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Man's dependence on plants for the essentials of his existence has been of paramount importance since the human race began. Since time immemorial, medicinal plants and their uses have been a part of our social life and prove to be powerful allies against various health problems. Authors Drs Acharya and Shrivastavas have been deeply engulfed in scouting for and documenting indigenous knowledge for more than 14 years. Pods are used as an astringent, cleanser, in hair growth, dandruff, skin diseases, devitalized, as coolant, diuretic, emetic, depurative, anthelmintic, in burning sensation, constipation, renal calculi, vesicle calculi, hemorrhoids, leprosy, abscesses, eczema, biliousness and as a purgative (CSIR, 1948-1976; WOA, 1997). If applied regularly in summer, it is said to cool the head and to help keep the scalp moist.
Benefits of this plant can be attributed partly to its nutrients, since it contains proteins, carbohydrates (including monosaccharides), vitamins (including B1, B2, B3, B6, C, and folic acid) and minerals. Along with a vitamin compound rich in vitamin C and E, it refreshes, moisturizes and conditions (Shelton, 1991).
For suppressing male body hair growth, a combination of Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) oil, Aloe leaf, Gotu Kola leaf (Centella asiatica) and Lemon (Citrus limon) is prepared.
Decoction of the bark is effective in cases of worms, intestinal parasites, hemorrhages, constipation, skin rashes, cuts (Coee and Anderson, 1996), malaria, liver and spleen disorders (Milliken, 1997).
In Dangs, women take flour of Rice, Maize and Pearl Millet in equal proportion (around half a cup), they add same amount of mashed ripe Papaya to it.
For pimples and black heads of face, ripe fruit pulp should be applied to the face as a facial.
Application of fresh Papaya fruit pulp reduces and attenuate brown marks that appears after sunburn or maximum exposure to sun. Regular Papaya fruit pulp applications not only help to keep skin clean and clear, but also to get rid of acne naturally.
To eradicate intestinal worms, latex of unripe fruit (10g) and honey (10g) should be added to hot water (50 ml), mixed well and taken internally.
Taxonomical Composition: An erect or spreading much-branched annual herb, 30-50 cm in height covered all over with glandular hair, which is rich in oxalic acid and malic acid that impart a sour taste to leaves and fruits.
Take a teaspoon of Gram flour (known as Besan in India), prepare a paste with a few drops of water and gently rub the face and neck. For suppressing male body hair growth, a combination of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed oil, Gram flour, Wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, Lemon (Citrus limon) juice and honey is prepared.
For removing unwanted hair from the body, take Gram flour and Turmeric powder in a ratio of 2:1. To cure itchy skin, American Aloe leaf juice (Agave americana) is applied to the body and Gram flour (known as Besan in India) is rubbed while taking shower. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge tribesmen of Patalkot, Dangs and Aravallis for sharing their much valued information with us.
If you liked the article, please consider making a donation to support Sacred Earth and keep the site free of advertising and accessible to all. Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge.
Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. IntroductionThe ethnic and cultural composition of contemporary Caribbean populations are the result of historical population movements through the slave trade and inter-island migration and of the legacy of the different ethnicities involved in the process of national identity formation. Nowadays Haitians are mostly integrated into mainstream Cuban society, although many of them maintain a small-scale farming and livestock production as a base for their livelihoods.
Results and discussionPlants used, preparation and medicinal applicationAdditional file 1 lists the plant species cited by informants in alphabetical order according to their scientific name, along with their botanical families, vernacular Cuban and Haitian names (as reported by informants during the fieldwork), voucher specimen numbers, parts used, preparation of the remedies, medicinal use, and frequency of mention. The most frequently used species are Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cissus verticillata, Cocos nucifera, Crescentia cujete, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba, Momordica charantia, Pimenta dioica, Portulaca oleracea, Psidium guajava, and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis.
ConclusionThe present investigation shows that Haitian migrants and their descendants living in the Province of CamagA?ey (Cuba) have medicinal uses for 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families.
