Making an island with base cabinets lowes,computer desk japan,plastic toy box canada movies - Good Point

WASHINGTON: What began with a tiny artificial island built by China to stake a concrete claim in the South China Sea is fast on its way to becoming 600 acres of at least seven islands spread across the South China Sea. DNI Clapper told the SASC “this is a worrisome trend of the Chinese because of the tensions this is going to create in the South China Sea. The biggest worry about these efforts by the Chinese is that they could base advanced aircraft and ships at some of these locations, trying to enforce their so-called Nine-Dash Line claiming most of the South China Sea. Earlier in the hearing, McCain, sounding hoarse but still full of vim and vigor, slammed the newly confirmed director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, Marine Lt. He noted that keeping Ukraine out of NATO was a key foreign policy goal of Putin’s, which endeared him even less to McCain.
Colin you watch over this sight and censor it and stuff or just keep all us brains from wanting to kill those below us?
Ad hominem attacks on McCain can’t change the fact that the entire right is behind him (at least when they can understand the arguments).
Yes plum, BoomBoom has had a fairly good political ride and he sacrificed a lot for our country.
You appear to be a good nationalist Chinese patriot but your conclusions are based largely on speculation and wishful thinking. While true that China is nowhere near matching the total military power of the US, and its true that even the facing only the combined forces of Japan & the US Pacific assets they would lose, it does not negate the fact that the way things are going they will emerge victorious in the struggle for the South China Sea.
Now if the nations of Southeast Asia were united and presented a united front when dealing with China, it would be a whole different situation. To me the most interesting recent developments have actually been in ASW and submarines, which will negate the advantage we have over China’s naval forces. We should think about helping our friends in the Region build islands to solidify their claims to the waters. We better go build some islands for those we fought on in WW2 cos those are sinking, we put too many holes in them. So John we dress some guys who love this country up in Russkie uniforms, attack the islands and we got what we want, Russia and China killing each other as we set by and see who the wounded survivor is then put them out of their misery. Ukraine’s army has demonstrated a particular incompetence in combined arms operations and even in basic infantry tactics so adding more advanced weapons to their arsenal will add little to their capability. Russia controls the tempo of the war and it is unlikely they will allow that advantage to slip from their hands. There will be eventually a solution out there but it likely will not be a solution based upon Ukraine’s military achievements but rather a diplomatic solution with Germany the master of ceremonies. About the only way McCain did not have a minor stroke is if he had mistaken our mass logistic capability with that of rate of delivery. Given time, we can transport and MAINTAIN more troops and equipment in the Ukraine than Russia can.
The United States [and others] signed an agreement guaranteeing the sovereignty of Ukraine if they gave up their nuclear arsenal. Sign up today for our FREE e-mail newsletters and get helpful tips and timely article links delivered to your e-mail inbox. Dozens of ideas, loads of how-tos, and the latest advice on the projects and products you need to improve your home today, plus special offers.
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To build your own island with a couple of home-center base cabinets, just place a€?them back-to-back, shim them level, and screw them together.
China is considering plans to build an artificial island in the South China Sea to use as a military base from which to project power, according to the South China Morning Post.
According to the report, which cited prominent Chinese scholars and a navy expert, the artificial island would be constructed on the Fiery Cross Reef, where China already maintains some installations. The South China Morning Post report follows similar ones in some of China’s press late last month that said plans had been drawn up on constructing an artificial island on the Fiery Cross Reef. Such a base would greatly enhance China’s ability to project offensive power in the disputed South China Sea.
At the time the East China Sea ADIZ was first announced, Chinese officials said that future ones would be established when conditions warranted them. In the SCMP report, Jin, the Renmin University Professor, said that decision on whether to proceed with building the artificial island on the Fiery Cross Reef would depend on progress on reclamation at Johnson South Reef. Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes. It'll be nice once they build some more - perhaps the days of disappearing aircraft will end.
Seriously, the Chinese Empire-in-Waiting is simply doing what the present fading empire (US) has been doing for more than 100 years. The Philippines, Vietnam, and China's other neighbors will learn what Mexico learned in 1846.
I guess they are just walking their way island by island to Australia, perfect nice weather Lebensraum (how do you say that in Chinese) for the Chinese, forget about Siberia and all that permafrost and -40C weather, Austalia has nice sunny skies and that interior outback is perfect for Chinese solar panels (dont need gas or oil with all that sun). Look at a friggin map, what are they thinking?  Sometimes you've got to wonder about US foreign policy most especially under the Obamanation, but so far modern Chinese foreign policy seems to be controlled by aliens from Uranus or something.
When I look at the map I wonder what it will be like on a large island built three feet above high tide when a Cat5 typhoon blows through. China has no allies in the South China Sea, and isn't there to ensure freedom of navigation of the seas and air to all nations.
The US has no ally in the Middle East, unless you are attempting to count Israel as an ally. China must occupy the Strait of Malacca because it is VERY IMPORTANT to its national security.
For thousands of years China has not occupied the Strait of Malacca, nor laid claim to the South China Sea. The US Navy projects power through the Straits in order to keep shipping flowing, along with other nations. It is a strategic move to protect their oil routes from the Middle East and other goods and also to force the US to rethink some of their game theory. You now have that card in your hand to threaten or protect one of the few major shipping channels that countries in your region rely on. America and Japan were on the same side, vis-a-vis China, in the last oart of the 19th and the first few years of the 20th century. What is the risk, any move you make will either push the other Asians countries to the West or will make them re-consider their stand to neutral. The US is trying to push back into the Pacific and you have to counter and show you are not weak. The counter in my view is to push the US to make a stand and showing how they will abandon allies. China has to start buying off political leaders and color-revolutionizing the ones who are reluctant. I don't disagree that the Chinese claims are bogus, but are they any more insane than those of America's "Monroe Doctrine"? The Monroe Doctrine was and is an illegal power grab, unilaterally conceived, without Congressional approval, by Monroe and his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams. The United Kingdom, for much of the early years of the Monroe Doctrine, was the sole nation enforcing it through the use of its navy (the United States still lacked sufficient naval capabilities to contribute to the effective enforcement of the doctrine as declared). Or rephrased: "For thousands of years America has not occupied Iraq or any or the rest of the Mideast (not to mention Ukraine and the rest of Europe), nor laid claim to the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Personally, I think that global warming (sea level rise) will take care of these new parts of China. Oh, shit, Agile Obama needs to rip himself away from Ukraine, Syria and Africa and jump back to that fucking Pacific Pivot so he can project more American military might into that area. He is busy emptying gitmo of psychopaths with the blood of thousands and tens of thousands on their hands, in return for addled deserters with a clear treasonous bent. Don't know about the Gitmo inmates with the blood of tens of thousands on their hands, but that charge against Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld is well documented. Ia€™m nursing three glasses of Marsala in La Sirena Ubriaca, a€?The Drunken Siren,a€? a wine bar in the port town of Marsala on Sicilya€™s western tip.
My hata€™s off to wine-shop owner Salvatore Ruccione, whose enthusiasm for Marsala compelled him to create this chart (which really is quite helpful). Woodhouse suspected this complex wine would fit like a fine leather glove in the cultivated parlors of England where Port, Madeira, and Sherry were all the rage. Other Englishmen followed: Corlett, Wood, Payne, Hoppes, and most importantly, Benjamin Ingham and his nephew Joseph Whitaker, who began exporting Marsala beyond Europe. It was during this period that Marco De Bartoli entered the fray, an artisan David among industrial Goliaths determined to resurrect Marsalaa€™s tarnished reputation. While Ptolemy is most frequently associated with geography and cartography, he also wrote important works in a number of other fields including astronomy, astrology, music and optics.
Although no original manuscript of this text has survived the ravages of time, several manuscript copies, dating from the closing centuries of the Byzantine Empire (ca. For these and other reasons, Ptolemy knew mathematics to be an important part of cartography. The first Book of the Geographia is devoted primarily to theoretical principles, including a discussion of globe construction, the description of two map projections, and an extended, through amicable, criticism of his primary source, Marinus of Tyre, a€?the latest of the geographers of our timea€?. In another chapter in Book I, Ptolemy wrote that there are two ways of making a portrait of the world: one is to reproduce it on a sphere, and the other is to draw it on a plane surface. If the second method of drawing the earth is used, that is, if the spherical earth is projected onto a plane surface, certain adjustments are obviously necessary.
