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Cretinism, and check out Cretinism on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet.
Cretinism is a condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth due to untreated congenital deficiency of thyroid hormones (congenital hypothyroidism) usually due to maternal hypothyroidism.
Neurological impairment may be mild, with reduced muscle tone and coordination, or so severe that the person cannot stand or walk.
Dwarfism may also be caused by malnutrition or other hormonal deficiencies, such as insufficient growth hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, decreased secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone, deficient growth hormone receptor activity and downstream causes, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Sporadic and genetic cretinism results from abnormal development or function of the foetal thyroid gland. Thyroxine must be dosed as tablets only, even to newborns, as the liquid oral suspensions and compounded forms cannot be depended on for reliable dosing. Iodine deficiency results in the impairments in varying degrees of physical and mental development. Goiter is the most specific clinical marker of either the direct or indirect insufficient intake of iodine in the human body.
More mildly affected areas of Europe and North America in the 19th century were referred to as "goitre belts". The early 20th century saw the discovery of the relationships of sporadic cretinism with congenital hypothyroidism, and of endemic cretinism with hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency. Congenital heart defect corrective surgery fixes or treats a heart defect that a child is born with.
Recommendations for preparing children and adolescents for invasive cardiac procedures: A statement from the American Heart Association Pediatric Nursing Subcommittee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing in collaboration with the Council on Cardiovascular Diseases of the Young.
Qigong for Back PainQigong for back pain uses dynamic and passive meditations, sounds and exercises to reduce symptoms and foster positive health benefits. Back Pain TipsBack pain tips can help any patient to find relief, improve their chances for recovery and even enjoy a true cure. If untreated, it results in mild to severe impairment of both physical and mental growth and development. Cognitive impairment may also range from mild to so severe that the person is nonverbal and dependent on others for basic care. This type of cretinism has been almost completely eliminated in developed countries by early diagnosis by newborn screening schemes followed by lifelong treatment with thyroxine (T4). In the case of dosing infants, the T4 tablets are generally crushed and mixed with breast milk, formula milk or water. There is evidence of goiter, and its medical treatment with iodine-rich algae and burnt sponges, in Chinese, Egyptian, and Roman ancient medical texts. The degree of iodine deficiency was milder and manifested primarily as thyroid enlargement rather than severe mental and physical impairment.
The term spread more widely in popular English as a markedly derogatory term for a person who behaves stupidly.
In adults, Cretinism results in mental deterioration, swelling of the skin, loss of water and hair.[1] Bone maturation and puberty are severely delayed. If the medication is mixed with formulas containing iron or soya products, larger doses may be required, as these substances may alter the absorption of thyroid hormone from the gut.[2] Frequent monitoring (every 2a€“3 weeks during the first months of life) is recommended to ensure that infants with congenital hypothyroidism remain within the high end of normal range, or euthyroid. It has affected many people worldwide and continues to be a major public health problem in many countries. It is being combated in many countries by public health campaigns of iodine administration.
In 1848, the Italian King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia commissioned the first epidemiological study of goiter and cretinism in his Haute-Savoy territories, where hideous cases of goiters and cretinism frequently occurred in the population.