Additional file 1: Medicinal plants used by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of CamagA?ey, Cuba.
Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interests.Authors' contributionsGV and DG conceived and designed the research. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Though, synthetic drugs have swapped herbal healing at a certain level, renaissance and awareness on herbal medication is coming back. Acacia sinuata, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya and Cicer arietinum and their cosmetic applications. The plant is a common element of tropical forests, particularly in Central India and Deccan Plateau. According to Ayurveda, pods are useful in diarrhea, burning sensation, blood disorders, leucoderma, cardio tonic, anthelmintic, and cathartic (Sheth et al., 2007).
Fruits are used traditionally for washing hair and cleaning feet or treating cracked heals. Pods also act as a natural conditioner that helps to promote hair growth and produce a mild shine. About 10g of fresh leaves should be crushed in 30ml water and the mixture should be applied externally to affected body parts. The plant is commonly cultivated for medicinal and cosmetic use almost throughout India, also planted on borders of cultivated fields in sandy soils of arid regions.
It is recommended for young skin that is prone to acne, oily skin and mature skin for its stimulation of collagen production. Tribals in Dang prepare a mixture of Aloe gel (10g), milk cream (2g), Corn flour (4g) and about 3g of Oat (flour or flakes?). Very common tree species of social forestry, commonly planted along road-sides and gardens as shade tree; also grown near sacred places and habitations.
For lice and dandruff control, oils of Neem and Indian Beech Tree (Pongamia pinnata) are mixed and applied to the hair. The plant was introduced in India in 16th century, cultivated commercially for edible fruits, also planted in home gardens and sacred places. According to the healers, in order to prevent acne forever, one should incorporate papaya in the daily diet. Links to external sites are included as pointers to further resources - we do not endorse them or are in any way responsible for their content, nor do we thus verify that their content is accurate. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of CamagA?ey, Cuba. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. Today's Cubans rely for food and medicine on a mixed culture that draws upon wisdom originating mainly from Indian, African, Spanish, and Antillean ethnic groups [1a€“5]. Especially over the last decade, Haitians in Cuba have begun to rediscover their roots and revitalize their traditional culture by forming Haitian associations and groups and celebrating festivals and other events. It is located between the Canal Viejo de Bahamas in the North, the Caribbean Ocean in the South, the Province of Las Tunas in the East, and the Province of Ciego de A?vila in the West. Mixtures (components, parts used, preparation and means of use) are given in Table 1, whereas the presence of species in mixtures is reported in Additional file 1.
Inventory of medicinal plants used by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of CamagA?ey, Cuba. Civilization, however, has brought with it an ever-increasing complexity and has increased man's requirements to an amazing degree.


One of the reasons that the home remedies and traditional knowledge are more accepted in the society is their availability in most Indian kitchens and neighborhoods. The pods along with Emblica officinalis, Callicarpa macrophylla, Curcuma amada, Curcuma longa and Rubia cordifolia are recommended for skin and hair care (Sharma et al., 2003).
Many healers in Dangs suggest that regular application of Soapnut Acacia prevents premature graying of hair.
The patient should continue the treatment until he gets rid of the problem (Acharya and Shrivastava, 2008, 2011). Aloe gel accelerates the healing of wounds and burns and moisturizes dry skin (West and Zhu, 2003). According to them, the gel stimulates cell growth and as such enhances the restoration of damaged skin. Apply this formulation four to five times a week to inhibit hair growth, to reduce skin irritation and on ingrown hairs.
Only Neem seed oil can also be applied on the scalp during the night and washed next morning for preventing hair loss, controlling dandruff and killing lice.
Fruit of the plant is given in helminthiasis, dyspepsia, abortion and gonorrhea, as galactogogue (Vasileva, 1969), and externally applied in eczema, psoriasis and ulcers (Bossard, 1993). Formulation should be allowed to dry on the face, and, when dry, again slightly moistened, rubbed and washed off.
Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete.
Among the peoples of African origin who settled in Cuba throughout the centuries, Haitians played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. A Haitian carnival takes place every year in Santiago de Cuba, and a Creole radio program is broadcasted nationally [13]. CamagA?ey is the largest province in Cuba, at 15,615 km2, corresponding to 14.3% of the nation's territory. The research led to the identification of 123 different plant species used for medicinal purposes by Haitians and their descendants in the Province of CamagA?ey.
Given the availability of medicinal plants in the surrounding environment, for some species at least, the use of fresh plants may present the advantage of preserving more active compounds and consequently enhancing their absorption and effectiveness.
Decoction of fresh herbal components (mainly leaves and other aerial parts) is the preferred means to prepare medicinal remedies.
Scientific name, botanical family, vernacular Cuban and Haitian name(s), voucher specimen number, part(s) used, preparation, use(s), and frequency of mention are reported for 123 plant species used for medicinal purposes.
The man of today is no longer content merely to exist with food and shelter as his only wants. These medicinal plants are affordable, eco-friendly, and having less or no side effects as compared to synthetic drugs and even can be grown in household kitchen gardens. Each article will discuss the role of 5 herbs in indigenous formulations as applied by the tribesmen. In Dangs, to treat a wound, a paste of crushed leaves is prepared and tied to wound with a cotton cloth. Ripe Papaya (500g) should be taken every day in the evening (Acharya and Shrivastava, 2011). The acid exudate from the plant is astringent and used in indigestion, diarrhea and dysentery.
Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. During the period 1900a€“1930, more than half a million Haitians entered the country legally or illegally [6, 7]. In this context, traditional ethnobotanical practices are sometimes reconstituted as part of Haitian culture [14].Although in the recent past there has been an increase in ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal investigations in Cuba [15a€“19], these have generally not paid attention to the specific ethnic knowledge that immigrants have contributed to traditional Cuban medicine. The Province is inhabited by some 780,000 people, or seven per cent of the Cuban population. Herbal baths are important in Haitian culture in both spiritual and medicinal practices, and represent the second most important category of administration, after ingestion. He desires other commodities as well and raw materials that can be converted into many useful articles and products, which incidentally increase his debts to plants.
A protective effect has also been documented for skin exposure to soft x-irradiation (Sato et al., 1990). Immigration was a key factor in the plans for economic reconstruction after the War of Independence against Spain, and West Indians entered Cuba as cheap labour required to cut sugarcane [8]. Consequently, there is little data in the literature about the ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of Haitians in Cuba, with the exception of Volpato et al. About 75% of the inhabitants live in urban areas, where CamagA?ey, Florida and Nuevitas are the major cities. Generally, decoction is used for hard and ligneous parts, including coriaceous leaves, while infusion is used only for soft leaves and shoots, especially from aromatic plants (e.g. Besides single medicinal plants, 22 herbal mixtures, mostly prepared as a concoction of plants or plant parts, are reported. It moisturizes the skin because it has a water holding capacity (Reynolds and Dweck, 1999).
Interestingly, in many other pockets, tribals use pinch of salt, 1 teaspoon of Turmeric and Gram flour each. Haitians were concentrated in the sugarcane and coffee areas of the former provinces of Oriente and CamagA?ey (Figure 1). About 40% of the total population of the province lives in the city of CamagA?ey; almost 200,000 people live in rural areas. According to them, this removes dirt and oily substances from the head and also helps to restore hair growth. If it enters the eyes, gently flush them with warm water (Acharya and Shrivastava, 2008, 2011). In the latter province, they mainly settled in Haitian communities such as Caidije and Guanamaca, thus permitting the perpetuation of their own culture, including the voodoo religion and the creole language [9a€“12]. Due to its mostly flat territory, the Province of CamagA?ey historically had an economy primarily based on cattle and sugarcane, as well as small-scale farming.