Ptolemya€™s exhaustive criticism of the imperfect methods of drawing maps adopted by Marinus would lead to the expectation that he himself would have used some of his own recommended projections in constructing his maps. Book II of the Geographia opens with a prologue a€?of the particular descriptionsa€?, which is to say, the maps he was about to present, and a general statement of his mapmaking policy. The fifth chapter of Book VII contains a description of the map of the world, together with an enumeration of the oceans and of the more important bays and islands. In the eighth and last Book of the Geographia, Ptolemy returned to the business of discussing the principles of cartography, mathematical, geographical and astronomical methods of observation, and, in some cases (manuscript or printed copies) there follow short legends for each of the special maps - ten for Europe, four for Africa and twelve for Asia - mentioning the countries laid down on each plate, describing the limits, and enumerating the tribes of each country and its most important towns. Those scholars who have argued that Ptolemya€™s original text contained no maps have neglected careful study of this Book. The obvious way to avoid crowding, Ptolemy said, is to make separate maps of the most populous regions or sectional maps combining densely populated areas with countries containing few inhabitants, if such a combination is feasible. The illustration above gives a diagram of the parts of the known world embraced by each special map found in Ptolemya€™s Geographia. While there is little doubt still lingering that Ptolemya€™s text was originally illustrated by maps, it is not altogether certain that the maps found today in existing copies of the Geographia are indeed similar to those of the original series of maps, since the latter have not survived for comparison.
To further confound the issue, all of the other manuscript copies of the Geographia that are accompanied by maps differ one from another, presenting two basic versions. The other version, B, contains sixty-four maps distributed throughout the text, vice collected together in one place. Over and above these maps, those manuscripts with maps, both A- and B-versions, are additionally illustrated with a universal map of the entire known world at Ptolemya€™s time, either on one sheet or four sheets; only very rarely are both world maps found together. As with modern maps, Ptolemaic maps are oriented so that North would be at the top and East at the right, because better known localities of the world were to be found in the northern latitudes, and on a flat map they would be easier to study if they were in the upper right-had corner. Displayed on the left-had margin of these world maps are seven Clima [Klima] and Parallel Zones.
Overall Ptolemya€™s world-picture extended northward from the equator a distance of 31,500 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade] to 63A° N at Thule, and southward to a part of Ethiopia named Agysimba and Cape Prasum at 16A° S latitude, or the same distance south as Meroe was north. It has been repeatedly pointed out that the distances set down by Ptolemy in his tables for the Mediterranean countries, the virtual center of the habitable world, are erroneous beyond reason, considering the fact that Roman Itineraries were accessible.
The geographical errors made by Ptolemy in his text and maps constitute the principle topic of many scholarly dissertations.
Paradoxically, Ptolemya€™s eastward extension of Asia, reducing the length of the unknown part of the world, coupled with his estimate of the circumference of the earth, was his greatest contribution to history if not cartography. Ptolemy provides a descriptive summary in his text in which he tells us that the habitable part of the earth is bounded on the south by the unknown land which encloses the Indian Sea and that it encompasses Ethiopia south of Libya, called Agisymba.
The southern limit of the habitable world had been fixed by Eratosthenes (#112) and Strabo (#115) at the parallel through the eastern extremity of Africa, Cape Guardafiri, the cinnamon-producing country and the country of the SembritA¦ [Senaai]. Ptolemy records, following Marinus, the penetration of Roman expeditions to the land of the Ethiopians and to Agisymba, a region of the Sudan beyond the Sahara desert, perhaps the basin of Lake Chad, and he supplied other new information regarding the interior of North Africa.
The eastern coast of Africa was better known than the western, having been visited by Greek and Roman traders as far as Rhapta [Rhaptum Promontory opposite Zanzibar?] which Ptolemy placed at about 7A° S.
According to Greek tradition, an extension of 20A° in the width of the habitable world called for a proportionate increase in its length. Ptolemya€™s knowledge of the vast region from Sarmatia to China was, however, better than that of previous map makers. Many faults appear in Ptolemya€™s picture of southern Asia, although for more than a century commercial relations between western India and Alexandria had been flourishing.
Even the more familiar territory of the Mediterranean basin demonstrated that insufficient contemporary knowledge was available and Ptolemy erred in many important cartographical details. Map on grid system, in Ptolemy, La geographia, 1561-64, 26 x 14 cm, a€?Oxford University Byw. However, Ptolemy was apparently the first of the ancient geographers to have a fair conception of the relations between the Tanais, usually considered the northern boundary between Europe and Asia, and the Rha [Volga], which he said flowed into the Caspian Sea.
In spite of the egregious errors on all of Ptolemya€™s maps, his atlas was indeed an unsurpassed masterpiece for almost 1,500 years. During the intellectual narrow-mindedness of the Middle Ages even Ptolemy and his methods of map construction were forgotten, at least in the west. The presently known version of Ptolemya€™s works began to surface when the Byzantine monk Maximos Planudes (1260 - 1310) succeeded in finding and purchasing a manuscript copy of the Geographia. Another scholar of the Byzantine age is known to have been interested in Ptolemya€™s Geographia - the noted polyhistor Nikephoras Gregoras (1295 - c. In 1400 a Greek manuscript copy of the A-version (twenty-six maps) was obtained from Constantinople by the Florentine patron of letters, Palla Strozzi, who persuaded Emmanual Chrysoloras, a Byzantine scholar, to translate the text into Latin. Again, the original manuscript of Angelusa€™ translation and the first maps of Ptolemy in the Latin language have not survived, but a manuscript copy, dated 1427, prepared under the direction of Cardinal Fillastre, can be found in the library at Nancy, France (thus known as the Nancy Codex). In manuscript form, four other cartographers are significant in editing and influencing the evolution of Ptolemya€™s atlas. After the discovery of copper-plate and wood-engraving, Ptolemya€™s atlas became one of the first great works for the reproduction of which these arts were employed. One of the most impressive is so-called Fiery Cross Island, the permanent structure above complete with an air strip and, perhaps, the ability to permanently station advanced weapon systems there to patrol the skies and seas. Jonathan Greenert, arms to Ukraine, capitol hill, China, Congress, DIA, DIA director, DNI, DNICIA, Gen. But I think bringing them here to build a corps of crucial tactical leaders would be very useful.
My avatar there, Huffington Post Gestapa done away with me profile when I enlarged it also would not allow my mircro-bio to be Reincarnated Nazi ( a vision, Lord told me of reincarnation in 2005). The intelligence level of the average poster on hear is light years ahead of some other sites.
Unfortunately, all he’s doing right now is undermining the President, which is probably what Vlad the Impaler is actually trying to do.
China is busy building artificial islands and establishing an impregnable Maginot Line in the South China Sea.
Any South China Sea battle will receive support from China’s land-based aircraft and missiles.
The US maintains active mutual defence treaties with several states in this region, including Japan and the Philippines (go take a look at the US Treaties in Force list if you don’t believe me).
Ongoing discussions are taking place with regards to arming the Ukrainian government with heavier weapons.
SOSUS does not provide quite the same ground-breaking detection advantages that it did forty years ago. Again, other states in the area possess (or are capable of possessing) AWACS-type aircraft. If China lost the first South China Sea war today, I believe they would wait quite a while before trying again, possibly until around 2030 when their technical and economic conditions had improved drastically. The military means are there now yes, but the critical mass necessary to wage such a conflict is not. Its their Coast Guard and the fishing armada that is being used, which is outmaneuvering the Filipinos & Vietnamese and causing them so much consternation. They are making rapid progress when it comes to their military technology, narrowing the technological gap with China faster than we expected.
They already have an integrated air defense system that the US considers near impregnable to 4th generation fighters though not a problem to 5th generation fighters. Variable Depth Sonar (VDS) is being added to their Type 054A frigates & Type 056 corvettes. Testing of the new Type 093C conventional submarines with Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) which would mean the submarine doesn’t have to come up for air for several weeks. I would add that American Politicians, Diplomats, and Military Leadership for the past 50 plus years have demonstrated a total lack of finesse concerning world affairs. If reincarnation is true like the Buddhists believe that would be awesome especially since you have the potential to ascend higher than even the gods themselves according to Buddhist mythology. We got playing with that guy when he was new at work, took his cap from him and was playing catch-keep-away and saw real quick we was playing with a guy who was going to kill us if we did not give him his hat back!
They need (and I stress the word need) these mini-airstrips as a means of expanding their ability to wage war as close to Chinese-dominated areas as possible and preferably within range of their mainland so as to keep their supply lines short. This fact is common sense (probably why McCain doesn’t fully understand this point) that Russia can far more easily move heavy and more sophisticated weapons into Ukraine along with trained specialists than can we. The USSR never had more than 120,000 (or so) troops in Afghanistan, which they share border. The Europeans hands are tied or Putin will just turn off their Natural Gas again, so the US is left to act.
