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Use this Verification and Validation Plan template to review, inspect, test, audit, and establish whether items, processes, services or documents conform to specified requirements.
Determine whether the products of a given phase in the software development life-cycle fulfill the requirements established during the previous phase. The template is in Microsoft Word format and Excel format and can be downloaded online for only $4.99. Generally, water and sanitation projects experience their most serious problems with operation and maintenance and with cost recovery aspects. Operation and maintenance (O&M) activities, which encompass not only technical issues, but also managerial, social, financial and institutional issues, must be directed towards the elimination or reduction of the major constraints which prevent the achievement of sustainability (BRIKKE 2000). Operation and Maintenance is required to ensure the sustainability of any project in which a new infrastructure has been put into place. BackgroundTo be successful with the operation and maintenance of a sanitation or water initiative, a broad background knowledge of these subjects is required. This template helps ensure that the software being developed satisfies all functional requirements and that each step in the process of building the software yields the correct products. Hundreds of projects around the world demonstrate how the newly built infrastructure deteriorates after the project’s termination.
Operation and maintenance is a crucial element of sustainability, and a frequent cause of failure of water supply and sanitation service facilities in the past. Therefore, it is imperative to plan for operation and maintenance, with a planned withdrawal of external support as local ownership builds. This document is intended for managers and planners who are concerned with the challenging problem of how to implement effective operation and maintenance in water and sanitation projects. They may result from poor planning, inadequate cost recovery, or the outreach inadequacies of centralised agencies (DFID 1998).Operation and maintenance has been neglected in the past, or been discussed and introduced only after a project was completed. PDFThe purpose of this handbook is to provide comprehensive information specifically on all aspects related to the treatment of water for domestic use.
It is a reference guide containing links to relevant documents explaining the different stages in the sanitation cycle.
This neglect or delay in applying proper operation and maintenance has adversely affected the credibility of the investments made, the functioning of the services, the well-being of rural populations, and the development of further projects.

PDFThis Topic Brief describes a business model for delegated management of local water services, recently developed with WSUP support in the Kenyan Rift Valley town of Naivasha. There is also greater recognition of the need to approach these projects in a comprehensive way, emphasising not only the design and construction but also post-construction activities (BRIKKE 2000).Definition of Operation and MaintenanceOperation and maintenance refers to all of the activities needed to run a water supply and sanitation scheme, except for the construction of new facilities. PDFExperiences and best practices that have been learnt in this case study in Ghana are shared and recommendations made to enhance sustainable operation and maintenance of small towns water supply systems. PDFThis Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) issue contains the following contributions: 1. PDFThis paper sets out a framework for the delivery of non-sewered sanitation services that last, are accessible to all and are at scale. The framework is based on IRC International Water and Sanitation’s (IRC) experience and lessons learnt from its engagement in non-sewered sanitation service at scale.
PDFThis paper analyses the differences between the users’ willingness to pay for maintenance and operation in rural markets and village DWS schemes of Nepal based on information collected through a questionnaire survey of 205 households and institutional survey of 12 DWS water user committees.
Maintenance, on the other hand, is to do with the technical activities, planned or reactive, which are needed to keep the system working. PDFThe aim of this capacity building programme is to improve the efficiency and positive impact of urban, community-managed water and sanitation schemes. The manual covers technical issues such as operations and maintenance activities, but also has a strong focus on institutional, managerial and financial issues. The seven modules are meant to equip communities with the tools to eliminate or reduce the major constraints in managing infrastructure and providing services.
In order to ensure the routine maintenance and health of the system, the technician should adhere to a routine check-up. PDFThis paper reviews five different sustainability assessment tools that are currently in use for programme monitoring of WASH interventions. If done correctly and on a regular schedule, preventive measures can reduce the risk of costly repairs. The key to ensuring effective equipment maintenance is to make certain that responsibilities are clearly defined and maintenance personnel have the tools and skills to do their job effectively.
Source: unknownThe ease of operation and maintenance of a facility is central to its sustainability and must be given careful consideration in design.

Some operation and maintenance issues are location-specific, but urban and rural projects differ fundamentally in the complexity of the technologies involved.
In rural areas, the concept of Village Level Operation and Maintenance Management (VLOM) is a philosophy which has been gaining favour over the years.
The VLOM approach restricts technology choices to those that can be operated and maintained within the community for which the intervention is intended.
In urban situations, where supply systems will generally be more complex, the design and technology chosen will shape the long-term operation and maintenance requirements.
In the short term, this may marginally increase construction costs as the standard designs may not be perfectly suited to the situation. But it requires lower skill levels in the design process, and repetitive construction of the same item improves quality. This encourages local manufacture because the limited range reduces start-up costs and the increased quantity improves profitability. Network for the Development of Sustainable Approaches for Large Scale Implementation of Sanitation in Africa. When new user-interfaces or management approaches have been introduced, such as Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDT) or a new system for composting of kitchen waste, which heavily rely on the correct operation from the user’s side, the end-users have to be properly trained to ensure that they will operate the systems correctly.
NGOs that will become involved in the programme need similar training, but at a more advanced level, as they are probably going to have to train the participating communities (EAWAG 2005). Local technicians and caretakers need to be trained for the proper operation of the new infrastructure. In this case, on-hands training is desired in order to ensure the fully understanding and the implications of the new system.

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