Making wood joints strong,hardware supplies ennis,simple wood crafts to make - PDF Review

You can purchase Mortising bits to make clean and accurate mortise cuts.  Tenons can be made with various types of router bits or saws. Tip: Only half the width of the piece being mortised should be used to make the mortise-tenon joint.
There is a wide variety of dovetail router bits that can create variying sizes of the mortise and tenons needed to create strong dovetail joints.  You can find great deals on quality dovetail bits for your Incra or Leigh machines.
Dado Joints are made by cutting a slot (or Dado) into one piece of wood and the joining piece of wood into the dado.  There are several different types of dado joints. Through Dado Joints are joints where the inserted board is visible on both the outside edges of the outside board. Dado Joints are most commonly used when making shelves, bookcases, etc.  You can make a nice clean dado cut in many different sizes with a Dado Set. Miter Joints and Rabbet joints are often combined to create a corner lock joint for drawers and box corners.  You can find qualilty Rabbeting router bits, Miter Lock Router bits and even Corner Lock Router Bits (also called drawer lock router bits) that will help make creating these joints easy.
Biscuit Joints are made by creating a slot in one piece of wood and creating football-shaped plate of pressed wood to insert into the slot and join the two pieces.  Biscuit joints are great for helping to align the wood, make glue-ups, and add strength to the joint. Puzzle Joints are not only interesting in themselves, but are often excellent studies in craftsmanship. In making these twenty-one pieces, what should be borne in mind is that the different parts fit closely into each other.
In the ordinary course each arm could be completed with its three cross pieces till the sixth was attempted, and here the reader would find that, at the last moment, his attempt was frustrated. Each drawing is an exact copy of the original showing the inventor, patent number and year of the patent.
The hinged bracket frame shows the application of the halving joint to bracket supports for this and similar purposes, such as brackets to support shelving, etc. Woodworkers can choose from a wide array of joints, so it's helpful to understand the advantage of each when planning a project. The primary advantage of the dovetail joint is that it can give your woodworking project a flair and style that also allows you to showcase your woodworking talents. The butt and miter joints are cut without jigs or special blades and used extensively in construction. Here's an indispensable table saw accessory for cutting tenons, bridle joints and spline slots.
The majority of them, if to be satisfactory as puzzles, call for very careful setting out and cutting, entailing the same degree of skill that is demanded for high-class cabinet work.
Consequently the slots, in width, must be cut so as to grip the thickness of the wood; in depth they must be exactly half this thickness.
392 shows a variation of the Chinese cross, which is perhaps the most fascinating of all woodwork puzzles. In this example the hinged brackets turn underneath the table top, and allow the leaf to drop out of the way when not required.
58 is the end view of an ordinary workshop trestle, showing the application of dovetailed halving where the legs have a tendency to strain outwards. Not all joints are as easy to make, either, so you must balance the advantages of specific types with your ability to actually make that joint work. The edge of one board is simply butted up to the end of another, then fastened together with nails, wood screws or dowels.
These joints are commonly utilized in the furniture industry because they are strong enough to put up with the constant forces of opening and closing.