Those reports said that the project would cost $5 billion and take ten years, and would ultimately produce a five-square-kilometer military base. China caused fierce backlash throughout the region last year when it established an ADIZ in the East China Sea, which overlapped with South Korea, Japan and Taiwan’s existing ones. Most notably, Vietnam and China have repeatedly clashed over Beijing placing an oil rig in disputed wars. If I were alone in an elevator with Obama and he said that, I'd probably give him the finger. I mean, the US and Brits have Diego Garcia, after they removed the locals.And thanks to Diego Garcia, that missing flight was able to safely land there. Israel, who the US has given multi Billions in funding and weapons to every year for 60 years, only to get the benefit of false flag attacks against the US by Israel, direct espionage against the US by the Israelis and their built in dual-citizen diaspora spy network, and the Israelis stealing and also selling US industrial and military secrets directly to the Chinese and others.
John Woodhouse, a merchant from Liverpool, was sailing to Mazara del Vallo on Sicilya€™s southern shore when a sudden scirocco storm forced him to seek refuge in the port of Marsala. These fortified wines came from what the British called a€?the sun belta€?a€” the Mediterranean region extending from Portugal to Turkeya€”and Sicily was smack in the middle. Vicenzo Florio outgrew them all, with a fleet of 99 ships exporting Marsala to points around the globe. Old dusty bottles were occasionally brought out of kitchen cupboards to make chicken marsala or zabaglione, but Marsalaa€™s illustrious status as a meditation wine was gone with the wind. Hea€™d spent the previous decade in the family business, growing grapes to sell to Marsala firms Pellegrino and Mirabella. Concentrated but dry, blended in soleras, and aged an average of 20 years, Vecchio Samperi is truly a meditation wine, a siren song that pulls you in deep through waves of nut, caramel, dried fruit, and sherry-like oxidative notes. Like its name implies, ita€™s virgin wine, with nothing added but neutral grape spirit, whose magic comes from long aging in wood. De Bartoli has taken the lead in privileging grillo, grown in Sicily since Phoenician times. Sweeter than a Vergine, with a luscious caramel, dried apricot, marmalade, and nut character, this wine has been fortified with mistella from insolia must and acquavite, then aged 10 years, versus the required 4. While Fine is fine for cooking, it takes years, even decades, to achieve a truly elegant meditation wine, one whose concentrated flavors come from slow evaporation and oxidation in casks, followed by further mellowing in barrique.
He composed a Table of Reigns, a chronological list of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman sovereigns dating from Nabonasar to Antoninus Pius, a biographical history of kingship. He was interested in the earth, all of it, not just the habitable part, and tried to fit it into a scheme of the universe where it belonged. Marinus had given this matter considerable thought, rejecting all previously devised methods of obtaining congruity on a flat map; yet, according to Ptolemy he had finally selected the least satisfactory method of solving the problem. There is also an introduction to data collection, evaluation, preparations for drawing, how and in what order to mark boundaries, and how to use the appended tables. When traveling overland it is usually necessary to diverge from a straight line course in order to avoid inevitable land-barriers; and at sea, where winds are changeable, the speed of a vessel varies considerably, making it difficult to estimate over-water distances with any degree of accuracy. The Indian Ocean, which is assumed to be bordered on the south by an unknown continent, uniting southern Africa with eastern Asia, is stated to be the largest sea surrounded by land. It is these legends which, in some editions, have been placed on the reverse of the maps, and they appear to have been originally intended for that purpose.
In Chapter Two Ptolemy said, a€?It remains for us to show how we set down all places, so that when we divide one map into several maps we may be able to accurately locate all of the well-known places through the employment of easily understood and exact measurements.a€? On the other hand, some scholars even go so far as to say that maps were already drawn before certain portions of the text was addressed, so that they could be used as models for the completion of other portions of the text.
For instance, in a single map embracing the entire earth, he said, there is a tendency to sacrifice proportion, that is, scale, in order to get everything on the map.
If several regional maps are made to supplement the general world map, they need not a€?measure the same distance between the circlesa€?, that is, be drawn to the same scale, provided the correct relation between distance and direction is preserved.
It demonstrates how Ptolemya€™s world had been systematically divided into twenty-six regions, each of which is mapped on a separate sheet.
The reason for this doubt lies in the question of authorship of the maps which accompany extant copies. According to map historian Leo Bagrow, one version, A, contains twenty-six large maps included in the eighth Book of the text, each folded in half and, on the back, having a statement of the region portrayed, its bounds and a list of principle towns. In some manuscripts of the B-version, and in those without maps, the texts from the backs of the maps are combined together in a special edition, divided into chapters numbered 3-28.
Of the Greek manuscripts of the Geographia, as a whole or in part, known today, eleven of the A-version and five of the B-version have maps. The meridians are spaced from each other a€?the third part of an equinoctial hour, that is, through five of the divisions marked on the equatora€?. In Ptolemya€™s time, the latitude, or distance from the equator, was generally astronomically calculated from the length of the longest and the shortest day. The numbers on the right of the Clima give the number of hours in the longest day at different latitudes, increasing from 12 hours at the equator to 24 hours at the Arctic Circle.
The a€?breadtha€? of the habitable world according to Ptolemy then equates to 39,500 stades [3,950 miles].
The earth was only 18,000 miles around at the equator; Poseidonius had stated it, Strabo substantiated it, and Ptolemy perpetuated it on his maps. Of these, the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean] is the largest, Our Sea [the Mediterranean] is the next and the Hyrcanian [Caspian] is the smallest. This parallel also passed through Taprobane usually considered the southernmost part of Asia. As to the source of the Nile, both Greeks and Romans had tried to locate it, but without success.
Ptolemy extended the west coast of Africa with a free hand, and even though he reduced the bulge made by Marinus more than half, it was still way out of control. He shows, for the first time, a fairly clear idea of the great north-south dividing range of mountains of Central Asia, which he called Imaus, but he placed it nearly 40A° too far east and made it divide Scythia into two parts: Scythia Intra Imaum and Scythia Extra Imaum Montem [Within Imaus and Beyond Imaus]. His Mediterranean is about 20A° too long, and even after correcting his lineal value of a degree it was still about 500 geographical miles too long.
Ptolemy was also the first geographer, excepting Alexander the Great, to return to the correct view advanced by Herodotus and Aristotle, that the Caspian was an inland sea without communication with the ocean (the Christian medieval cartographers were a long time in returning to this representation of the Caspian).


Its wealth of detail still constitutes one of the most important sources of information for the historian and student of ancient geography. Many of the legends and conventional signs that he used are still employed by cartographers with only slight modifications.
Ptolemya€™s works were, however, thriving and contributing valuable insight to knowledgeable Arabs and those having access and understanding of the Arab or Greek language (it was only in the Islamic states and in these languages that the works of the Alexandrian scientist were preserved (see monographs #212, #213, #214-17, lbn Said, al-lstakhri, Ibn Hauqal, al-Kashgari, etc. Very few scholars, let alone other literate persons in Western Europe were familiar with the Greek language at this time, therefore this translation was a great stimulus to a€?popularizinga€? Ptolemy. Curiously enough it was first printed at Vincenza in 1475 (the date printed of 1462 is in error) without maps!
Vincent Stewart, for his argument that Russia’s shorter supply lines would render US arms largely meaningless because Vladimir Putin could resupply his forces much more quickly than we could ours. Vincent Stewart, HAC-D, House Appropriations committee, intelligence, james clapper, navy, philippines, Sen. I was under the impression that we were already involved in a low level tactical training mission in the Ukraine?
I seriously believe European efforts are the most logical steps to hopefully cause Putin to rethink his current actions.
That bio slipped though some on the live commenting but the other it told me to pick a new bio as cos I am not a Christian, Muslim or Atheist and they only allow those type of Micro-bio’s. In any case, as a military man, he should know better – regardless of his political leanings. The United States does not care about the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances or the redrawing of a European country’s border in violation of the United Nations charter.
With a KJ-2000 AWACS with L-band radar serving as quarterback, Chinese fighters will own the sky above the South China Sea. The PLAN does not yet own the South China Sea region, and here are eight counter-reasons as to why. While the US may have an external position of neutrality regarding territorial claim arguments, make no mistake- if military action is taken against one of these states, the US Navy will be able to defend them. Some might think that the US and Europe will leave Ukraine to fend for itself- this is clearly not the case.
Your use of 20th century fortress terminology aside, these sea bases are all very much vulnerable to attack.
Theatre-deployable towed array sensor systems provide a highly mobile undersea detection system, alongside towed array sonar.
