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Built in 1915, this Colonial Craftsman home is a registered historic landmark in the city of Sacramento.
This home had experienced very few changes over its almost century-long life, due in part to it having been a nuns’ residence for several decades, so the original dark-stained millwork of the entry, stairs, and formal dining room remained intact, including boxed ceiling beams, high paneled wainscoting, and an intricately-detailed dining room hutch. Because this home is an historic landmark it required additional city review, but as it remained true to, and sympathetic with, the home’s turn-of-the-century qualities, it was approved with no conditions. Once the domicile of nuns for much of the last century, this house is once again a family home, its present and its past intertwined with respect to both function and historic form. This new family room, adjacent to a new kitchen and breakfast nook, is located at the back of the house in the area that was once occupied by a dilapidated porch. There were two inspirations for this built-in dining alcove: I had the pleasure of experiencing a similar low-ceilinged built-in space, with windows and bench seating on all sides, at an old inn in Wengen, Switzerland.
This built-in also includes seating & shelves facing the door to the backyard, used as a transitional area between inside and out, for shoe removal, etc. Drawer pulls of 1910 styling, bead board, white cabinets and a subway tile backsplash evoke an early 20th century sensibility in this new kitchen. The new cabinetry in the foreground was built to exactly match the home's original dining hutch built-in (background), including matching glass in the cabinet doors. Situated where a small bathroom and closet had been, this master bathroom required a careful arrangement of elements to still feel spacious and welcoming. As the original 'basement' is partially above ground, the owners opted to have an open patio at the basement level, under the family room and kitchen addition. This charming side gate features custom built cedar doors and even a birdhouse (accessible from the opposite side). Su precio es muy barato, y si se moja por lluvia o le da demasiado el sol no se deteriora mucho, ademA?s la mejor opciA?n es barnizar la madera para crear una capa protectora. A The comprehensive guide to building a brick barbecue pit from the DIY and home improvement experts.
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Teresa sent me three photos of the house, one of which she marked with a pen to show me what they had in mind. As I have said before, when planning something like an addition, check your local regulations. So what Joe and Teresa are planning is a 20' x 8' front porch to the front right and side, covering an exiting small entrance.
Again I'll repeat what I've said elsewhere, when designing an addition I always try to make it look like it grew there.
The other way to go is to make a complete change in design, make a feature of the new work. In this instance I have drawn a hip extension, keeping it in line with the existing, the same eaves overhang and I would say using the same shingle roofing that the house already has.
The new roof would be attached to the existing similar to my scotch valley sketch, not disturbing any of the old structure and fixings. The actual job will more than likely all be timber construction, so the builder will work out the beam sizes and how and where they are connected to the building.
If you have an open roof with no ceilings, the section where the old meets the new will have to be considered.
What I have shown in the sketch above is a pair of rafters, with their face in line with existing wall. Above is an idea of what the porch extension would look like, if it was built with a conventional gable roof. By this I mean a typical framed roof that has ceiling joists that span across and tie in with the rafters.
For this type of construction 20' is a bit of a stretch, so a centre column or even two would be used to support the hanging beams that support the weight of the ceiling joist and ceiling. Of course if metal nail plate trusses are available, then just one column at each end would be OK as they will span 20' no problems. Alternatively, a steel beam, hidden inside the ceiling line, could span the 20' and then be used to support the hanging beams.
So you can see that even on a small job like this there are plenty of options, to do the same job.
I guess it boils down to what is easily available to do the work, and who is available to do it.
I have drawn in the above sketch columns that have faux stone bases with tapered columns as Teresa has a preference for. It shows a very small entry porch similar to what I have drawn, except that the eaves are lined on the slope, which simplifies the construction a touch. Very nicely presented, with enough back-up info such as the girder table R502.5(1) so that we are all discussing and looking at the same thing and can point to various items with a min.
Just because something has been done and has not failed, doesn?t mean it is good design.If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time and money to fix it? This brought to mind something that is a little off topic so feel free to get us back on track.
As is typical with houses built in this era, the kitchen was small and isolated, and due to it having been remodeled at least once, had little or nothing of its original character.