In Switzerland, for example, where soil does not contain a large amount of iodine, cases of cretinism were very abundant and even considered genetically caused. Iodine is an essential trace element, necessary primarily for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In past centuries, the well reported social diseases prevalent among the poorer social classes and farmers, caused by dietary and agricultural monocultures, were: pellagra, rickets, beriberi, scurvy in long-term sailors, and the endemic goiter caused by I-deficiency. As the variety of food sources dramatically increased in Europe and North America and the populations became less completely dependent on locally grown food, the prevalence of endemic goitre diminished. Iodine deficiency is the most common preventable cause of brain damage worldwide.[4] Although iodine is found in many foods, it is not universally present in all soils in adequate amounts. However, this disease was less mentioned in medical books because it was erroneously considered to be an aesthetic rather than a clinical disorder.[7] Endemic cretinism was especially common in areas of southern Europe around the Alps and was described by ancient Roman writers, and often depicted by medieval artists. This could cause problems later in life In most cases, the doctor will close off the opening using medicine. Most iodine, in iodide form, is in the oceans where the iodide ions oxidize to elemental iodine, which then enters the atmosphere and falls to earth as rain, introducing iodine to soils.
Earth deficient in iodine is most common inland and in mountainous areas and areas of frequent flooding, but can also occur in coastal regions owing to past glaciation, and leaching by snow, water and heavy rainfall, which removes iodine from the soil.[5] Plants and animals grown in iodine deficient soils are correspondingly deficient. The proportion of people affected varied markedly throughout southern Europe and even within very small areas it might be common in one valley and not another. The number of severely affected persons was always a minority, and most persons were only affected to the extent of having a goitre and some degree of reduced cognition and growth. Then, a small metal coil or another device is passed through the wire into the infant's ductus arteriosus artery. The coil or other device blocks the blood flow, and this corrects the problem. Another method is to make a small surgical cut on the left side of the chest.
The surgeon finds the PDA and then ties off or clips the ductus arteriosus, or divides and cuts it. Coarctation of the aorta repair: Coarctation of the aorta occurs when a part of the aorta has a very narrow section. Weinrauch MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Cardiovascular Disease and Clinical Outcomes Research, Watertown, MA.. Over time it can lead to problems such as extremely high blood pressure. To repair this defect, a cut is most often made on the left side of the chest, between the ribs. This can most often be done in older children. A third way to repair this problem is called a subclavian flap. Then, a patch is taken from the left subclavian artery (the artery to the arm) to enlarge the narrow section of the aorta. A fourth way to repair the problem is to connect a tube to the normal sections of the aorta, on either side of the narrow section.
Blood flows through the tube and bypasses the narrow section. A newer method does not require surgery.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair: The atrial septum is the wall between the left and right atria (upper chambers) of the heart. In the presence of this defect, blood with and without oxygen can be mixed up and over time cause medical problems and arrhythmias Sometimes, an ASD can be closed without open-heart surgery. Next, two small umbrella-shaped "clamshell" devices are placed on the right and left sides of the septum. Not all medical centers do this procedure. Open-heart surgery may also be done to repair ASD. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair: The ventricular septum is the wall between the left and right ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart.
Over time irregular heartbeats and other heart problems. By age 1, most small VSDs close on their own.


However, those VSDs that do stay open after this age may need to be closed. Larger VSDs, small ones in certain parts of the ventricular septum, or ones that cause heart failure or endocarditis (inflammation) need open-heart surgery. The hole in the septum is most often closed with a patch. Some septal defects can be closed without surgery. The procedure involves passing a small wire into the heart and placing a patch over the defect.
Tetralogy of Fallot repair: Tetralogy of Fallot is a heart defect that exists from birth (congenital). It usually includes four defects in the heart and causes the baby to turn a bluish color (cyanosis). Open-heart surgery is needed, and it is often done when the child is between 6 months and 2 years old. This is done if the open-heart surgery needs to be delayed because the child is too sick to go through surgery. Transposition of the great vessels repair: In a normal heart, the aorta comes from the left side of the heart, and the pulmonary artery comes from the right side. In transposition of the great vessels, these arteries come from the opposite sides of the heart.
The child may also have other birth defects. Correcting transposition of the great vessels requires open-heart surgery. If possible, this surgery is done shortly after birth. The most common repair is called an arterial switch. Then, the aorta and coronary arteries are connected to the left ventricle, where they belong. Truncus arteriosus repair: Truncus arteriosus is a rare condition that occurs when the aorta, coronary arteries, and pulmonary artery all come out of one common trunk. In all cases, it requires open-heart surgery to repair the defect. Repair is usually done in the first few days or weeks of the infant's life. A connection is then placed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries. Most children need one or two more surgeries as they grow. Tricuspid atresia repair: The tricuspid valve is found between the upper and lower chambers on the right side of the heart.
This medicine will help keep the patent ductus arteriosus open so that blood can continue to flow to the lungs.
The child will eventually need surgery. The child may need a series of shunts and surgeries to correct this defect. The surgeon may have to repair the tricuspid valve, replace the valve, or put in a shunt so that blood can get to the lungs. If it is not done right after birth, it is done in the first 6 months of the baby's life. TAPVR repair requires open-heart surgery. The pulmonary veins are routed back to the left side of the heart, where they belong, and any abnormal connections are closed. If a PDA is present, it is tied off and divided.
Hypoplastic left heart repair: This is a very severe heart defect that is caused by a very poorly developed left heart. Unlike babies with other heart defects, those with hypoplastic left heart do not have any other defects. Usually surgery corrects this defect. A series of three heart operations is most often needed. This is a complicated surgery where one blood vessel is created from the pulmonary artery and the aorta.



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