The fighters you refer to would not provide quite the same advantage in 2018 as you believe they will. Only once the PLAN has a fleet capable of matching the US Navy, AND all the other regional powers around the South China Sea, will China have gained mastery of this region. Today China is ASEAN’s largest trading partner and they are also the largest trading partner of a couple member states, and the 2nd largest of a few others. It comes with a 7-meter long Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) boom the longest out there, an electro-optical turret, & the ability to deploy 100 sonobuoys (enough to cover an area the size of Rhode Island). Its my understanding that towed VDS under the right conditions can detect a submarine hundreds of miles away. Comes with a improved acoustic reduction, a multi-spectrum photonics mast, & an improved shape (European style tower). Strategically it is only of interest to us because it concerns our Eastern European Allies. Starting with the Cuban Missile Crisis and President Kennedy, we have had a series of Presidential Decisions and Blunders that have come extremely close to creating a Nuclear Firestorm in the US and other Nations. Hurts somebody hey toss them some loose change while they are looking for food in the sewers. Since I was raised Catholic (lapsed though), I have to go by what I was taught in Sunday school. Screwed me up for awhile of course, the Lord taking his time to drop in on a poor sucker as myself.
Later when it is time to investigate we drop another tactical nuke dud with the messages wrote on ‘The Kremlin says Nyet’! Neither the Ukrainians nor NATO appears to know how to handle this type of asymmetrical warfare. Sorry to let you know but China doesn’t make a lot of money when US corporations outsource and that makes the majority of exports from China to the US. The Filipino media noted that the base would fall within the Philippines 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone. Meanwhile, the Philippines has been accusing China of reclamation of the Johnson South Reef, another one of the Spratly Islands.
Ita€™s reacting to a chart titled a€?29 Expressions of a Unique Wine,a€? which parses Marsala into its various categories. Look for De Bartolia€™s Vecchio Samperi, Pellegrinoa€™s Marsala Vergine Soleras Secco, or Florioa€™s Marsala Superiore VecchioFlorio Secco. While there, he and his men dined at an osteria that served up its best special-occasion wine.
Like Vecchio Samperi, it uses the soleras system, as does another favorite of mine, Pellegrinoa€™s Marsala Vergine Soleras Secco. Little is known personally of this pivotal man aside from the general period during which he was active ca.
His Analemma was mathematical description of a sphere projected on a plane, subsequently known as an a€?orthographic projection,a€? which greatly simplified the study of gnomonics. He was also interested in the relationships between the earth and the sun, the earth and the moon, in scientific cause and effect of climate; and above all, he was concerned with a scientifically accurate portrayal of the spherical earth in a convenient readable form. These Byzantine copies of the Geographia are comprised of eight a€?Booksa€? which Ptolemy introduces by supplying two very influential definitions - that of chorography and geography. Marinus had laid out a grid of strait lines equidistant from one another for both his parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. Because while Ptolemy employs his conical projection in his first general world map, for the remaining twenty-six special regional maps he uses the rectangular projection of Marinus with due observance of the ratio between the longitude and latitude at the base of the map. Books II-VI and the first four chapters of Book VII are devoted to a complete catalogue of some 8,000 inhabited localities laid down in the twenty-six special maps of the geography. Nevertheless Ptolemy concluded that the most reliable way of determining distances was by astronomical observation, and by no other method could one expect to fix positions accurately.
In addition, a description of a projection of the inhabited hemisphere on a plane, by which it could retain its circular outline, or globular aspect is also given.
The better known regions have many place-names, while the lesser known have few, and, unless the map is carefully drawn, it will have some crowded, illegible areas, and some where distances are unduly extended. Ptolemy repeated that it would be not too far from the truth if instead of circles we draw straight lines for meridians and parallels. Generally these sheets are of about the same size, but the scales vary according to the space required for the legends. Did Ptolemy actually design and construct the maps himself, were they made by a draftsman working under his supervision, or were they added, perhaps as late as 1450, by an energetic editor who thought the text needed some graphic emendation?
The geographical coordinates of these towns are given, not in degrees, but in time; the longitude is expressed in hours and minutes corresponding to the distance from the meridian of Alexandria (one hour = 15 degrees, one minute = 15 minutes of a degree), and the latitude is expressed in terms of the length of the longest day, in hours and minutes (the greater the distance from the equator, the longer the day in summer). Some of the manuscripts without maps contain references to accompanying maps, since lost, and in others, spaces have been left for maps to be inserted. In other words, the total span of twelve hours, representing the length of the habitable world, was to be partitioned by a series of thirty-six meridians spaced five degrees apart at the equator and converging at the North Pole. The earth was accordingly divided into a number of zones, parallel to the equator and within which these days had a certain length, for instance of 12 -13, or 15 -16 hours. Ptolemy a€?correcteda€? this length to 180A° (9,000 miles), still 50A° (2,500 miles) too long, an error arising from using the Fortunate Islands as his prime meridian which he placed about seven degrees (350 miles) too far to the east. It is very unlikely, in view of the secrecy attached to all maps and surveys of the Roman Empire. This a€?shorter distancea€? that a mariner would have to travel west from the shores of Spain in order to reach the rich trading centers of Asia may have contributed to Columbusa€™ belief, or that of his royal sponsors, that they could compete with their rival neighbors, Portugal, in the newly opened sea-trade with India by sailing west. The Emperor Nero had sent an expedition into Upper Egypt, and it had penetrated as far as the White Nile, about 9A° N latitude.
On the same approximate parallel he located the region called Agisymba, inhabited by Ethiopians and abounding in rhinoceri, supposedly discovered by Julius Maternus, a Roman general. A more obvious area to stretch the length of the world was in eastern Asia where there was every likelihood of additional territory yet unexplored. Asia and Africa are extended considerably to the east and south, far more so than on any previous maps, but not without cause. His Mare Nostrum, from Marseilles to the opposite point on the coast of Africa, is 11A° of latitude instead of the actual 6.5A°. This is especially true in the study of the earliest tribes that encompassed the Roman Empire in the first century of the Christian era, who were at that time barbarians, but who later bore the burden of civilization in Europe. He originated the practice of orienting maps so that North is at the top and East to the right, a custom so universal today that many people are lost when they try to read a map oriented any other way. Planudes constructed a map based upon the instructions found in Ptolemya€™s eight books and subsequently, through Athanasios, Patriarch of Alexandria, had a copy of the Geographia, with maps made for Emperor Andronicus III. He is also credited with the four-page world map found in some manuscripts, chiefly the B-version. When Chrysoloras was unable to complete the translation, it was finished by one of his students, Jacobus Angelus of Scarparia, between 1406 and 1410. In all, seven editions were printed in the 15th century, of which six were provided with large maps in folio, and thirty-three in the following century (a selected list taken from Tooley accompanies this monograph).
But training 100 Ukrainian sergeants and 50 captains here on in Ukraine might be even more valuable to them, given their performance so far. Breaking Defense was recommended to me several days ago, and I have been very pleased with the level and professionalism of the comments and contributors! The forthcoming British effort to assist training Ukrainian Military Forces is a positive step, and one that should give Putin a bit of a pause? We need some multilevel thought here and all we’ve been getting lately is stoneage rockshaking or absolute refusal to do anything. Former Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili was recently denied a work visa in the United States.
Mass production of Chinese Chengdu J-20 and Shenyang J-31 stealth fighters will start in 2018. Thus, China can keep on fighting until the latest military technologies are deployed in the South China Sea.
The vast majority of European governments have found a new determination to stop Russian advances from going further than Ukraine, which is why combat formations in the Baltics and Poland are being renewed.
These could be deployed quickly and easily by opposing forces in any South China Sea conflict. Armed with a combination of surveillance systems and long-range missiles, they would pose a formidable threat. What most don’t know is that the Chinese have two more stealth programs, one appears to be a medium range (or intermediate range) bomber and the other one appears to be another stealth fighter designed to defeat the F-22. We all know of the advances they have made in their anti-ship missile programs – from the ASBM to supersonic cruise missiles. It appears the frigates are also getting Towed Array Sonar (TAS), which are hydrophones on cables that are several km long. ISIL is not a major threat to us either, but is a strategic interest because they are savages in need of extinction.
Each successive President since Kennedy has seemed to carry a Torch of War and Destruction. His book is in the Clouds, a vision I saw while walking out a building being able to see through the ceiling of that building. It would be smart of us to consider mobilizing our Army Corps of Engineers and the Seabees in an effort to build about a dozen islands in those waters to counter this threat of naked Chinese Expansionism.
Making matters worse is their rapid modernization of their air force and navy, the deployment of a national integrated air defense system, their ramping up of ASW capabilities, the expansion of their anti-ship arsenal, & the steady closing of the technological gap with the US armed forces. I get that the economy Europe-wide is moribund, but jesus H, Putin has been ploughing resources into rehabbing his own military for more than a decade and still, EU member nations dithered. In some cases, we can move a military force larger than the total military of many small to mid-size countries. How the fck on earth can anyone do their jobs if they do not have the damn tools to carry the mission out.