The addition had to reflect the historic integrity of the home, but with modern sensibilities incorporated. Note the use of beams and ceiling heights to define the different areas of this large space. The other inspiration was the 'sleeping porch' so common in homes in the first decades of the 20th century. The dark, earth-toned wall provides a dramatic counterpoint to the clean, utilitarian aesthetic typical to kitchens of this era. This room bridging the 1915 dining room and the 21st century kitchen compliments both eras in materials and detailing. A radius coved ceiling and picture molding at door and window header height were included to match the existing. An Ofuro Japanese soaking tub, 48" in diameter and 30" deep, was just able to fit under an existing window, with a doorless open shower beside it. Otherwise this bathroom has been rearranged and restored with new hexagonal floor tiles, shower subway tiles, and bead board wainscoting, all characteristic to homes of this vintage.

The adjacent basement is soon to be remodeled to include a wine cellar, for easy libation access. Ahora es fA?cil decorar nuestro hogar por nosotros mismos y a un precio muy barato y sin complicarnos demasiado. Puedes hacer tu mismo un un sillA?n de palets o varios y pintarlos en los colores que mA?s te gusten.
And what would football season be without the mouth-watering, smoky aroma of hot dogs and hamburgers sizzling on the grille? You’ll want this relatively close to the house for the many inevitable trips to the kitchen while grilling, but keep in mind that it should be away from low-hanging branches and other fire hazards. If the brick are too dry, the mortarA  you spread for each successive course dries out so fast you can’t get the brick layed and leveled before the mortar starts to harden. These houses have rotary ventilators in the roofs and I guess that these small gable vents are there to let fresh air in, to keep a circulation going. There is no doubt that in problem soils (poor draining, clay, differential bearing) or where strong lateral loads (high wind or earthquake) need to be considered that the standard reinforced concrete perimeter foundation is superior over the post and pier design.
And, you must know the bending moment and shear at the location you wish to make the splice to do this design; alternatively you move the splice location to a point where you can design around the moment and shear which exist there.
The owners, a family of three, wanted an addition to the back of the house that would include an open kitchen and family room adjacent to the original formal dining room and with easy access to the backyard. Because this patio sits a few feet below ground level, it maintains a cool, even temperature on even the hottest summer days. A wall niche next to the tub exposes the home's original brick chimney (not visible in this photo), with glass shelves. You know the kind: big fist-sized patties of ground beef that may just stop your heart, franks seared to perfection (just a little bit black), racks of ribs, juicy quarters of chickens, flame-broiled vegetables a€¦ I find myself daydreaming. Dry brick is very thirsty, due to its porous nature, and it will quickly suck all the water out of the mortar as it is being spread.
In the future, I would suggest including the footnotes for that table in what you copy and post, since understanding them is essential to proper use of the table; maybe also the specific code sections or paragraphs which apply, again so we are all looking at the same thing with min. Thank you.Below I have inserted what a professional engineer (PE) sees and thinks about when presented with the issue of piers and beams. If that system is going to be used it would seem to me that it is advisable to avoid the temptation to use code minimums or the minimums in the engineering tables cited above.
This disparity is one of the potential issues with a pier and beam foundation and I think PEte touched on that somewhere above.
And on the second story: rather than capping the addition with a standard pitched roof, we took advantage of this space by providing a flat rooftop patio off of the master bedroom, including a redwood pergola for shade and vines.
In older neighborhoods it is common to see these sleeping porches since windowed-in after the arrival of air conditioning.
