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Iplex PVC-U pressure pipes are lightweight and as result require less non-renewable energy (e.g. Iplex PVC-U pressure pipe does not require any further application of protective coatings or sealing compounds, which are known to liberate volatile organic compounds to atmosphere. Iplex PVC-U pressure pipe is also very durable enabling a one off energy consumption in the manufacture of the pipe asset. Data provided should not necessarily be regarded as applicable to all exposure durations, concentrations and working conditions likely to be encountered. PVC has exceptional resistance to attack from high concentrations of alkalis and acids, except for strong oxidising agents at maximum or near maximum concentrations. Bends, tees, reducers, and valve connectors are available for the full size range of Iplex Series 1, with appropriate socketed joints. The Iplex solvent weld PVC pressure fitting range is compatible with Series 1 pipes and is available for pipes DN 15 to DN150. NOTE: The use of imported solvent welded PVC-U fittings with parallel sockets will require gap filling solvent complying with ASTM D-2564. All PVC fittings are electrically non conductive and do not require corrosion protection in aggressive environments. Reference should be made to the Water Services Association of Australia published guidelines for the use of ductile iron elastomeric joint fittings with plastic pipes.
Growth of slime, which will vary with the age of the pipeline and available nutrient in the water. To assist the designer in selecting the appropriate diameter pipe flow calculation software is available from Iplex.
Calculations using either approach are based on the Colebrook White Transition Equation and it is assumed pipes are flowing full. The hydraulic performance of a pipeline may be adversely affected if combined air release and anti-vacuum valves are not installed at local high points in each section of a pipeline, with a maximum spacing not exceeding 500m.
The nominal pressure rating in kilopascals of a PVC pressure pipe is equal to PN multiplied by 100. When designing a pipeline, Class PN6 should not be used for vacuum conditions unless pipes have been embedded in very good, well-compacted non-cohesive material (such as sand or gravel) fully surrounding the pipe. Where the pipeline will be operating at elevated temperatures, for example greater than 20° C, the nominal rating should be multiplied by the re-rating factor given in Table 10. Fatigue and structural considerations should also be considered when selecting the pipe class. Water hammer effects in thermoplastic materials are considerably reduced in thermoplastic materials including PVC when compared with iron, steel and concrete due to the much lower modulus of elasticity.
Typical values for celerities for pipes of different wall classes and therefore thicknesses are given in Table 11. Where repeated pressure variations occur in PVC pipeline, say in the case of a pump switching on and off in a rising main it may be necessary to consider the effect of fatigue over the life of the pipeline. The designer should take into account the frequency of the cyclic pressure fluctuations during the life of the pipeline. The dynamic fatigue consideration requires a pipe to be selected with a pressure rating which, when multiplied by the fatigue factor, will give a value (Maximum Cyclic Pressure Range) greater than the pressure range or amplitude.
1) Question A water main will for most of its lifetime experience diurnal operating pressures of 55 metres and 85 metres, that is a pressure change amplitude of 30 metres with a total number of cycles over 50 years of 18250 fluctuations.
Solution Since the maximum operating pressure is 85 metres and from Table 12, the fatigue load factor is 1, a PN 9 pipe would be suitable. 2) Question A sewer pump station has a wet well capacity which will require a pump start (and stop) 3 times per hour on average over a 40 year design life (for the rising main). Solution: Steady state operating conditions would suggest that a Class 6 pipe might be selected. The dynamic fatigue consideration requires a pipe to be selected, which will give a maximum cyclic pressure range greater than the pressure fluctuation amplitude of 40 metres.
The external soil and live loadings above flexible pipes may cause a decrease in the vertical diameter and an increase in the horizontal diameter of the pipe. Initial deflections of up to 3% are permissible and will not affect the pressure rating of the pipe.
For areas with no traffic loading a minimum cover height of 450mm to the top of the pipe should be adopted.
