Alternative medicine for epilepsy in dogs genetic,information about herpes 1,herpes simplex treatment and prevention jobs - PDF Review

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According to doctors at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in Delhi, new uses for the wonder spice turmeric have been found; the doctors claim turmeric can cure epilepsy, boost memory and reduce stress! Epilepsy cure and management have always been problematic for doctors as well as patients, and the side effects of the drugs used (long-term antiepileptic drug or AED therapy) are damaging as well. This study carried out by the researchers on rodents has been promising in terms of providing a possible cure for epilepsy.
AED therapy has been seen to impair cognitive development and damages essential macro molecules in the body in some cases and the goal of achieving treatment without side effects has been difficult so far because of phenytoin-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.
The researchers found that when turmeric was administered orally along with phenytoin this prevented cognitive impairment and oxidative stress.
Turmeric has long been used in traditional medicine as a natural anti bacterial agent which prevents infections and speeds up the healing process. If your dog suffers from any of the symptoms listed below, you might benefit from using Zyrtec for dog allergies. If your dog has Cushing’s disease, there Cushing’s disease, also called hyperadrenocorticism, is a disorder in which the adrenal gland produces too much cortisol. You may want to know how to give Benadryl (diphenhydramine) to your dog if he or she suffers from: Seasonal allergy symptoms Skin allergy symptoms Anxiety while traveling Itchy insect bites Reactions to poison oak or poison ivy Other itchy, allergy like situations Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is an over-the-counter pharmaceutical often used to treat dog allergies. Suo Quan Wan is a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in treating incontinence in dogs, cats and horses.
Ophiopogon Formula is a Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) herbal blend that treats Cushing’s Disease in dogs, cats, and horses. Backpacking With Your Dog – What To Know About Taking Your Dog Backpacking  If you already think backpacking is a great way to spend a few days, taking your dog backpacking only adds to the enjoyment. Hiking with your dog is a great way to get yourself and your pup out of the house and out into the fresh air.
Er Chen Tang  is a Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) herbal blend that treats coughs in dogs, cats, and horses.
Eight Gentlemen is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats chronic gastrointestinal disorders in dogs, cats and horses. Di Tan Tang is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats seizures and epilepsy in dogs, cats and horses. Orthomolecular Veterinary Medicine: Nutritional Therapy Skin Allergy Treatment for Animals This nutritional approach to the treatment, prevention, and control of skin allergies was originally developed by Wendell O. Have you ever heard the quote “It is by chance that we met, by choice that we became friends”? Tilly is a 5-year old Australian Cattle dog who works daily as a cow hand at Belle Meadow Farm, Wartrace TN.
Qing Fe San  is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats respiratory tract infections and pneumonia in dogs, cats and horses. Qi Performance is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that improves the athletic performance of dogs and horses. Qi Lin San  is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats urinary dribbling and behavorial urination problems in dogs, cats and horses. Qi Ju Di Huang is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats uveitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs, cats and horses.
Pu Ji Xiao Du Yin is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats acute tonsillitis and lymphadenitis in dogs, cats and horses. Ping Wei San is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats chronic chronic indigestion in dogs, cats and horses. Mui Dan Pi is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats aggressive behavior in dogs, cats and horses. Ming Mu Di Huang is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats chronic eye problems in dogs, cats and horses. Ling Jiao Gou Teng is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats encephalitis, epilepsy, and seizures in dogs, cats and horses. Loranthus Formula is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats arthritis, chronic joint pain, and degenerative joint disease in dogs, cats and horses. Lower Jiao Damp Heat  is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats dermatitis, eruptions and eczema in dogs, cats and horses.
Long Dan Xie Gan is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats dermatitis, hepatitis, otitis and conjunctivitis in dogs, cats and horses. Dang Gui Long Hui San is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats hepatitis, leukemia, manic behavior, uveitis and dermatitis in dogs, cats and horses. Dang Gui Cong Rong is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats constipation, megacolon, and impaction in dogs, cats and horses. Dang Gui Bu Xue is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats fever after acute loss of blood and anemia in dogs, cats and horses. Damp Heat in Mind is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in dogs, cats and horses. Da Cheng Qi Tang is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats impaction and constipation in dogs, cats and horses. Da Bu Yin Wan is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats Cushing’s disease and renal failure in dogs, cats and horses. Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats chronic diarrhea in dogs, cats and horses.