The ignorance of both McCain and O’bama, along with the rest of our senior leadership is appalling. Manila has also raised concerns about China activities around the Gavin Reef (Gaven Reef) and Calderon Reef (Cuarteron Reef), which Philippine officials said were also consistent with reclamation. Thata€™s right; 29 permutations, stacked in a multicolored pyramid, with age on the ascending side, color on the base, and sweetness levels wedged in between. Called il perpetuum, it was named after an aging process that involve a perpetual replenishing of wine in large wooden casks. When his father sent word that this Marsala was a smashing success, Woodhouse created a commercial operation, buying vineyards and farms in the countryside, anda€”like the British shippers of Port in Oportoa€”building an aging lodge near the Marsala port for easy shipping to England.
Although boiled must was banished from most Marsalas, at least 1 percent is still required in the amber versions of Fine, Superiore, and Superiore Reservaa€”an industry shortcut to the rich hue and caramelized flavors that come with long cask aging.
His first wine, called Vecchio Samperi, had more in common with the original perpetuum wine than Woodhousea€™s fortified Marsala, let alone the mass-produced Marsalas of the 1970s.
Add the words a€?Reservaa€? and a€?Stravecchio,a€? and that doubles the aging minimum, from 5 years to 10.
Unlike Vergine, which is always dry, Marsala Superiore can range in sweetness, so check the label for secco (dry), semisecco (off-dry), or dolce (sweet).
His work entitled PlanisphA¦rium [the Planisphere], described a sphere projected on the equator, the eye being at the pole, a projection later known as a€?stereographica€?. More than any one of the ancients, Claudius Ptolemy succeeded in establishing the elements and form of scientific cartography. He defines chorography as being selective and regional in approach, a€?even dealing with the smallest conceivable localities, such as harbors, farms, villages, river courses, and the likea€?.
Its position under the heavens is extremely important, for in order to describe any given part of the world one must know under what parallel of the celestial sphere it is located.
He seems to have studied and made astronomical observations in Tyre, the oldest and largest city of Phoenicia, which, even at that late date, maintained important commercial relations with remote parts of the world. This was contrary to both truth and appearance, and the resulting map was badly distorted with respect to distance and direction, for if the eye is fixed on the center of the quadrant of the sphere which we take to be our inhabited world, it is readily seen that the meridians curve toward the North Pole and that the parallels, though they are equally spaced on the sphere, give the impression of being closer together near the poles. Traditional information regarding distances should be subordinated, especially the primitive sort, for tradition varies from time to time, and if it must enter into the making of maps at all, it is expedient to compare the records of the ancient past with newer records, a€?deciding what is credible and what is incrediblea€?.
It is remarkable that such questions never seemed to have occurred to Ptolemy, as: What is there to be found beyond Serica and Sinarum Situs? Ptolemy himself never actually employed this manner of projection, which has since, through more or less modified, been preferred by geographers for maps representing one of the hemispheres. Some map makers have a tendency to exaggerate the size of Europe because it is most populous, and to contract the length of Asia because little is known about the eastern part of it.
As for his own policy, he said, a€?in the separate maps we shall show the meridians themselves not inclined and curved but at an equal distance one from another, and since the termini of the circles of latitude and of longitude of the habitable earth, when calculated over great distances do not make any remarkable excesses, so neither is there any great difference in any of our mapsa€?.
As this diagram shows, each regional map would encompass, besides its own proper territory, some parts of the neighboring countries. Ptolemy does not state specifically in his text whether he personally made any maps, and proponents of the theory that Ptolemy made no maps for this Geographia base their case on the notation in two of the existing manuscript copies, that a cartographer named AgathodA¦mon of Alexandria was the author of the accompanying map(s). It is no less difficult, also, to determine when the maps of the two versions (A and B) were made. The meridians in the southern hemisphere are extended from the equator at the same angle as those above it, but instead of converging at the South Pole they terminated at the parallel 8A° 25a€™ below the equator.
The concept of the division of the earth into zones began as early as the sixth century B.C. While Ptolemya€™s map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. More specifically, Ptolemya€™s knowledge concerning the fringes of the habitable world and civilization was broader than earlier writers, such as Strabo (#115), but in some respects it was a little confused. With Thule as the northern limit of Ptolemya€™s habitable world, he thus extended the breadth of this world from less than 60A° (Eratosthenes and Strabo) to nearly 80A°. The silk trade with China had produced rumors of vast regions east of the Pamir and Tian Shan, hitherto the Greek limits of Asia. These distortions represented an actual extension of geographical knowledge and are doubtless based on exaggerated reports of distances traveled. 80) containing sailing directions from the Red Sea to the Indus and Malabar, indicated that the coast from Barygaza [Baroch] had a general southerly trend down to and far beyond Cape Korami [Comorin], and suggested a peninsula in southern India. While Ptolemy's map is based upon the theory that the earth is round, it bares repeating that it is to his credit that he depicts only that half of its surface which was then known, with very little attempt to speculate on or a€?fill-ina€? the unknown parts with his imagination. To be sure, there are other geographical fragments, individual maps and charts, isolated examples of the best in Greek, Roman, and Arabic cartography, but Ptolemya€™s Geographia is the only extant geographical atlas which has come down to us from the ancients. His map projections, the conical and modified spherical, as well as the orthographic and stereographic systems developed in the Almagest, are still in use. This particular copy has not been recovered, however another copy attributed to Planudes is preserved, in part, in the monastery of Vatopedi on Mount Athos.
It was also during this time, the 14th century, that the twenty-six maps of the A-version were divided up into sixty-four. This oldest Latin translation of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (confusingly and arbitrarily titled Cosmographia by Angelus) was at first disseminated in numerous, often splendidly decorated manuscript copies. A re-issue of the preceding, but with a new title-page, an account of the New World by Marcus Beneventanus, and a new map of the world by Ruysch, Nova Tabula. The most important edition of Ptolemy, containing the 27 maps of the ancient world and 20 maps based on contemporary knowledge, under the superintendence of Martin WaldseemA?ller.
Maps, with the exception of Asia V, printed from the same blocks as 1522 edition, and like them almost unaltered copies on a reduced scale of the maps of the 1513 edition.
Bringing Ukrainian Military to the US could also pay good dividends, but I question if we have enough time to really affect much of a change? I could still comment just no Avatar and then they jumped in bed with Facebook and I am not with Facebook and don’t want to be though that is a great thing, Zuck has done something wonderful for the world if he does not get a monopoly on the commenting on the net! The US could pump as much gear as it likes out to Tokyo, Manila, Jakarta and Singapore in the prelude to any South China Sea conflict, ensuring the eventuality of a nice, clean pair of largely unmolested logistical lines.
Chinese tourism is also booming, increasing the economic importance of China to the region.
The South Chinese Sea is a serious strategical interest of ours, but any rough handling of that issue will ruffle Chinese Communist feathers so bad that the only recourse will be eventual war in the future.
Our Foreign Policy seems to have evolved to the Military Option as the Only Tool of Diplomacy. To top it all off, Southeast Asia appears to be incapable of uniting to solve their differences and present a united front to the Chinese.
Some have ranked our Navy has having the fourth or fifth most powerful air force in the world.
Depending on the mods, the Mustang will catch up and pass a Neon somewhere between 80 mph to 100 mph.
I mean really, McCain loves nothing more than having the man by the balls then continue to berate him before the panel about how disappointed he is to hear that the US could do almost nothing if Russia decided to drive deep into Ukraine.
The spirit of the comments below reflect lack of knowledge, ethics, and an attitude of charity for the plight of those whom have a future we guaranteed. Leta€™s repeat: Age (Fine = 1 year, Superiore = 2 years, Superiore Reserve = 4 years, Vergine = 5 years, Vergine Reserve = 10 years). That barrel is replenished with younger wine from the barrel above, and so on, with the brand-new vintage added to the top row. By 1900, 40 firms were supplying the world with what was then the most famous of all Italian wines.
90 to 168 (during the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius) and that he lived in, or near, Alexandria Egypt.
This he did through his second great treatise, Geographike Syntaxis, called by him, a€?the geographical guide to the making of mapsa€?, and, in later centuries, shortened to simply Geographia, or (incorrectly) Cosmographia.
Geography, he said, differs from chorography in that it deals with a€?a representation in picture of the whole known world together with the phenomena that are contained thereina€?. Otherwise how can one determine the length of its days and nights, the stars which are fixed overhead, the stars which appear nightly over the horizon and the stars which never rise above the horizon at all.
This a€?tutora€™ of Ptolemy had read nearly all of the historians before him and had corrected many of their errors (presumable errors relating to the location of places as contained in travelersa€™ itineraries). Ptolemy was well aware that it would be desirable to retain a semblance of spherical proportions on his flat map, but at the same time he decided to be practical about it. With one exception (an Italian translation by Berlinghieri), every editor of Ptolemya€™s Geographia has published, not the original maps, but a modification of them by Nicolaus Germanus (Donis), who, with praiseworthy exactness and without any further alterations, reproduced the originals, on a projection with rectilinear, equidistant parallels and meridians converging towards the poles. It is an exception when geographical or descriptive remarks are added to this bare enumeration of names.
