that are available to be added to a disk group. You can also click Show SQL to show the SQL statements that the disk group creation operation uses.
If you add multiple disks in a single operation, then Oracle ASM rebalances the disk group to evenly distribute the data on all disks, including the newly added disks. The Disk Group page similar to the page in Figure 9-7 appears, displaying a list of disks that are in the disk group. This page displays a list of Oracle ASM disks that are available to be added to the disk group.
Oracle Enterprise Manager re-displays the page with the complete list of Oracle ASM disks that were discovered by the Oracle ASM instance. Then Oracle Enterprise Manager resynchronizes stale data on the disk with the current data until the disk is fully online for read operations; this is the Oracle ASM fast mirror resync feature. You can also click Show SQL to review the SQL that Oracle Enterprise Manager uses for the online operation. You can monitor the operation's progress using the Pending Operations link from the Disk Group Home page. The text on the page describes how the value of Rebalance Power affects the fast mirror resync operation. During the disk repair time period, you can repair the disks and then place them back online. This is because the files in the disk group are protected with a lower degree of redundancy during this period. You can also click Show SQL to see the SQL that Oracle Enterprise Manager uses for the offline operation.
Oracle ASM then releases the disk and you can then add the disk to another disk group or use it for other purposes.
Operations are complete when the dropped disks no longer appear in the disk group.See "Dropping Disks from Disk Groups" for more information, and for other caveats for dropping disks. Because you cannot change the redundancy of a disk group, you must drop the disk group and then re-create it with the proper redundancy. If the disk group contains files and the Including Contents option is not selected, then you cannot drop the disk group.
Provide the SYS password that was set up for Oracle ASM when the Oracle ASM instance was created. The values in this column consider the redundancy level of the disk group, and exclude the space that the disk group reserves for restoring full redundancy for all files in the disk group after a disk failure. The FORCE option corrects configuration errors, such as incorrect values for ASM_DISKSTRING, without incurring unnecessary rebalance operations. You can also click No to cancel the mount force operation and Show SQL to review the SQL that Oracle Enterprise Manager uses to perform the mount force operation.
This screenshot only shows the top portion of the Edit Advanced Attributes for Disk Group Page.
This is the minimum software version that is required for a database instance to use the files in the disk group. If Oracle ASM File Access Control is enabled, then specify the default permissions for newly created files in the disk group. You can also specify a redundancy level, striped granularity, and extent regions (hot or cold). If Oracle ASM detects errors, then Oracle ASM stores information about errors in the alert log. You can also select Show SQL to review the SQL statements that the disk group check operation uses. Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Migrate Database To Oracle ASM: Migration Options Page. If the target database is in ARCHIVELOG mode, then you could perform online or offline migration by selecting the corresponding option. Also verify the fast recovery area where Oracle ASM should create the recovery-related files such as archived redo log files, backup files, and so on.
To expand the tablespace details and review them, click the plus (+) sign next to Tablespaces and Files To Be Migrated. Click View Status on the confirmation dialog to examine the progress of your migration job. On this tab, you can view and edit information about incident packages created for problems. ASM is based on the principle that the database should manage storage instead of requiring an administrator to do it. You manage a small set of disk groups and ASM automates the placement of the database files within those disk groups.
ASM mirrors at the file level, unlike operating system mirroring, which mirrors at the disk level. When you add a disk, ASM automatically redistributes the data so that it is evenly spread across all disks in the disk group, including the new disk.
ASM automatically assigns filenames when files are created, and automatically deletes files when they are no longer needed. Discovery is the process of finding all disks that have been prepared for ASM by your system administrator, examining their disk headers, and determining which disks belong to disk groups and which are available for assignment to disk groups. In this case, Enterprise Manager displays the Automatic Storage Management Login page when you attempt any ASM administration tasks. It takes into account the redundancy level of the disk group, and excludes the space that the disk group reserves for restoring full redundancy for all files in the disk group after a disk failure. ASM then releases the disk, and you can then add it to another disk group or use it for other purposes.
See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information, and for other caveats for dropping disks.
The procedures for using RMAN are documented in Chapter 9, "Performing Backup and Recovery".
Si se necesita crecer, simplemente se contrata un servicio mayor y no me preocupo de todo lo relacionado con este crecimiento. Aguayo, creando bases de datos en DataGuard para el mismo Banco Central, con personas a las cuales les hice clases de Grid Control como el Sr. The installation can fail complaining on missing kernel-uek-devel package providing a 'yum' command to install this package. If the last two characters are already '00', then change to something else, '01', for example.
We need to create a new virtual disk, change its attribute to Shareable and add to both VMs. Do not try to copy .vdi file because the copy will retain same disk UID and VirtualBox will refuse to use it because there is already such disk. A proper solution should involve configuring the "iptables" correctly to allow what Oracle wants.
Let me ask if you already disabled firewall (as described in "Network Setup" section) before getting PRVF-7617 error? It is good you mentioned that disabling firewall is not a best thing in any real world system. When I clone the machine and run clufy after successfully installing the GRID software, RAC3 is not showing as part of the RAC clusetr. This can be dependent on many things including Linux version, which keeps changing, yum online repository which also gets bigger over time and your VM will cache it. You need a larger storage for both shared disk and rac vms or else you will run into issues when installing the database. For information about the Oracle ASM home page and how to access that page, see "Oracle Automatic Storage Management Home Page".
For information about the basic steps for creating Oracle ACFS file systems, see "Basic Steps to Manage Oracle ACFS Systems". For information about redundancy settings, refer to "Mirroring, Redundancy, and Failure Group Options".
In addition, you can create a file system, mount all file systems, or dismount all file systems. Redundancy, Volume, and Disk Group columns are on the far right of the page and are not shown in the illustration. To search for a snapshot, enter a name with optional wildcard characters in the search field then click Search.