Juice extraction is mostly used for green parts and is preferred over decoction and infusion for topical applications. At the same time, posology is embedded in specific rituals that are performed during the preparation of the remedies, which on the one hand serve to memorize the proper dose, especially when dealing with toxic allelochemicals, and on the other hand contribute to the efficacy of the remedy by invoking supernatural forces and entities related to those rituals and numbers.
Leaves are applied in cases of skin disease, hair loss (Comerford, 1996) and rashes (Ilham et al., 1995).
Apply to hairy region of skin and slowly rub in circular motion for 2-3 minutes then wash face.
Most Haitians were illiterate, crowded into barracks (barracones), paid a miserable salary, and compelled to hand over their savings to reimburse the cost of their passage [7, 9]. Moreover, to date only limited data about Haitian traditional medicine has been collected in Haiti, mostly due to the fact that the religious, cultural, and political situation in Haiti has made the study of Haitian ethnomedicine difficult [20]. Remedies prepared by heating plant parts in fire (four per cent) are mostly used for topical applications (e.g. Traditional and ritual plant posology should be investigated in more depth in ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies in order to understand their relation with medicinal plant efficacy and toxicity.Traditional Haitian medicine retained an important role in healthcare and cultural practices soon after immigration, when Haitian livelihoods were based on work in the sugarcane fields, on the surrounding environment, and on their knowledge about that environment. They relied heavily on homegardens, wild plants, and on traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and practices in order to survive. This figure is based on a comparison with data from another province that also absorbed much Haitian migration to Cuba, the Province of Guantanamo [13]. During the decades after emigration, the original Haitian ethnomedicinal knowledge progressively changed and adapted to the new environment, maintaining cultivation and use of important medicinal plants, incorporating plants and uses from the host Cuban culture, and diffusing specific plant uses to Cubans in contact with Haitian communities.
The relatively high figure for alcoholic maceration (8.7%) is due to the number of plants that are reported to be soaked in rum and used in the preparation of a medicinal and ritual Haitian drink called tifey [14].


The study of Haitian immigrants' traditional medicine in this context not only represents an interesting case about medicinal plant use, but also records knowledge that is rapidly disappearing with the death of older Haitian migrants. We will present and discuss data about: 1) traditional remedies, their uses, and preparation, 2) traditional practices and beliefs related to these uses, and 3) changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Besides Haitians, other ethnic groups in the Province include Jamaicans and Chinese.Ethnobotanical investigationThe data presented in this paper are derived from a wider study that was conducted on the ethnobiological knowledge of Haitian people living in the Province of CamagA?ey.
Almost five per cent of the remedies are used without processing, which is especially the case for fruits eaten as medicinal foods (e.g. Psidium guajava as an anthelmintic).Ingestion is the preferred means to administer the remedies and accounts for 62% of all applications. Topical application as a pomade or plaster is used in 10% of the remedies, while frictioning, preferred with preparations for rheumatisms and arthritis, accounts for two per cent. Baths are the second more important category of means of application at almost 16% of the total.
Once in the field, we asked for the help of the local government officers responsible for health (doctors or nurses from the local hospital) to determine whether there were any elderly Haitians living in the locality and precisely where. Respondents in the city of CamagA?ey were located thanks to the local Haitian Association.Among the Haitians interviewed, 21 migrated to Cuba between 1913a€“1926, ten are the offspring of Haitian couples who entered Cuba during the same period, and three more left Haiti between 1946a€“1954. Often, a decoction of leaves and aerial parts is prepared, sometimes in combinations of different species, and left to cool, or otherwise these vegetal parts are smashed and directly added to the bath water.