Therefore if a geographer were obliged to fall back on the reports of travelers, he should exercise some discrimination in his choice of authorities.
What could be found to the north of Thule, or to the south of Agysimba and Cape Prasum: Where would you arrive if you sailed westward from the Fortunate Islands? And some cartographers surround the earth on all sides with an ocean that, according to Ptolemy are a€?making a fallacious description, and an unfinished and foolish picturea€?. But, as is also usual in modern atlases, these neighboring areas of the map are only roughly sketched, while the principle area is shown in full detail.
From these same manuscripts it is stated that a€?he drew them according to the instructions in the eight books of Claudius Ptolemya€?. Certain indications point to the Byzantine period, with the exception of AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map. And it is highly probable that Ptolemy the astronomer, who is usually discredited by later geographers because of his methods and the kinds of information he compiled, had no more standing among some of his influential contemporaries than he would today in the most approved geographical circles of the civilized world. The only good reason for discussing a few of the glaring faults of the Geographia is that it was the canonical work on the subject for more than 1400 years.
In the northern regions, for example, he had been ill-advised with regard to Ireland, and positioned it further north than any part of Wales; likewise, Scotland was twisted around so that its length ran nearly east and west. Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times. All such information was of doubtful origin, and in laying down the coastline of Eastern Asia, Ptolemy ran the line roughly north and south.
Ptolemy, apparently following Marinus, ignored this document, or else never saw it because the shape of his India is unduly broadened and foreshortened.
Leaving the habitable world from the Strait at the Pillars of Hercules to the Gulf of Issus, it passed through Caralis in Sardinia and Lilybaeum in Sicily (30A° 12a€™ and 37A° 50a€™ N). Ptolemy stated that the Nile arose from two streams, the outlets of two lakes a little south of the equator, which was closer to the truth than any previous conception, or any later one until the discovery of the Victoria and Albert Nyanza in modern times. There is nothing in the literature to indicate that any other such systematic collection of maps was ever compiled, with the exception of the maps of Marinus, about which almost nothing is known, save what Ptolemy has mentioned.
The listing of place-names, either in geographical or alphabetical order, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, is not so different from the modern system of letters and numerals employed to help the reader, a little convenience that is standard on modern maps and Ptolemaic in origin.
Four new mapsa€”France, Italy, Spain and Palestinea€”being based on contemporary knowledge.
The map of the world is the first to show contemporary discoveries, and the first map to bear the name of its engraver, Johannes Schnitzer de Armssheim. The other 6 mapsa€”northern Europe, Spain, France, Poland, Italy and the Holy Landa€”are based on contemporary knowledge.
Includes the Tabula Terra Nova, the first map specifically devoted to the delineation of the New World.
The ASBM variant of the Dong Feng may yet prove to be a game-changer but it remains to be seen whether it can perform well under real-world conditions. The blunt truth is American politicians, diplomats, and military leadership for the past 20 years just have not really handled the world affairs with any finesse what so ever. The US has indeed become that Big Bully in the Schoolyard, and I fear that the next President with the support of Congress will be the one that will finally end Human Life as we know it today! Came over to my house in the rain and put a rear end under the ’70 Cuda for higher top end speed.


They are actually trying to have it both ways – booming trade with China as well as wanting investments and loans from them while desiring an American presence in the region to act as a balance. Unwilling or unable to end all commerce with Russia, or cut them off completely from the international banking system. US Navy illegally took control of foreign country at the behest of local pineapple growers and cattle ranchers.) Putin is just redrawing the Russia border a little farther west, something he probably believes should have been done properly in 1991. The cask is then topped off with new wine, and so it continues over the years, creating a blend of multiple vintages within one cask. But it also had no added alcohol, achieving 18% just through a combination of well-ripened grapes and evaporation in the soleras circle. De Bartoli also pioneered grillo as a dry white table wine, kicking off a trend in Sicily with his crisp and lovely Grappoli del Grilloa€”a welcome trend, given the islanda€™s abundance of seafood. Nestles is recomended only for advanced surfers.Click the photo below to view Nestles video.
During the second century, Alexandria was not only the richest city in the world, with regard to learned institutions and treasures of scholarship, but also the wealthiest commercial place on the earth. This work is actually the first general atlas of the world to have survived, rather than a a€?Geographya€? with a long textual introduction to the subject of cartography. As he proceeds to elaborate his definition of geography, it becomes apparent that Ptolemy conceived that the primary function of geography was a€?mapmakinga€?, and that, to him, geography was synonymous with cartography. He had, moreover, edited and revised his own geographic maps, of which at least two editions had been published before Ptolemy saw them. Finally, Ptolemy thought, about all one could do was to locate unfamiliar places as accurately as possible with reference to well-known places, in as much as it is advisable on a map of the entire world to assign a definite position to every known place, regardless of how little is known about it. The longitudes would be determined from the meridian of Alexandria, either at sunrise or sunset, calculating the difference in equinoctial hours between Alexandria and point two, whatever it might be.
As mentioned earlier, the original text called for twenty-six regional or special maps, which in all extant manuscript copies bear a strong family resemblance and are laid down on the projection apparently used by Marinus in the form of isosceles trapezoids. However, this statement has never been dated and, confusingly, AgathodA¦mona€™s single-sheet world map employs a projection unlike any proposed by Ptolemya€™s text.
But, again, when they were constructed - totally and faithfully copied from the originals, or constructed from Ptolemya€™s instructions but without benefit of original models - is significant in trying to determine the degree of similarity to their a€?prototypea€™ and the possibility of additions or corrections based upon more contemporary knowledge.
Different from what is now accepted as the meaning, this word in ancient maps had a purely geographical, not a meteorological significance, although they also perceived that the climate of a region was somewhat related to its distance from the equator. Similarly he showed the length of the Mediterranean as 62A°, whereas, in reality it is only 42A°. Geographers of the 15th and 16th centuries relied on it so heavily, while ignoring the new discoveries of maritime explorers, that it actually exerted a powerful retarding influence on the progress of cartography. Instead of continuing it to the Land of the LinA¦ [seacoast of China] he curved it around to the east and south, forming a great bay, Sinus Magnus [roughly the Gulf of Siam].
Carthage is positioned 1A° 20a€™ south of the parallel of Rhodes; actually it is one degree north of it. Corrected and amended by a succession of editors, this version also formed the basis upon which all of the editions of the 15th century are built. The text is a metrical paraphrase by Francesco Berlinghieri, and is the first edition in Italian. The greatly increased number of a€?modern mapsa€? makes this in effect the first modern atlas. Not to mention that neither Thailand or Malaysia consider China a threat, and that Laos & Cambodia are more or less beholden to China. Both this Administration and the last have been two of the most incompetent foreign policy Presidents of the last 150 years.
Hey if the Pope ever drops in on you steal his F-40 Ferrari, come and get me and we’ll run up to Burgers and Shakes.
We can get and maintain more forces in the Ukraine than the Russians can, but by the time we are ramped up and get there in any quantity, the race is over. As a result, Vecchio Samperi falls outside the DOC rules, which require fortification, even for Vergine; thata€™s why you dona€™t see the word a€?Marsalaa€? on the Vecchio Samperi label. It was a place where seafaring people and caravans from all parts of the known world would use to congregate, thereby providing the opportunity to collect knowledge of far away lands and seas. Here for the first time are documented the duties and responsibilities of the mapmaker, his limitations, and the nature of the materials he was to work with. The final drafts were nearly free from defects and his text, which we know of only through Ptolemy, was so reliable in Ptolemya€™s estimation that a€?it would seem to be enough for us to describe the earth on which we dwell from his commentaries alone, without other investigations.a€? According to Ptolemy, the most significant feature of the maps of Marinus was the growth of the habitable world and the changed attitude toward the uninhabited parts. When such a conical surface is extended on a plane, a network with circular parallels and rectilinear, converging meridians arise. Unlike Marinus who listed longitude on one page and latitude on another, Ptolemy began the tradition of listing the positional coordinates together and in a usable system that was practical to follow.
Some of the other conspicuously modern conventions include the previously noted lack of ornamentation, his method of differentiating land and water, rivers and towns, by means of either hachures or different colors, and his use of a€?standardizeda€™ symbols all of which is accepted at first glance without a thought being given to the origin of the technique.
This particular world map is usually found at the end of Book VII, preceded by three chapters containing some practical advice, a general description of all known areas of the world and the three principle seas (the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Indian Ocean), with their bays and islands, and instructions for drawing a sphere and maps on a plane surface. It is noteworthy here to point out that, regardless of when these existing manuscript reproductions were made, they somehow escaped the pictorial fancies such as sketches of animals, monsters, savages, ships, kings, etc.