Pipe embedment material should have a minimum compaction Density Index of 65% or standard dry density compaction of 90%. For rubber ring jointed pipeline systems provision must be made for potentially unrestrained forces at changes of size or direction.
In buried installations, fittings are usually restrained by blocks of concrete cast in-situ.


Where bends are in the vertical plane, convex and close to the surface, the mass of a concrete anchor block alone may have to be the restraining force.
Where there is risk of axial thrust, it is strongly recommended that only those DI fittings with full circle bearing surfaces at the base of the socket should be used. Installers should be alerted to the potential for catastrophic failure where there is insufficient buried pipe downstream of an unanchored valve to provide enough soil friction to resist the hydrostatic thrust when the valve is closed.
Question A DN300 PVC-U pipeline has a maximum operating head (include field test heads) of 150 metres. Concrete thrust block, correctly oriented to transfer the hydraulic thrust to the specially trimmed undisturbed soil of the vertical trench walls perpendicular to the load. Un-plasticised PVC pressure pipes can be used above ground provided they are protected from long-term exposure to ultra violet radiation. Table 16 indicates the maximum support spacing for pipes filled with water where aesthetic considerations require long-term deflections to be limited by the span distance divided by 500. Socketed pipes should be stacked in layers with sockets placed at alternative ends of the rack, and protruding, to avoid uneven stacks and distortion. If mechanical handling equipment such as forklifts or cranes are to be used on bundles, adequate spreader and lifting bars should be provided.
Rubber rings, jointing fluid, solvent cement and priming fluid should be stored under cover until pipe laying commences. An elevated dog bed keeps your dog off of the cold floor, and in warm the raised bed allows air to circulate under your pet.
If needing screws in bulk contact Fastenal located at 295 Lewis Street, Fort Walton Beach, Florida or call at 850-302-0285 can be purchased for about $1.53 per 100 count. Fold each corner and slip the folded corner under the edge of the frame without moving the frame out of center.
Add a total of about 7 to 9 screws (depending on the size of the cot you are making) on this one side to secure fabric to PVC. Attach one screw through the fabric at the mid point of the PVC making sure that the screw penetrates all layers of fabric. WARNING: STOP DRILLING AS SOON AS THE SCREWS ARE FLUSH WITH THE FABRIC TO PREVENT STRIPPING THE PVC! IMPORTANT: IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT THAT YOU PLACE SCREW HEADS NEXT TO THE EDGE OF FABRIC.
This prevents the frame rail from turning which will cause the fabric to bottom out like a hammock and drag the ground.
Hope you enjoy the videos and make sure to share pictures of your completed PVC dog beds and we’ll post them here for you!
One of our most popular post of all time (believe it or not) was a DIY project on How to make your own Puppy Pen out of PVC Pipes! so when I found these How-To make PVC dog bed projects online.. BarkBox is a monthly subscription box for your dog and if you use our link below you get ONE BOX FOR FREE No Gimmicks!! Puppy Shopping ListHere is a page of all our recommended products for every new puppy owner. Thermotec Closed Cell Backing Expansion Joint Pipe Sleeve is manufactured from closed cell low density polyethylene foam.
Thermotec is proud to announce that we have successfully tested and met all Green Star low VOC Compliance requirements for our NuWrap 5, E-therm, 4-Zero and Ductwrap products. The $1.76B Gold Coast University Hospital is the largest ever public health infrastructure project to be built in Australia. Thermotec is proud to implement green technologies, practices and operations to reduce our environmental impact, improve staff health and productivity, whilst achieving real cost savings and demonstrating efficient sustainability building practices. It has low embodied energy, can utilise re-processible PVC from its manufacture and is fully recyclable at the end of its service life.
This actively prevents more of these compounds from entering the environment and positively reduces industry demand for these compounds upstream of the manufacturing process. There is no corrosion or chemical or gas emissions during its normal service life as a public water main or sewer.