The pit excavation for the concrete foundation should measure at least 50-by-50 inches, and the concrete foundation should be 6 inches thick. Pre-wetting the brick just prior to laying gives the surface a slippery quality that badly smears as you lay them. Spending the $$$ for some soil analysis is also a good means to at least even the odds a little more for the builder-owner. I try to point this out in my plans that have the post and pier foundation (and most house with the P&P foundation also have a perimeter concrete foundation and slab plan as well). One engineer might say to another, put the splice at a point of contraflexure, that is, where the moment is zero and only shear must be resisted. It makes sense to avoid having joints in different layers occur over the same support.Any material used as spacing material does not add any strength as far as doing engineering calculations or reading any tables. I've learned in the last decade that codes are too important to be left to mortal man or woman. This house, in fact, had the remnants of such a porch still decipherable after one or two poorly-executed remodels, so this breakfast nook is an echo of, or tribute to, that bygone necessity. Your best bet would be to wet the brick one day prior to laying so the moisture is in the body of the brick, but the surface feels dry to the touch. Then, pointing the chisel inward, strike a sharp blow with the hammer, and a clean break should result. This is exactly the kind of discussions I hoped to generate, and this is certainly a very good first topic. The methods and tables in the code prescribe one method you can use to easily satisfy the inspector. I believe it develops the ?big picture? in about as easy to understand manner as is possible.The information presented is for educational purposes. That said, there are reasons and places where the post and pier foundation will still be built even if not in ideal soil and loading conditions. That?s the problem with explaining these kinds of structural designs and problems to non-engineers, many times some of the folklore has a shred of truth, however ill purposed and advised. There is no thing so simple that a building code writing cannot make it impossible to understand. Criss-cross the bars in a grid pattern and elevate them with pieces of brick to center the reinforcement in the foundation. There are probably four or five additional sub-topics shown in your photos if you don?t mind them being used as the examples for discussion.The number of jack studs reference is to when the charts are used in sizing a header as in over a door, window or open arch or walk through in the wall. It also seems to me that local knowledge and empirical experience does provide some level of confidence for the cabin builder.
I was looking for a photo of this yesterday and didn't want to single out any individual construction project, so I inarticulately tried to describe it. This thread can provide some guidance and design help for those builders and those situations.
The most expeditious place to make a properly designed splice might be out in the span someplace, but you should probably not do this.The easiest way to answer about splice location, to be fairly safe from the engineering standpoint, but also to be sure to offer advice which would not be dangerous to a non-engineer is to agree that splices should always fall over the piers. When a header reaches a certain size the header will require 2 or more jack studs per side to support the header properly.Those images have a look of familiarity about them.
In the area of southcentral Alaska where I built my cabin it is rare to find continuous perimeter foundations.
No splices would be the best solution, and can be done on a 30' girder, with LVLs or GlueLams, assuming you can transport them, but can?t be done with normal dimensional lumber. Los materiales al estar en contacto con el aire libre se deterioran, por eso lo mejor es tener muebles no muy caros y con materiales resistentes en nuestro jardA­n o porche.
My PE friend does not intend to design anyone?s foundation or structure for them here on the forum. Literally thousands are built with P & P foundations and, while some do develop differential settlement problems, the great majority appear to give good service. The engineering logic behind my suggestion of splicing over the piers goes something like this: The discussion started with a built-up girder table based on allowable bending and shear stresses and some deflection limit, for a uniformly loaded simple beam, girder or header.

I was advised that using the code and span table minimums was likely to be a false bargain so I built with extra and larger piers and footers under them as well as upgrading the girders size.
Now to refine my comments, I would prefer to see no splices over the first two piers from either end of this 6 span cont. As a professional engineer he certainly wants to avoid any issue of liability having done someone?s design for them here and then having something go wrong because of information that was not fully presented, or someone?s shortcut, etc.
I did use the minimums for the height of the piers above grade, hoping to help minimize lateral or racking forces.
If my site had not been well drained gravely soils, I probably would not have used P & P since their use in soft boggy areas here appears to have a high rate of settlement problems. Normally, the largest bending moments and shears are at the first interior pier on this 6 span cont. Essentially, the tables and codes are uncertain guides for P & P builders especially in poorer soils. These tables are set up the way the codebook tables were about 20 years ago.Finally, crossing all the way over the line into engineered. They work fine for out buildings and farm buildings where life safety is somewhat less an issue. The cantilever might be fairly highly loaded by the gable end walls, to the point that there should probably be at least a double joist immediately under each gable end wall. The primary problem is that they really only consider gravity loading (vertical loading) and then don?t do a real good job of that in some cases. The bending moments and shears at the other interior piers (middle 3 piers) are generally no worse than those found in the simple beam which was the basis of the original IRC table.