Bu Yang Huan Wu is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats ataxia in dogs, cats and horses. Body Sore is a TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine) herbal blend that treats back pain in dogs, cats and horses. Bai Hu Si Miao is a TCM herbal blend that treats rheumatoid arthritis in dogs, cats and horses. Blood Heat Formula is a TCM herbal blend that treats autoimmune disease in dogs, cats and horses. Artemisia Combination is a TCM herbal blend that treats hepatitis and icterus in dogs, cats and horses. In honor of NATIONAL PET DENTAL HEALTH MONTH, Natchez Trace Veterinary Services is offering a 20% DISCOUNT ON DENTALS!
Bao He Wan is a TCM herbal blend that treats Chronic IBD and indigestion in dogs, cats and horses. Four Gentlemen is a TCM herbal blend that treats chronic fatigue and muscle atrophy in dogs, cats and horses.
Bu Fei San is a TCM herbal blend that treats chronic coughs and asthma in dogs, cats and horses. Jin Gui Shen Qi (Rehmannia 8) is a TCM herbal blend that treats hypothyroidism and renal failure in dogs and cats, and is also very helpful in treating infertility. Natchez Trace Veterinary Services (6614 Highway 100 Nashville, TN 37205) will be holding it’s first ever Yappy Hour on Tuesday, January 28th from 6pm — 8pm! Bone Stasis is a TCM herbal blend that treats spurs, bone swelling and calcium deposits in dogs, cats and horses and can be a very helpful treatment for animals with bone spurs, chips, and osteosclerosis. Yang Yin Xi Feng is a TCM herbal blend that treats convulsions and seizures in dogs, cats and horses and can be a very helpful treatment for animals with epilepsy. Wei Qi Booster is a TCM herbal blend that boosts immunity in dogs, cats and horses and can be very helpful in treating chronic illness, chronic viral infections and anemia. Stomach Happy a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in treating stomach ulcers in dogs, cats and horses.
A biopsy procedure for dogs and cats will provide important information to be used in detecting the seriousness of your pets condition and the course of treatment needed.
Ear Damp Heat is a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in otitis and itchy ears in dogs, cats and horses. Our clinic is now able to provide you with pheromone collars that treat cat inappropriate marking, separation anxiety, aggression and more! Tibial tuberosity advancement surgery or TTA is the latest surgical treatment for cranial cruciate ligament disease in the dog.
Our clinic is now able to provide you with pheromone collars that treat dog anxiety, restlessness, destructive behavior, and more. Since I practice alternative medicine, I get questions all the time about the use of Melatonin and Lignans to treat Atypical Cushings in Dogs. Positive FIV test results are a fairly common occurrence. Stray cats, old cats, and even kittens oftentimes test positive for FIV.
Eight Righteous is a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in treating urinary tract problems and cystitis in dogs, cats and horses.
Epimedium is a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in treating infertility in dogs, cats and horses. Dok’s Formula is a TCM herbal blend that can be very helpful in treating arthritis and chronic joint pain in dogs, cats and horses. Top of pageAbstractStudies of epilepsy have mainly focused on the membrane proteins that control neuronal excitability. Top of pageIntroductionIn 'On the sacred disease', the first book on epilepsy, Hippocrates correctly described epilepsy as a brain disorder. Full figure and legend (66K)Similarly, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a molecule found mutated in autosomal dominant harmatoma and epilepsy-associated glioblastoma, and the conditional knockout mice showed cortical dysplasia, ataxia, and seizures (Backman et al., 2001).
Seasonal allergy symptoms Skin allergy symptoms Itchy insect bites Reactions to poison oak or poison ivy Other itchy, allergy like situations Zyrtec (cetirizine) is an over-the-counter antihistamine pharmaceutical use to treat dermatitis in dogs. Anatomically, the adrenal glands are two triangular shaped glands located adjacent to the kidneys. Our Homemade Vinegar Rinse for Itchy Pets is a great solution for pet’s allergies or skin irritation! Injectable glucosamine is a prescription medication that is injected into your dog’s muscle and then preferentially absorbed by inflamed joints. The Western medical indications for this herbal blend are Cushing’s disease, Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS), insulin resistance, diabetes, and hyperthyroidism.


