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The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975. Philicam Group has three international marketing department,Jinan Lifan International Marketing Department, Jinan Wincam International Marketing Department, Jinan Ruofen International Marketing Department, which share one accountant department. A study was carried out to evaluate the dust, noise and chemical solvents exposure among workers in the wooden furniture industry in the South East Asian region comprising Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam.
Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the dust, noise and chemicals exposure levels among workers in the South East Asian wooden furniture manufacturing industry, including countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam and evaluate the extent of hearing damage among the workers in the industry.
In essence, effective and efficient law enforcement is vital in ensuring the compliance to the existing Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) law in the region.
For computers generally referred to as PCs, see IBM Personal Computer and IBM PC compatible. Linear rails on X, Y (Y axis is controlled by two motors)and Z (screw transmission)axes are used to guarantee high accuracy and stable performance, and support heavy weight. Superior high power water-cooling spindle could keep working at low noise level, safeguarding stability for long-time operation. Break-point memory function enables the machine to continue the unfinished work after a work shift or accidents, such as tool breaking.


CNC controller enables easy and convenient operation, which makes end users to be familiar with the operation of the machine quickly. The measurements provided an overall noise-level exposure experienced by these workers during their 8 h working shift.The fourth part of the study quantified the possible noise-induced hearing problems among the workers, using audiometric tests of the 1500 workers carried out by two licensed audiologists, with the aid of audio-chambers and medical equipments capable of testing in the range of 500-8000 Hz in 500 Hz intervals. Air quality samples at the machining and sanding workstations were measured using the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which separated the particles into different sizes. The factories were selected on the basis of their reportedly good health and safety records as suggested by the respective national furniture trade association and also their voluntary consent to participate in the study. The measurements made provided an overall assessment of hearing problems due to noise among the workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing factories. In terms of productive time loss, a similar pattern is also observed as Vietnam reported 145 h lost per 1000 man-hours of production time per annum, while Malaysia recorded 28 h lost per 1000 man-hours of production time per annum. The results showed that the average dust concentration in the machining section was lower than that in the sanding section, but total inhalable dust particles of less than 10 μm in diameter, was less than 25% by weight. As a result of the large scope of work, the study was carried out over a period of 9 months between March to November 2009, with assistance of the respective national furniture trade association of Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam, which provided the necessary logistic support. These results imply that the noise levels in the wooden furniture factories can significantly impair workers’ hearing and hence, the use of hearing protection and job-rotation among the workers must be strictly implemented, in order to ensure a hearing conservation program within the industry.


Portable noise-level measurements showed that the rough-milling operations recorded the highest noise-level in the furniture factories in the region. Personal dosimeter measurement results show that 43% of the workers were exposed to noise-levels higher than the permissible limit, with 34.7% of the workers suffered from hearing handicap. Dust, Noise and Chemical Solvents Exposure of Workers in the Wooden Furniture Industry in South East Asia. The study also found that the current exposure levels for both chemical solvents and formaldehyde in the wooden furniture industry in the countries within the South East Asian region were higher than the Permissible Exposure Levels (PEL).
Therefore, it was apparent that despite the existent of a comparable Occupational Health and Safety regulations in the region, its implementation and enforcement within the wooden furniture industry must be improved to ensure the workers safety and health.



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