The eastward extension of Asia is also exaggerated, measuring about 110A° from the coast of Syria to the outermost limits of China, instead of the true distance of about 85A°.
The Geographia was both a keystone and a millstone, a pioneering effort that outlived its usefulness. The northern coast of Germany beyond Denmark, Cimbrica Chersonese, is shown as the margin of the Northern Ocean, and running in a general east-west direction. Continuing it around to the south until it joined Terra Incognita at the southern limit of the habitable world, he made a lake of the Indicum Mare [Indian Ocean].
For the most part, the lands beyond the Ganges were not well known until a thousand years later when the brothers Polo first acquainted western Europe with the existence of a number of large islands in that part of the world.
Byzantium is placed in the same latitude as Massilia, which made it more than two degrees north of its true position. It is also the only edition with maps printed on the original projection with equidistant parallels or meridians.
My brother was as good a musician that every walked on this planet, just never could get big. Was coming back towards town at almost a 100 miles and hour and the wind nearly blew us into the concrete supports on the little bridge. Corruption in the Ukraine is even worse than in Russia and they are failing to reform the economy. Because over 70% of exports from China to Japan were from Japanese companies outsourcing to China. If they are so troublesome, the Turkish and Jordanian armies should sweep in on them from the north and south and crush them. But as codified in the 1969 regulations, Marsala producers could also use mosto cotto, or unfermented grape must boiled down to a concentrate to increase potential alcohol, as well as sifone, or must from late-harvest grapes whose sweetness was fixed by the addition of alcohol. In spite of such scant personal knowledge, Claudius Ptolemya€™s writings have had a greater influence on cartography, and on geography in general, than that of any other single figure in history. 141), a composition dealing with astronomy and mathematics, more commonly known by its hybrid Greco-Arabic title, the Almagest, in which he lays down the foundation of trigonometry and sets forth his view of the universe.
This single treatise remained the standard work on geographical theory throughout the Middle Ages, was not superseded as such with the 16th century, and constitutes one of the fundamental tenants of modern geodesy. Cartography is not an artistic endeavor according to the Greek scholar, but should be concerned with the relation of distance and direction, and with the important features of the eartha€™s surface that can be indicated by plain lines and simple notations (enough to indicate general features and fix positions). Marinus was a good man in Ptolemya€™s estimation but he lacked the critical eye and allowed himself to be led astray in his scientific investigations.
Lest the proportions of certain parts of the mapped territory should be too much deformed, only the northern or the southern hemispheres should be laid down on the same map by this projection, which is consequently inconvenient for maps embracing the whole earth.
This particular projection shown of the general map of the habitable world, the one believed to be employed by Ptolemy in his original general map, is laid down in the lazy mana€™s projection he talked about, the modified conic instead of the spherical projection that he recommended for a faithful delineation of the eartha€™s surface. Many scholars ascribe these three chapters to AgathodA¦mon, as the descriptive text for his map. As can be seen from these world maps, Ptolemy divided the northern hemisphere into twenty-one parallels, noted, again, in the margin of this maps. To judge, therefore, from the map, Ptolemy discarded both the older Greek belief that the earth was surrounded by water, and Herodotusa€™ description of the Phoeniciana€™s circumnavigation of Africa.
And there were no good maps of the East Indian Archipelago until after the Portuguese voyages to the Indies. This particular error threw the whole Euxine Pontus [Black Sea], whose general form and dimensions were fairly well known, too far north by the same amount, over 100 miles. I write good songs but not into taking orders or have friends so those who hear them or limited. Both bolstered sweetness and color, but could also dilute the essential character of the wine. Here he explains his belief that the earth is a stationary sphere, at the center of the universe, which revolves about it daily. According to Ptolemy, even Marinus had made mistakes, either because he had consulted a€?too many conflicting volumes, all disagreeing,a€? or because he had never completed the final revision of his map. However, Ptolemy rigorously applies the conical projection only to the northern part of his map of the world.
The parallel bounding the southern limit of the habitable world is equidistant from the equator in a southerly direction as the parallel through Meroe is distant in a northerly direction.
Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310 in Book IV) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean.
Yet this Ptolemaic theory was later mysteriously a€?re-interpreteda€? by Martin WaldseemA?ller in 1507 (see monograph #310) and again by Gerard Mercator in 1569 as a belief by Ptolemy in an all encircling great ocean. Enjoy the hotties before they get old, Man a girl named Georgette, as hot a bod as there was and then here comes time! My vehicle is a bicycle these days, 12 miles to Lexington Ky a bit too far for a near 60 year old guy.
Finally, the there are neo-fascist elements in the new government and some of the most effective volunteer battalions are also neo-fascist.
While his proofs of the sphericity of the earth are still accepted today as valid, Ptolemy rejected the theory of the rotation of the earth about its axis as being absurd.
To represent the known parts of the southern hemisphere on the same sheet, he describes an arc of a circle parallel to the equator, and at the same distance to the south of it, as Meroe [MA¦roe] is to the north, and then divides this arc in parts of the same number and size, as on the Parallel of Meroe. That paradox notwithstanding, though, Ptolemya€™s depiction of a southern Afro-Asian continent and a land-locked Indian Ocean provided little comfort during the intervening 1,300 years to those early explorers, and later the Portuguese, in their attempts to find an all water route to India. I don’t drink or do drugs, study metaphysical stuff, astral projecting, lucid dreaming.
However, Marinusa€™ treatise on geography, with its maps, should still be ranked among the most important of the lost documents of the ancients, if for no other reason than that it was the foundation upon which Claudius Ptolemy built. The network is then obtained by joining the intersections to corresponding points on the equator. The twenty-one parallels are spaced at equal lineal intervals and each one is designated by (1) the number of equinoctial hours and fractional hours of daylight on the longest day of the year and (2) the number of degrees and minutes of arc north of the equator. For example, the first parallel of latitude north of the equator was distant from it a€?the fourth part of an houra€? and a€?distant from it geometrically about 4A°15a€™a€?.
These days try to take care of a herd of cats and deal with that Lord guy, not fanatical about that but to me it is the Lord. One other parallel is added south of the equator, identified with the Rhaptum promontory and Cattigara and about 8A° 25a€™ distant from a€?The Linea€?.
All of the parallels north of the equator are located theoretically with the exception of three: Meroe, Syene and Rhodes.
The first one, Clima I per Meroe, (so called because it passes through Meroe, near modern Shendi, a city of Africa at 17A° N latitude) was established traditionally as 1,000 miles below Alexandria and 300 miles from the torrid zone; it was also known as the royal seat and principal metropolis of Ethiopia [Africa]. How does that happen if you think China is bolstered by American buying what actual Chinese products again? P-Land is recomended for intermediate to advanced surfers.Click the photo below to view P-Lands album. Click the photo below to see The Points album.Fishing Panama, Surfer ParadiseFishing in the Gulf of Chiriqui region is regarded as a world class fishing destination. There have been many write-ups in sport fishing magazines about the marlin, sailfish, Wahoo and tuna that have been caught in this area.We operate primarily as a surf camp. Fishing off the boats is offered at no charge as the boat captains drive around the surf breaks keeping an eye on the surfers. There is no charge for this type of fishing.We also offer an outer island trip, which requires a payment of $320 for the extra gas used by the panga boat. We should be able to get out to the Coiba Island and Hannibal Bank area where large marlin and tunas can be caught. It has been described as the perfect wave you draw on your notebook in high school that just keeps going and going. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico).I called the Delta customer service rep to ask if that was a typo (mistake) and she said no.
She answered Yes, that is correct.Heres a petition going around: Fight Airline Surfboard Charges Sick of paying airline surcharges for your board?
The reason for the new price is because of the increase in fuel costs and other commodities that have steadily increased over the past two years.
Improvements have been in the area of another honeymoon suit, new wood decking, new tiled floors, new boat, new motors, new rental surfboards, improved port facilities. However, if you would like to lock in the old rate from 2008, then you will need to make a reservation and pay the deposit by December 31st, 2008. Ive only been here a few days, but have added the best photos that Ive taken yet to my portfolio.
And, yeah, I caught my fair share of these bombs check my personal photo section to see for yourself!
Im in the process of adding photos with a slow, third world internet connection, so be patient theyre on their way.This place is so beautiful, and the place Im staying is something else.
These offshore breaks are heavy-duty, deep water reefs with some areas of dry-reef that need to be carefully negotiated. The vibe is so cool, and everyone is surfed out and in a good mood all day.Check the photos and book your tickets. He escapes the cold of Washington State to visit us in the warm waters of Panama during February and March. It has taken a little time to get from physically being at home to mentally being back as well. My heart is always surfing around the world even if responsibility is trying to get in the way. I will get some things done on the farm and then it will be back to the beach in Oregon.The attached picture was taken at Leftovers on the island of Outer Silva about 10 kilometers from Morro Negrito Surf Camp.