This joint comes in handy for making items from furniture to picture frames that will be openly displayed. The disadvantage of using dovetail joints is that you will need to turn off the power tools and pick up your coping saw, block plane, utility knife and chisel to get the most ornamental effect.
131 shows the type of tenon and haunch used when the stile or upright rail is grooved to receive a panel. 136 shows the method of cutting wedges which are to be used to wedge the tenons; this avoids waste of material. 139 are shown the guide bar and chain of a chain-mortising machine, two enlarged links of the chain being indicated at A. 151 is shown the method of joining the top rails to the post of a tool shed or similar outhouse.
In one or other of its many and varied forms it may be classed as the most important joint in the general woodworking trade. It allows workpieces to be held safely on end, and a micro-adjust feature ensures pinpoint blade accuracy.
185 shows the sketch of a mortise which has its side removed so as to show the method of successive cuts with a chisel when removing the core from a mortise; this, in conjunction with the other sketches, clearly shows the methods of working. For this reason several examples may well find a place in a volume dealing with woodwork joints. This type of joint is used where three pieces meet, as is the case in building the framing of a poultry house. If the saw is newly sharpened it will, in fact, be an advantage to slightly ease the weight of the saw from off the wood, owing to the keenness of its edge. Repeat the three operations until you gradually pare the wood away exactly to the gauge line. Unfortunately, it's not a strong joint unless you reinforce it with dowels or a glued-in corner block. For best results, choose a dowel that is fluted because this will let the glue spread evenly throughout the joint.
Round-cornered, round mortise and square-corner mortise and tenon joints can also be made fairly quickly using a chisel.
The downside is that the miter is not a very strong joint unless it is reinforced with dowels.
This is called a barefaced tenon, and it will be noticed that the portion which carries the mortise is thicker than the rail on which the tenon is cut. In this and similar cases the haunch is made the same width and the same depth as the groove; the groove therefore acts as the haunching. Some workers cut the wedges from the pieces left out of the haunching of the lock rail, or the bottom rail. The chain is similar in construction to the driving chain of a bicycle, with the exception that it is provided with teeth which cut away the timber as the chain revolves. At A the saw has been allowed to run too far when cutting the shoulder, thus greatly weakening the tenon. The cross rail is cut at the shoulder, so as to fit the moulding which is worked on the stile. The two rails, which are at right angles to each other, are half-lapped and mortised; the tenon on the post runs entirely through them. When the tenon is finally inserted the holes will not register correctly, and if a hardwood pin be driven into the joint it will draw the shoulders of the tenon to a close joint and effectually secure the parts.


Best of all, you can build this jig from scrap and save more than $100 over the cost of buying a commercial tenoning jig.
In many woodwork examinations the examiners insist that the mortise shall be removed by successive cuts with the chisel, but we certainly advise the removal of much of the waste wood with a boring bit, provided the worker can keep straight and well within the limitations of his gauge lines. As a rule, these puzzles should be made in hardwood, such as dark walnut or beech, as in whitewood the joints are soon liable to wear. 3 piece on with the slot at the back as shown at C, and push it down until it touches the bottom of the opening in No. If the halving is a very wide one, additional cuts may be sawn between the outside marks, and these will greatly facilitate the removal of the waste wood when paring it away. When chiselling, if you find a tendency for the work to chip or crumble at the back edge owing to the forward pressure of the chisel, turn your wood round and begin to cut from the other edge, allowing the chisel to finish paring at the centre.
A biscuit joint is one of the best ways to make a butt joint strong and durable because it conceals the means of reinforcement without sacrificing any strength.
The joint is therefore level (or flush as it is called) on one side only, and it should never be used at the corner of a frame.
When using a chain mortiser the portion of the machine carrying the chain is fed downwards into the timber, thus cutting a clean and true mortise. At B faulty sawing has again occurred, and to remedy this defect the worker has resorted to paring the shoulder with a chisel. The application of the halving joint to the shaped bottom rails, which in this case carry and support the small shelf, is shown in the part elevation. It is also a strong enough joint to make table legs because the tenon is a thick slide of wood that fits into a hole created in the other piece of wood.
It is a useful interior joint for framing that has to be covered on the back side with matchboarding, and allows the work to finish level at the back when the boarding has been applied (see plan, Fig. If, however, a stump mortise is required it is necessary to pare away a certain amount of timber by hand, because the machine obviously leaves a semicircular bottom to the mortise. Had the chisel been used vertically an undercut shoulder (as at B) would not have occurred. A variation of the joint is shown at the left-hand side, the corners in this example not being mitred. This waste wood at each end of the stiles (see arrow HO) is of importance to the work, as it prevents to a great extent the bursting of the mortise whilst cutting the hole or when knocking together the work. To overcome this difficulty the latest types of mortising machines have a square hole-boring attachment fixed alongside the chain. The trouble now is that the slightest amount of shrinkage in the width of the stile will show an open joint. The result will be the same if it is necessary to remove a shaving or two when planing or levelling up the face of the frame. 140, consists of a square hollow chisel (E), which is sharpened from the inside, and a revolving twist bit (D) fitted with spurs or nickers, but without a point (one spur can be seen at the bottom of the illustration). This bit revolves inside the shell like a chisel, and bores away the superfluous timber, whilst the pressure exerted on the chisel causes the corners to be cut away dead square.




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