Camping is a fun family activity and can be even more rewarding if you include the family dog.
It is also a fantastically rewarding experience to share the out of doors with your best companion.
Green Lipped Mussel is a mollusc harvested from the beaches of New Zealand that can be used as a nutritional supplement to help human and animal issues that include osteoarthritis, asthma, and inflammation. Marc Smith… An external skeletal fixation device consists of multiple pins and external bars that hold a fractured bone in place while healing takes place. If your pet suffered a severe burn or was in shock, would you be able to care for him or her? The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are respiratory tract infections and pneumonia. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are urinary dribbling and behavorial urination problems. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are anterior uveitis, equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
The Western Medical indication for this formula are acute tonsillitis, cellulitis of the head and face, lymphadenitis, parotitis and purulent otitis media. Marc Smith… A Question for the Doctor: The Use of Elderberry Juice Tonic To Help a Dog with Respiratory Distress Is it ok to use some elderberry juice tonic to help soothe my dogs cough? The Western Medical indications for this formula are chronic uveitis, diabetes, Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), glaucoma, hypertension, and keratoconjunctivitis siccs (KCS). The Western Medical indications for this formula are convulsions, encephalitis, epilepsy and seizures. The Western Medical indications for this formula are arthritis, chronic joint pain, degenerative joint disease (DJD), hip dysplasia, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and rheumatism. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are conjunctivitis, dermatitis, hepatitis, and otitis. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are dermatitis, hepatitis, leukemia, manic behavior, and uveitis. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are constipation, impaction, and megacolon in old patients.
The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are anemia and fever after acute loss of blood due to parturition. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.
The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are abdominal pain, impaction and constipation. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are Cushing’s disease, geriatric diseases, hyperthyroidism, and renal failure. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are chronic diarrhea and prolapse of anus or uterus. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are ataxia, weakness after IVDD, and sequelae of stroke. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are back pain, musculoskeletal pain, and soft tissue injuries. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are immune-mediated arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infections arthritis, and urinary tract infection.
The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are rear weakness and a sore and weak back. Did you know that dental care for pets, scientifically, is just as important as dental care for humans?
The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are Chronic Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD) and chronic indigestion. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are hypothyroidism, renal failure, and infertility. The Western Medical indications for this herbal blend are convulsions, seizures and epilepsy. Gastric ulcers are often related to the method by which the stomach protects itself against the acid. Brief history before the question… My dog Annie had bloodwork done before a minor surgery last year to remove a skin tag from her eyelid.
The Western Medical Indications for this herbal formula are acute cystitis, acute urinary tract inflammation, frequent urination and hemorrhage in urine. The Western Medical Indications for this herbal formula are female infertility, impotence, low quantity or quality of sperm, lower sexual activities, stallion infertility. The Western Medical Indications for this herbal formula are arthritis, chronic joint pain, degenerative joint disease, hip dysplasia, intervertebral disc disease, and rheumatism. Recently, attention has been shifting to intracellular proteins and their interactions, signaling cascades and feedback regulation as they relate to epilepsy. However, for hundreds of years, epilepsy patients have been considered possessed or contagious, and persons with epilepsy have been stigmatized, prohibited, or even segregated from their communities. Activation and inhibition of signaling molecules by phosphorylation are shown in red and blue respectively. In these studies, kainate or pilocarpine was injected into rats to induce status epilepticus (SE) and the animals went on to develop spontaneous seizures. Red arrows (up- or downward) indicate the changes in activity of particular molecules in epileptic conditions.
PTEN is a negative regulator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) which is located at upstream of mTOR (Cully et al., 2006).
Mast cell tumor is a cancer of a particular type blood cell normally involved in the body’s allergic or inflammatory responses. Look around the barnyard, the jungle, or the woods and you’ll see all kinds of odd couples in the animal world,  just like this dog and fawn.