No doubt, they are an economical solution for light gravity loads, but you must weigh their shortcomings in this analysis. The Southern Pine Council and the IRC nailing schedule calls for nails every 32 inches of length, with the nails along the top and bottom staggered.
All the piers will not be loaded the same, and they are pretty susceptible to differential settlement, unless they are on a proper strip footing or grade beam.
And, the design question becomes can you tolerate this reduction given the bending moment at that location. I can have the supplier check the sizes needed and if necessary he can provide documentation sealed by a design professional.
They take essentially no account of lateral loading or uplift from either wind or earthquake and are very difficult to detail to make serve these purposes. When you do this splice over the pier you do at least have bearing for the spiced members so you should be able to resolve the shear and bearing design issues. You must get all the potential loads on the structure into the foundation and its bearing material (the soil), at an allowable bearing stress. And, these lateral loads can be applied in any direction, not just the most advantageous direction. Your example seems particularly germane for this forum and your use of Table R502.5(1) seems pretty much on the money too, with a few exceptions, caveats, or things that they just don?t tell you because they don?t expect you to stretch the use of this table as you are with your example.
Under normal conditions, this approach will lead to a reasonably safe beam design, if you have compiled your loads correctly, this will not normally lead to a catastrophic beam failure.
I?m not trying to make a big deal out of this subject, but you are asking for a simple answer to a complicated problem, which requires considerable experience and judgment during the design process. Personally I've never been happy with the way it does or does not compress between layers. And, I?m not suggesting that each girder is a three week design job, but it took a lot longer than that to gain the education, experience and judgment to do that design efficiently and safely for all concerned. Other glues like polyurethane will squeeze down to a thin film, but are lousy when the glued surfaces do not make intimate contact.
And, you can see in the table that as the girder (header) member gets deeper (that is x8, x10, & x12) more jack studs are required for its support, because the deeper member will carry more load on a given span. Consequently, the IRC type (prescriptive) tables for beam spans and the like, will of necessity, be fairly conservative when presented for use by the general public, and you exceed their intended limits at your own risk.I think Rwanders is right on the money in his comments, not penny wise and pound foolish. The big caveat or ?didn?t tell ya?, is that continuous girders don?t work quite the same way simple spans do.
So, there is some potential for differential settlement if everything else is perfect, which is rarely the case.
Not to worry though, with enough settlement of the weaker pier, things will likely stabilize, but maybe over stress the girder, or crack the window above, etc.
This is probably not a catastrophic failure mechanism, but it will make for some interesting dinners when Suzie?s spilled milk on the table ends up in your lap.
However, loading one span and not the adjacent span can actually start to cause an upward deflection in the unloaded span. To a greater or less extend this will happen with a continuous girder, and the loadings on the piers will change too. Try to get some sense of the magnitude of force required to cause various deflections, up or down. Another place this type condition could happen is at an end span where you have a 5 or 6' entry opening over that span, but the adjacent interior span is loaded. Again, I don?t bring these issues up to scare you, but to make you think a bit, and consider them in your design.
These cabins, these types of buildings, are fairly loose and forgiving, so again, we are not likely talking about catastrophic failure mechanism here, and they are generally fairly lightly loaded except for snow and lateral loads, but this is some insight into how an engineer looks at these problems, and what you get when you retain one for a little design planning help. I?m not saying all or any of these conditions will cause you problems, the conditions which cause them are design specific, but I do want to make you aware of them and am suggesting that they deserve consideration in your planning process.
Ultimately, you have to make these decisions, spend the money now, to avoid problems later; or how much is enough. For example, the oil pipe line from the North Slope is on stilt support structures, in many locations, which are manufactured to generate a freezing action to keep these soils frozen, unsettling, from the heat of the oil. Floor framing systems can become fairly flexible (unacceptable deflections) at these 18-20' clear spans. Any splices in the built-up girder certainly should be made over the piers, and not all at one pier, and certainly not at mid-span.
Contrary to your assumption however, the side-by-side pieces of 2x material making up the built-up girder or header most certainly should be face nailed together. You do want all the members to act in unison, and you do not want them to be able to roll with respect to each other as they make up this built-up girder.

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