This is only required once in its 100 year service life, if installed and operated to the relevant codes and standards. For temperatures above 20°C provision must be made for pressure re-rating in accordance with Table 2. Due to the complexity of some organo chemical reactions, it is suggested that in critical applications, additional long-term testing be performed. The material is not recommended for use with aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones, esters and ethers.
A complete range of bends, tees reducers and flange-spigot pieces are available with Nortite rubber ring sockets in sizes DN 100 to DN 375 (Series 1).


If in doubt Iplex Pipelines should be contacted to confirm the suitability of any particular range of fittings.
These tools will enable the designer to determine the relationship between friction loss, discharge and velocity for all available diameters and classes of the Iplex PVC-U range. This equation takes into account, liquid viscosity and pipe roughness, and is recognised as being one of the most accurate in general use but requires an iterative solution. These are required to maintain full bore flow and limit the occurrence of sub atmospheric conditions. This rated pressure should not be exceeded at any location in the pipeline by the maximum operating pressure including water hammer pressure surcharges. The amplitude of the pressure change between the maximum and minimum operating pressures, including all transients when divided by the load factor given in Table 12 should not exceed the nominal pressure class rating of the pipeline. The static head on the main without pump operation is 12 metres and with a maximum pump station operating of 29 metres. However the amplitude of the maximum pressure transient during the pumping cycle is 32-(-8)= 40 metres and this must be checked for fatigue effect. Therefore the class rating can be obtained by dividing the pressure amplitude by the fatigue factor obtained from Table 12 for a frequency of 2.1 million pressure fluctuations. The horizontal movement of the pipe walls in the soil material at the sides develops a passive resistance within the soil to support the external load. After pipes are laid and centred in the trench, the embedment material should be compacted in 80-100mm layers to the specified density. Although no longer allowed, Water Agencies have in the past omitted valve restraints for small diameter (≤ DN 200) reticulation pipelines.
It is also beneficial if the PVC-U spigots are trimmed back and the chamfer reduced to DI chamfer lengths. What is the minimum area for a thrust block for a 90° ductile iron bend buried with 1 metre cover to the centre-line in a type SC soil? The elevated dog beds can be made to be water-resistant and not as welcoming to fleas as your traditional pillows or blanket type dog beds. Awning fabric (similar to Sunbrella) can also be used, but it is not as easy to disinfect or dry.
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The product is manufactured in a range of sizes and has excellent compression and recovery properties. This is a new 750 bed facility which will provide new and expanded health services to the region. Lightweight PVC-U pressure pipe also allows the production of more lengths of pipe per tonne of raw material, compared with almost any other pressure pipe of similar diameter and pressure class. By using the Iplex software, it is possible to vary the temperature and pipe roughness to suit site conditions. A surge analysis shows the normal shut down phase generates a (maximum) hammer effect of 32 metre maximum head and (minimum) minus 8 metre head at shut down.
That is, the pipeline performance is influenced by the soil type, density and height of water table.
The embedment should continue 80mm to 150mm above the pipe to provide protection from the backfill. This serves to increase the effective end bearing area for the PVC spigot inside the DI socket.
As a general rule pipes should be rubber ring jointed and a minimum class PN9 should be specified. When unloading alongside excavated trenches, it is recommended that pipes be placed on the opposite side of the trench from excavated material. Easy to care for and easy to clean and dogs LOVE them! The elevated design provides firm, even support which is beneficial to the orthopedic health of your pet. Thermotec NuWrap 5™ Acoustic Pipe Insulation was specified and used on all waste services and associated pipework where noise reduction was required. It is based on this standard and covers all its pipeline materials in addition to Series 1 PVC-U.
Oh Well…because if you use my link I also get a free month AND once you sign up you get your own referral link to share with your dog lover friends! BarkBox is a monthly Dog Lover Subscription box which includes toys, treats and fun goodies for the puppy in your life and believe me this will just save you time because you’ll be buying new treats and toys all the time anyway!



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