Among first generation migrants, twenty are originally from the cities of Les Cayes (Creole name Okai) and Port Salut (Creole name PosalA­), in the South of Haiti, whereas four lived in or near Port-au-Prince. Baths are also prepared to rid people of the 'bad' and the 'evil eye', a practice known in Afro-Cuban religions as despojo [34, 35], mainly using species such as Vitex trifolia, Trichilia glabra, Alpinia speciosa, Allophyllus cominia. People who migrated in the 1920s generally sailed to eastern Cuba looking for jobs on the sugarcane plantations to improve their living conditions and support their families in Haiti. Often this practice is associated with a ritual acknowledgement of the plant and its power, by leaving a coin in the place where leaves have been collected, or by adding a coin to the bath and later leaving it at road crossing.
Those who arrived in the 1940s came either by plane or boat, although they were migrating mostly for the same reasons.Interviews were conducted in Spanish after first explaining the aims of the study. In the case of a child with persistent 'evil eye' (for example when the child cries excessively), after the bath the child's clothes are burnt, and a collar is made with seeds of Canavalia ensiformis and placed on the child, as reported also in Haiti [36].
Throughout the field study, the ethical guidelines adopted by the American Anthropological Association [27] were followed. Goat feces are dried, powdered, mixed with olive oil and applied topically for burns, while packages made of urine and cotton are applied to the back of the heads of children with fever.
Also, cricket's (genus Acheta and Neoconocaephalus) legs are boiled in water and the decoction is then drunk by children and older people who have urination problems. This use of cricket's legs has been also reported by HernA?ndez and Volpato [19] in their article about the medicinal mixtures of Eastern Cuba, as well as by Seoane [16] in his treatise on Cuban medical folklore.Herbal mixturesBesides single medicinal plants, informants also reported 22 herbal mixtures that are mostly prepared as a concoction of plants or plant parts and ingested. These mixtures can be more or less complex, ranging from a concoction of two plants to complex preparations with different species. Five formulas have been reported as miel de gA?ira (siwA? kalbaz in Creole), whose main ingredient is the fruit of Crescentia cujete.
In its basic preparation, the inner mass is cooked, triturated, and then stirred, sometimes being left one night outside of the house before stirring.
Different plant species are added to the basic preparation according to the specific medicinal purpose for which it is prepared: for example, Cissus spp. Miel de gA?ira is considered as a panacea, and its use is apparently widespread among Cuban and Cuban-Haitian populations as a preventive and a remedy, when it is taken in small spoons in doses of from one to five spoons per day [16].Traditional posology of the remediesThe complexity of practices related to traditional posology is rarely investigated in ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies. Rituality based on 'sacred' numbers represents, in these cases, a simple way of memorizing the proper dose to be used, as well as a contribution to the efficacy of the remedy by calling upon supernatural forces and entities related to those numbers.Haitian's knowledge about plants seems to comprehend and deal with toxic allelochemicals through specific posological practices.
For example, a small spoonful of the hairs of the fruits of Mucuna pruriens is mixed with Psidium guayaba jam and ingested before breakfast for three days; the massive diarrhea that follows is supposed to eliminate all worms from the gut and the stomach, as reported also by Seoane [16]. The hairs of the fruit of this plant contain formic acid and mucunain, which are so toxic that they were used as homicidal poisons in Africa [40, 41].
Also, in the anthelmintic use of Chenopodium ambrosioides, we can distinguish a posology for acute episodes (three buds every day before breakfast for three or seven days), and a posology for chronic infection (e.g. The continuous ingestion of low doses of the allelochemicals in these species may be an effective means to prevent massive parasite infestations, especially in children [43].Changes in and adaptation of medicinal plant use with emigration and cultural integrationEthnobotanical knowledge is dynamic for any given culture and it changes as it is transferred and appropriated by people who are adapting to new environments [44, 45]. Migrants confront a different sociocultural context and new environments where specific plants may no longer be available and traditional practices may come under pressure and therefore may be progressively adapted or abandoned [46].