He suddenly developed symptoms similar to kennel cough and bronchitis about three weeks ago now. Yes, gingivitis and periodontal disease can affect your pet’s body just like it can affect yours. There will be complimentary wine and hors d’oeuvres, as well as, special treats for the furry children! The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway, especially, has been suggested to play an important role in this regard. It has been shown that S6, a ribosomal protein involved in translation initiation, and a downstream molecule in the mTOR signaling pathway, became phosphorylated (activated). Up- and downward arrows indicate the changes in the expression level or activity of particular molecules. Make sure you do your research–you may have more options than you originally considered! If your dog chews things around the house, makes messes, and maybe even chews his own paws or tail while you are gone, your dog probably has separation anxiety. The official name of dog flu is Canine Influenza Virus (CIV), also known as Influenza Type A H3N8. These pathways are involved in major physiological processes as well as in numerous pathological conditions. It is one of the most common neurological problems in the world, and approximately 1% of the general population has epileptic episodes at some point in their lives (WHO, 2005).
This neurodegenerative disease has lafora bodies, which are polyglucosans masses, are found in neurons, myocytes, and hepatocytes. Instead of simply masking pain as NSAIDs do, glucosamine injections help rebuild cartilage in the damaged joint.
Canine Influenza Virus has been around for quite a while, but seems to be creating quite stir recently. Polyglucosans, insoluble and abnormally formed glycogen molecules, are produced by failure to regulate glycogen synthase (GS) activity. Thus, the knowledge of molecular mechanism of seizures caused by those mutations has been deepened over last decade (Reid et al., 2009). Its tuber formation is highly associated with mental retardation, autism and epilepsy (Curatolo et al., 2008).
Activated AKT inhibits TSC2 by phosphorylation, subsequently disinhibits Rheb to activate mTORC1. TSC2, a tumor suppressor forming a complex with TSC1, has been known as a key regulator of the mTOR kinase, and its functional failure results in uncontrolled mTORC1 activity (Inoki et al, 2005). AKT can be fully activated by phosphorylation at Ser473 by mTORC2, inhibiting mTORC2-regulating molecules such as FOXO and BAD.
The effectiveness of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) against ion channels is limited for the treatment and management of 'acquired' epileptic conditions (Beck, 2007). Epileptic seizures result from abnormal synchronous firing of neuronal population (Scharfman, 2007). TSC2 forms a complex with TSC1 inhibiting Rheb by keeping it GDP bound form (Rheb-GDP), and Rheb-GTP activates mTORC1. Since epilepsy show multiple events; cell death, cell survival and ectopic neurogenesis, aberrant axonal sprouting, and synaptic reorganization, the existence of the core signaling pathway involved in these processes should have been expected. Signaling through mTORC1 promotes protein synthesis via phosphorylation which causes the inactivation of translation repressor 4E-BPs and the activation of S6 Kinases and ribosomal protein S6.
However, we have not been able to have the luxury of intracellular signaling mechanism for epilepsy like other neurological diseases until recently (Swiech et al., 2008).
AKT modulates molecules involved in apoptosiss and cell cyle as well as other molecules in the mTOR pathway.
Here, I will summarize and frame individual reports of epilepsy-related molecules into the mTOR pathway and try to set the common ground that can be served for the continuing discussion. In lafora disease, GSK3β can not be regulated due to the mutation in laforin, a phosphatase.


It is also called FRAP (FKBP-rapamycin associated protein), RAPT (Rapamycin target), RAFT (rapamycin and FKBP12 target) or SEP (sirolimus effector protein).
Expression of mTOR is ubiquitous, high expression of mRNA is found in brain, kidney, placenta and skeletal muscle (Kim et al., 2002). It has seven WD40 repeats for protein-protein interaction, and it binds near the catalytic domain of mTOR required for the full kinase activity (Kim et al., 2003).
When DEPTOR is activated by mTORC1 phosphorylation, the mTORC1-DEPTOR interaction became weak. RNAi-mediated knockdown of DEPTOR shows that increased cell size, reduced vulnerability for apoptosis. It has a distinctive amino-terminal region followed by three HEAT motif and seven WD40 repeats (Kim et al., 2002). Among 21 identified phosphorylation sites of RICTOR, Thr1135 is phosphorylated by SGK1, AKT, or S6K1 via mTORC1, and this phosphorylation is acutely sensitive to rapamycin (Dibble et al., 2009). Knockdown of mSin1 results in decrease of RICTOR phosphorylation and protein levels, and disruption of the RICTOR-mTOR interaction (Yang et al., 2006b). FKBP38 is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC1 and it is closely related to FKBP12 (Bai et al., 2007). FKBP38 is removed from mTOR when Rheb binds to it, thus activating mTORC1 and this Rheb-FKBP38 interaction is regulated by mitogens and amino acid availability. Its brain expression is very low, therefore, FKBP12 has been considered as the major repressor of mTORC1 activity (Bai et al., 2007).