Oracle Enterprise Manager prompts you to enter host credentials if they have not been set up. See "Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance in an Oracle Restart Configuration with Oracle Universal Installer". For information, see "Backing Up, Copying, and Moving an Oracle ASM Initialization Parameter File".
For information about disk discovery, see "Oracle ASM Disk Discovery" and "ASM_DISKSTRING". If the AU size is greater than 8 MB, then the Oracle ADVM volume extent size is equivalent to the disk group AU size. For information about mount points and database homes, see "About Oracle ACFS and Oracle Database Homes". The mount command must be manually run as root or the Windows Administrator at an operating system prompt. ASMSNMP is created by Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) when an Oracle ASM instance is created. You can also grant privileges to the new user by selecting privileges in the Available Privileges column and clicking the right arrow buttons to move privileges to the Granted Privileges column, or move the privilege by double clicking it. You can also alter the privileges that are assigned to the user by selecting the privilege and using the right and left arrow buttons to move the privilege from the Granted Privileges column to the Available Privileges column and vice versa.
You must be certain that you are selecting a disk that can legitimately be added to the disk group. You might want to postpone rebalancing until there are fewer demands on the database, or when you have completed all of your disk group changes. This includes disks with the header status of CANDIDATE, PROVISIONED, or FORMER, and so on. For each disk that you successfully place online, the pending drop operation is canceled and a resynchronization operation begins. Oracle ASM deletes all of the disk group contents only if you specify the including contents option.
Disk groups mounted with the FORCE option have one or more disks offline if the disks were not available at the time of the mount. If the database compatibility value that you use is greater than the Oracle ASM compatibility, then Oracle Enterprise Manager displays an error. Select Check And Repair to attempt to repair errors that Oracle Enterprise Manager identifies during the disk group consistency check. Also under fast recovery area, the option for Setup fast recovery area without Migrating Recovery-related Files is selected by default. On this page, you have options to view additional details and create a package that you can send to Oracle Support Services. ASM eliminates the need for you to directly manage potentially thousands of Oracle database files.
When a database file is created, it is striped (divided into extents and distributed) across the six disks, and allocated disk space on all six disks grows evenly. Mirroring means keeping redundant copies, or mirrored copies, of each extent of the file, to help avoid data loss caused by disk failures.
Oracle Enterprise Manager includes a wizard that enables you to migrate non-ASM database files to ASM.
Every server running one or more database instances that use ASM for storage has an ASM instance. When you create a disk group, you indicate whether the disk group is a normal redundancy disk group (2-way mirroring for most files by default), a high redundancy disk group (3-way mirroring), or an external redundancy disk group (no mirroring by ASM). ASM discovers disks in the paths that are listed in an initialization parameter, or if the parameter is NULL, in an operating system–dependent default path. Failure groups are used to determine which ASM disks to use for storing redundant copies of data.
After dropping a disk group, you can add its member disks to other disk groups or use them for other purposes. ASM then rebalances the disk group so that data is evenly distributed on all disks, including the newly added disks. Jorquera en unos de los centros de Oracle University, ex colegas de trabajo en empresas de servicio de Chile como el Sr. After starting "named", I followed the instructions and edited(or created the additional) files mentioned in that article. For example now I have almost free 6 GB, therefore I will have an error when installing the Oracle DB.
By the way, don't forget to release yum repository when you don't need it anymore: 'yum clean all'.
The mount point, snapshots, volume, and disk group are provided as links to further information.
For information about quorum failure groups, see "Oracle Cluster Registry and Voting Files in Oracle ASM Disk Groups".
If you decide to use both security and encryption, then encryption must be initialized and set before enabling encryption on a security realm. For information about mounting an Oracle ACFS file system, see "mount" for Linux or "acfsmountvol" for Windows.
For information about creating an Oracle ASM instance with ASMCA, see "Creating Oracle ASM Instances with Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant".
You must take corrective action to restore those devices before the time set with the DISK_REPAIR_TIME value expires. If you perform an online migration, then you can suspend the migration by selecting the check box next to Suspend Migration Job Before Switching Database To ASM. When reading the file, file extents are read from all six disks in parallel, greatly increasing performance. The mirrored copy of each file extent is always kept on a different disk from the original copy.
In a Real Application Clusters environment, there is one ASM instance for each node, and the ASM instances communicate with each other on a peer-to-peer basis.
You use an external redundancy disk group if your storage system already does mirroring at the hardware level, or if you have no need for redundant data. For example, if 2-way mirroring is specified for a file, ASM automatically stores redundant copies of file extents in separate failure groups.
Click OK to create the user, Cancel to cancel the procedure, or Show SQL to view the SQL that Oracle Enterprise Manager uses to create the user. Click OK to edit the user properties, Revert to cancel the procedure, or Show SQL to view the SQL that Oracle Enterprise Manager uses to edit the user's properties.
Failing to restore and put those disks back online within the disk repair time frame results in Oracle ASM automatically removing the disks from the disk group. If a disk fails, ASM can continue to access affected files by accessing mirrored copies on the surviving disks in the disk group. When you request to remove a disk, ASM first rebalances by evenly relocating all file extents from the disk being removed to the other disks in the disk group.
Only one ASM instance is required for each node regardless of the number of database instances on the node. This would then require a rebalance operation to restore redundancy for all of the files in the disk group. Also provide host credentials and enter the scheduling options by selecting Immediately or Later and modifying the date and time as needed. Deselect this if you do not want Oracle Enterprise Manager to perform copy operations in parallel. Did a final "service named restart", then tried "nslookup rac-scan.localdomain" which resolved the name to 3 IP addresses.
Click Next when you complete your selections on this page and Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Migrate Database To ASM: Disk Group Options page.



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