This lapse of time is long enough to permit insights to be drawn regarding the process of transformation and adaptation of ethnomedicinal knowledge after migration and in the ways in which the progressive integration of migrants in the host culture modifies this knowledge. To gain further insights, we qualitatively compared our results with those reported in other Cuban ethnobotanical studies [18, 19, 42, 49] and especially with the work of Beyra et al.
More than half of the plant species reported in that study are also reported in the current study of Haitian immigrants and their descendants.
Of these, about three quarters were reported with the same medicinal uses, and the remaining quarter with different uses. Some plant uses have a common origin in the ethnobotanical practices of Caribbean people of African cultural heritage, the so-called Afro-Caribbean pharmacopoeia: examples include the use of the aerial parts of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as the use of roots and ligneous parts of Allophylus cominia, Caesalpinia bahamensis, Erythroxylum havanense, and Chiococca alba. Afro-Caribbean pharmacopoeia is that body of knowledge and practices around medicinal plants which finds its origins in the cultures of African slaves brought to the Caribbean [50]. So, Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus often appear in the corpus of ethnobotanical knowledge of African origin in Cuba [14, 51], and Erythroxylum havanense and Chiococca alba are among the main ingredients of multi-herbal preparations used as a medicinal remedy in Eastern Cuba as well as a spiritual remedy in Afro-Cuban religions [19, 34].Other medicinal uses reported in this study and also commonly found in the Cuban pharmacopoeia include the use of the aerial parts of Cissus verticillata for respiratory problems, of the young fruit of Cocos nucifera and the leaves of Portulaca oleracea for intestinal parasites, of the bark and the leaves of Mangifera indica for gastrointestinal and respiratory problems respectively. Among the shared ethnobotanical practices is also the preparation of miel de gA?ira with the pulp of the fruit of Crescentia cujete.
In contrast, the use of the same species with different medicinal purposes may be the result of migrant's adoption of some species through experimentation with plants found in the new environment (e.g. 1951, La Habana: Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural Colegio La Salle 10, P.
Data also suggest that culturally relevant plants (those cited by more informants and with a greater number of uses) are often used in different qualitative ways by migrants and hosts.
Momordica charantia, Solanum americanum and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis are among those species most cited by Haitians in this study. 1953, La Habana: Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural Colegio La Salle 10, P. 1957, La Habana: Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural Colegio La Salle 10, P. Conversely, Justicia pectoralis, reported by Haitians only as a component of one mixture, is widely used and reported by Cubans for its sedative effects [15, 19].Almost half of the plants reported in this study are not reported in Beyra et al. Among these, there are plants that are important medicinals for Haitians, such as Artemisia absinthium, Phyllanthus procerus, and Priva lappulacea, as well as culturally relevant Haitian food plants that are also used in the realm of traditional medicine, such as Abelmoschus esculentus, Cajanus cajan, Corchorus siliquosus, and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, and some species used for ritual and religious baths such as Allophylus cominia, Alpinia speciosa, and Vitex trifolia.
Although medicinal uses of these plants are not absent from the Cuban pharmacopoeia, they may in some cases be restricted to Haitian descendants and to Cubans who have been influenced by the migrants' culture.For most Haitian migrants, given their poverty, there was no possibility to make trips back to Haiti to procure remedies that were not available in the new environment. Nevertheless, some culturally relevant products such as dried or fresh specimens of Artemisia absinthium and fruits and seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus were brought to Cuba upon migration (Figure 2). Once they found themselves in Cuba, the main strategies that Haitian migrants used to maintain their ethnomedicinal practices depended principally on the floristic similarity between Haiti and Cuba (i.e. The incorporation of local remedies into their own pharmacopoeia occurred as a consequence of factors such as cultural contacts and exchanges between Haitians and Cubans and of personal experimentation or imitation of local practices by migrants.
Conversely, and to a lesser extent, Haitians contributed to what is today considered as traditional Cuban medicine by introducing into the dominant Cuban community certain specific ethnobotanical practices and uses of plants, as described also in Volpato et al.



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