There are 4 breaks on the island and various snorkeling opportunities for the non-surfers or people who need a break.
I mention this as on the 3rd day I was there, the waves were breaking in the 10 plus range with at least a 6 throw to the lip.
It pitched me over the falls backwards and held me down for a long time in a lot of bubbles.
I did not hit anything, although when I saw the magnificent Shuler epoxy surfboard that Lanny made for me to surf in Panama, was in 2 pieces.
This meant that I was going to have some short-board experience for the remainder of the stay. I gave it a try and had my board leash come off my ankle and had to swim into the rocky shore.
This picture was taken 2 weeks ago, was voted the wave of the day and is a true Monday Morning Wave.The guests, cooks and staff made this a time to remember, always. I wish this experience to all of you and thank everyone who made this happen.Have a great day,BobP. As a side note, I was able to come back 1st class on both flights from Panama City, Panama to Seattle, Washington, USA.
As good as the airline was the cooks at camp did it better job and their meals tasted superior. Panamanians have a strong sense of pride for their provinces, and the Foundation thought this would be an opportunity for the children to see some important parts of Chiriqui.
Led by camp manager, Jeff Healion, ten children and nine parents enjoyed a two day excursion of learning, fun, and exploration set to the theme of Getting to Know my Province.A Traveling by boat and bus, the trip included visits to the mountain town of Boquete and the provincial capital, David. The first stop was Paradise Gardens, an animal sanctuary and refuge in the cool highlands of Boquete, a thriving hub of coffee production and nationally famous for its coffee and flower fair. Here, we enjoyed interactive tours of monkeys, exotic birds, endangered mammals, and an enclosed butterfly park.
Most all the animals at Paradise Gardens have been rescued and are awaiting release back into the jungle.A After a picnic lunch in Boquetes main plaza, it was down to the warmer climes of David, Panamas thriving western hub of agriculture, business, and tourism. The group visited Culturama, a historical and cultural society located in one of the oldest buildings in Chiriqui.
We learned about local history and were treated to entertaining stories by one of the areas best storytellers.A What is a field trip without a little down time, so we headed over to the theater and caught the new Disney holiday movie Enchanted followed by a stop at MacDonalds.
After dinner we went to see Davids new million-dollar plaza, probably the nicest plaza in Panama, if not Central America.
Just by luck, a local philanthropic organization was presenting a Christmas performance of dance, music, and holiday dramas in the parks amphitheater.
It was a lovely tropical evening and we enjoyed the festivities besides being tired from a day of busy events. Finally, we made it to a comfortable nights sleep at Hotel Toledo.A Day two began with a fun breakfast at a popular downtown cafeteria where we were treated to a private reception room. From the restaurant we walked to the Sevillana Bakery where we enjoyed a full tour of the bakerys back kitchens.
In Panama, as in much of Latin America, the bakery still plays a major role in peoples daily lives. At Sevillan, fresh bread slides out of the ovens nearly all day.A A short walk from the bakery we stopped at citys main fire station. Here we had a full tour of the facilities and then were treated to a simulated emergency call. We watched the firemen slide down the poles, put their suits on, and then leave the firehouse.
After some fun pictures with the firehouse staff, we were on our way to our final destination.A Davids International Airport is the second largest in Panama and Aeroperlas, the regional carrier, had invited us to board one of their planes as it was being prepared for a flight. Probably not something we could have done in many countries, we all boarded the plane, visited the cockpit, and then relaxed in the cabin seats while the flight attendants answered questions from the children. Wow, what a thrill for the children.A With just a few hours left before we needed to begin our journey back to camp, we spent a few hours looking around the busy commercial district of David, bustling with holiday activity. In Latin America, so much of the activity begins out in front of the stores so just walking around the streets is fascinating.A It is hard to imagine how our trip could have been more fun, rewarding, or educational. Sure we arrived back at the island tired, but the children were still buzzing with excitement from the events and what they had experienced. If you could have seen the smiles and eyes during the two days, you would all know how rewarding it is to share with those that are less fortunate. During the holiday time, it was especially rewarding for us to share a magical treat with the children from our island. The old price has been $600 per week and the new price will be $650.The reason for the new price is because of the increase in fuel costs and other commodities that have steadily increased over the past two years.
Improvements have been in the area of another honeymoon suit, new wood decking, new tiled floors, new boat, new motors, new rental surfboards, improved port facilities.However, if you would like to lock in the old rate from 2007, then you will need to make a reservation and pay the deposit by December 31st, 2007. The 25 ft deep V hull boat can smoothly cut through big swells and is equipped with new twin 115 hp 4 stroke motors, live bait well, GPS fish finder and an onboard stereo system.
The Gulf of Chiriqui is located south of David and covers an area of 14,740 hectares plus a great number of Islands and Islets.
Among them you can find Isla Coiba, Isla Cebaco, Isla Montuosa, Boca Brava, Jicaron and Isla Secas with some of the best big game sport fishing, surfing and sport-diving in Central America.
Hannibal Bank and Coiba Island are both well known sport-diving and salt water sport fishing destinations Panama Central America. This creates currents that are convenient when going on an offshore fishing salt water fishing trip.
The Coiba Island is now a patrolled national park and protected from commercial fishing within its boundaries.
The island was first ruled by Coiba Indians and later ruled by Vasco Nues de Balboa who at some point was defeated by pirates. Besides from sport fishing, here you will find great opportunities for adventure travel or eco tourism. You will find a great variety of monkeys, iguanas, crocodile, snakes and over 133 different species of birds for those birdwatchers.
Cebaco Island is located between Santa Catalina and Mariato West Coast of the Peninsula de Azuero.
This island is home to some of the most beautiful beaches with crystal clear water and scenery for sport-diving, snorkeling or guided fishing trips.
The Cebaco Bay is located south of the island and it is excellent for big game fishing or angling, sport diving and surfing.
Its reefs are home of Cubera Snapper, Roosterfish, Dorado, Monster Yellowfin Tuna (100 + pounds) and a variety of billfish such as sail fish Montousa Island is 10 miles off Hannibal Bank and it is also a great sport-diving spot in clear waters of Panamas Pacific Ocean. The bottom floor also rises dramatically from approximate depths of 10,000 ft making it great for deep sea fishing in Panama.
Moreover, this island is a boutique resort we operate with which was designed for those who want private, pristine surroundings with excellent service.
With a theme of Hacia el Futuro, or Towards the Future, the trip was for many of the participants their first travel outside the province and their first visit to the capital of Panama City. Over a period of two days, the group of students and parents, led by Morro Negrito Surfguide Jeff Healion, traveled to the Miraflores Locks of the Panama Canal, the ruins of the first settlement of Panama, the Presidential Palace which included a surprise meeting with President Martin Torrijos, and the new continent-spanning Centenario Bridge.
Along the way, the group enjoyed some out-of-the-ordinary treats of pizza, ice cream, and holiday shopping at the new Albrook Mall at the site of the former US Albrook Air Base.The design of the trip was to bring the students in contact with the past, the present, and the future of their country through the ruins, the Canal, and the government buildings. At the Canal, the group was treated to a private presentation of the Panama Canal movie and then witnessed two giant Panamax ships passing through the locks.
Nothing could have been more surprising though than when Panamas President pulled up just as the group was visiting his palace. As he left for his office, he commanded his staff to give the group a special tour inside the palace.Healion reported the smiles, excitement and gratitude we saw during the trip were heartwarming reasons why we know the Foundation can do good work. If a student wishes to continue, the family must send the child to the high school on the mainland. For most families, the cost of transportation, food, housing, and school supplies is a great burden and many are unable to send their children, especially those with several children.The educational assistance program will provide families with the funds necessary for supporting their children in higher education. In 2007, another two will be eligible to continue at high school if their families so decide. With the new program we hope that money will no longer be a factor whether families send their children.The surf camp enjoys close contact with all the families that will be involved in the program and will be able to monitor the progress of the students.
We have seen many of these children grow up and it is especially rewarding to know they will have new choices and opportunities for their futures.
We know their ties to the island will always be strong but we also hope that by continuing their education their new paths will show them what a truly special place their home is. September 2006, a one thousand watt wind turbine was installed that has been doing an excellent job of supplementing the solar system with wind generated power. Previously, the solar batteries would automatically disconnect themselves due to low voltage at about midnight. Hopefully, we can help inspire the camp visitors that come to surf camp to perhaps consider installing their own clean energy systems, wherever they may come from.
There are a number of artesian springs pumping a large amount of water out of the ground, so much that it has created several water falls on the island, explains Steve.



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