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Sputtering, and check out Sputtering on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet. Sputtering is a process whereby particles are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles,[1] particularly, in the laboratory, gas ions. A commercial AJA Orion sputtering system at Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility. The primary particles for the sputtering process can be supplied in a number of ways: for example by a plasma, an ion source, an accelerator or by a radioactive material emitting alpha particles.
Physical sputtering has a well-defined minimum energy threshold equal to or larger than the ion energy at which the maximum energy transfer of the ion to a sample atom equals the binding energy of a surface atom. Preferential sputtering can occur at the start when a multicomponent solid target is bombarded and there is no solid state diffusion. The term electronic sputtering can mean either sputtering induced by energetic electrons (for example in a transmission electron microscope), or sputtering due to very high-energy or highly charged heavy ions that lose energy to the solid, mostly by electronic stopping power, where the electronic excitations cause sputtering.[8] Electronic sputtering produces high sputtering yields from insulators, as the electronic excitations that cause sputtering are not immediately quenched, as they would be in a conductor. Sputtering can also play a role in reactive ion etching (RIE), a plasma process carried out with chemically active ions and radicals, for which the sputtering yield may be enhanced significantly compared to pure physical sputtering. Sputtering observed to occur below the threshold energy of physical sputtering is also often called chemical sputtering.[1][3] The mechanisms behind such sputtering are not always well understood, and may be hard to distinguish from chemical etching. Sputter deposition is a method of depositing thin films by sputtering that involves eroding material from a "target" source onto a "substrate" e.g.
Sputtered atoms are ejected into the gas phase but are not in their thermodynamic equilibrium state, and tend to deposit on all surfaces in the vacuum chamber.
Sputtering is one of the forms of space weathering, a process that changes the physical and chemical properties of airless bodies, such as asteroids and the Moon.
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Last week, the Review-Journal shared the story of Jannicke Ramso, a local interior designer who launched her own firm last June.
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Homebuilt machines, and check out Homebuilt machines on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet. Amateur telescope making a€“ The field of amateur telescope making is considered an offshoot of the amateur astronomy community. Dune buggy- popular method of building a dune buggy involves construction of a vehicle frame from steel tubing formed and welded together. Amateur rocketry sometimes known as amateur experimental rocketry or experimental rocketry is a hobby in which participants experiment with fuels and make their own rocket motors, launching a wide variety of types and sizes of rockets. Stitch and glue is a simple boat building method which uses plywood, epoxy glue, and "stitches" and eliminates the need for stems and chines.[5] Plywood panels are cut to detailed profiles and stitched together to form an accurate hull shape, without the need for forms or special tools.
A Pietenpol Air Camper under construction, showing the wooden frame structure that will be covered with aircraft fabric.

I'm in a leafy garden behind a San Francisco coffee shop, holding on to a copper rod connected by a wire to a big wooden box. Microsoft's quarterly sales figures are in and they point to a company in flux a€” as well as tepid sales for the Xbox One. Please join us at Appalachian State's Small Wind Research and Demonstration Site, located on Beech Mountain, for this two-day, hands-on workshop on small-scale, distributed wind energy.
I was surrounded by homebuilt machines created with the singular purpose of blurring across the desert at 200, 300 and 400 miles an hour. The father-of-two became famous for his homebuilt machines, in particular his Kawasaki 750cc, nicknamed The Growler, which he built from scratch at his former home in Middleton St George, near Darlington. It only happens when the kinetic energy of the incoming particles is much higher than conventional thermal energies (a‰« 1 eV). The thick line illustrates the position of the surface, and the thinner lines the ballistic movement paths of the atoms from beginning until they stop in the material.
When such cascades recoil and reach the target surface with an energy greater than the surface binding energy, an atom would be ejected, and this process is known as sputtering. This may occur when the solid is dense enough, and then the incoming ion heavy enough, that the collisions occur very close to each other.
This sputtering process is characterized by a strong dependence of the observed sputtering yields on the charge state of the impinging ion and can already take place at ion impact energies well below the physical sputtering threshold. Reactive ions are frequently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) equipment to enhance the sputter rates. Sputter etching is chosen in cases where a high degree of etching anisotropy is needed and selectivity is not a concern. One such example occurs in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), where the target sample is sputtered at a constant rate. On icy moons, especially Europa, sputtering of photolyzed water from the surface leads to net loss of hydrogen and accumulation of oxygen-rich materials that may be important for life. In the first three months alone, the total value of cross-border deals nearly reached 2015 annual totals ($101bn and $109bn, respectively). This can include different things such as kit cars or homebuilt computers, but normally it pertains to homebuilt aircraft, also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes. Amateur telescope makers (sometimes called ATMs), as their name implies, are not paid professionals.
The advantage of this method is that the fabricator can change fundamental parts of the vehicle (usually the suspension and addition of a built-in roll cage). Amateur rocketeers have been responsible for significant research into hybrid rocket motors, and have built and flown a variety of solid, liquid, and hybrid propellant motors. This process can lead, during prolonged ion or plasma bombardment of a material, to significant erosion of materials, and can thus be harmful. If the target is thin on an atomic scale, the collision cascade can reach the back side of the target and atoms can escape the surface binding energy "in transmission".

Then the binary collision approximation is no longer valid, but rather the collisional process should be understood as a many-body process. If in an AB alloy the component A is sputtered preferentially, the surface of the solid will, during prolonged bombardment, become enriched in the B component, thereby increasing the probability that B is sputtered such that the composition of the sputtered material will ultimately return to AB. Sputtering deposition usually uses an argon plasma because argon, a noble gas, will not react with the target material.
As the target is sputtered, the concentration and identity of sputtered atoms are measured using Mass Spectrometry.
Sputtering is also one of the possible ways that Mars has lost most of its atmosphere and that Mercury continually replenishes its tenuous surface-bounded exosphere. They build their telescopes for the enjoyment of the hobby, or so they can make a personal contribution to the field of astronomy.
On the other hand, it is commonly utilized for thin-film deposition, etching and analytical techniques.
Red, blue, green and yellow circles illustrate primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary recoils, respectively.
The average number of atoms ejected from the target per incident ion is called the sputter yield and depends on the ion incident angle, the energy of the ion, the masses of the ion and target atoms, and the surface binding energy of atoms in the target. The dense collisions induce a heat spike (also called thermal spike), which essentially melts the crystal locally. Homebuilt computers have been built at home for a long time, starting with the Victorian era pioneer Charles Babbage in the 1820s. For a crystalline target the orientation of the crystal axes with respect to the target surface is relevant. Furthermore, because the sputtering continually etches deeper into the sample, concentration profiles as a function of depth can be measured. A century later, Konrad Zuse built his own machine when electromechanical relay technology was widely available.
The hobby took off with the early development of microprocessors and, since then, many enthusiasts have constructed their own computers. Sandrails can have panels or custom shaped body coverings over the rails and tubing that comprise the vehicle, though many are left bare.
A homebuilt vehicle is a motor vehicle (car, truck or motorcycle) built by an individual instead of a manufacturer.[1] These machines may be constructed "from scratch", from plans, or from assembly kits. Outside of the United States (for example in Russia) people wishing to build such complex machinery often have no professional networks to rely on for spare parts, plans, or advice in the matter and therefore have to rely on their ingenuity and intuition in order to build a machine that works.

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