It phosphorylates PRAS40 on Thr246, and this modification releases PRAS40 from mTORC1, activating mTORC1 kinase (Zhang et al., 2009). It activates AMPK by phosphorylating it at Thr172, thus inhibiting mTORC1 activity (Beharry et al., 2011).
It stabilizes c-Myc, an mTORC1 substrate by phosphorylation on Thr62 and Ser329 (Zhang et al., 2008). It phosphorylates and inactivates BAD on Ser112 in vitro, improving the cell survival (Aho et al., 2004). Kainate injection induces PIM-1 expression in dentate gyrus in rats (Feldman et al., 1998). Pim null mice develop normally, and are fertile without any significant abnormality in the brain (Laird et al., 1993). 2) RAPTOR binds to 14-3-3 when phosphorylated at Ser722 and Ser792 by AMPK (Gwinn et al., 2008). 4) TSC2 is phosphorylated at Ser1210 by MK2, enhancing binding to 14-3-3 (Li et al., 2003). 5) REDD1 competes with TSC2 on binding to 14-3-3 under stressed condition (DeYoung et al., 2008). In kainate injected rats, a pro-apoptotic molecule, BAD is dephosphorylated to disrupt binding to 14-3-3, and BAD dimerized with anti-apoptotic molecule BCL-XL (Meller et al., 2003). During seizure-induced neuronal death, another pro-apoptotic molecule, BID (BH3-interacting domain death agonist) is cleaved, increasing its binding to 14-3-3, although level of 14-3-3 was decreased (Shinoda et al., 2003).
In kainate-induced epileptic rat, gene expression of HSP72, a mammalian homolog, is enhanced (Gass et al., 1995). Overexpression of HSP72 helps the survival of dentate granule cells from cell death induced by kainate (Yenari et al., 1998). Phosphorylation patterns at multiple sites are complicated in the pathological conditions such as tumorigenesis and diabetes (Gibson et al., 2007). Specific inhibitors against both mTORC1 and PI3K are extensively being developed to circumvent the drug resistance (Brachmann et al., 2009). Phenotypes of knockout mice of PI3K isoforms are described in detail elsewhere (Vanhaesebroeck et al., 2005).
PTEN has been shown to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) (Jurado et al., 2010). PIKE-S localizes in the nucleus, PIKE-L shows multiple localizations, and PIKE-A directly activates AKT. Interestingly, PDK1 has been shown to shuttle between cytoplasm and nucleus (Kikani et al., 2005). PDK1 deficient brain showed microcephaly and increased phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 in glia, not in neurons (Chalhoub et al., 2009). AKT phosphorylates TSC2 and suppresses GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity, thus activating mTORC1 (Inoki et al., 2002). When fully activated, AKT acts both as an upstream activator of mTORC1 and as a downstream substrate of mTORC2 (Sarbassov et al., 2006).
AKT activation may be neuroprotective against kainate-induced epilepsy by inhibiting BIM (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) expression (Shinoda et al., 2004). AKT1 null mice showed the impairment in adult neurogenesis and LTP in the hippocampus (Balu et al., 2010). AKT2 null mice develop insulin resistance and other abnormality in glucose metabolism (Cho et al., 2001). Interestingly, Akt3Nmf350, dominant mutant mice have enlarged brain, increased phosphorylation of S6, ectopic neurogenesis in the hippocampus and low seizure threshold (Tokuda et al., 2011).
Over 70% of patients who suffer from TSC exhibit epileptic symptoms (Thiele, 2004) (Figure 3E). TSC2 regulates cell cycle by binding to p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor and this interaction prevents p27 degradation (Rosner and Hengstschlager, 2004). TSC2 inhibits phosphorylation on Ser126 of BAD by S6K, which induces apoptosis (Freilinger et al., 2006).
Serum-activated death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) phosphorylates TSC2 in vitro (Stevens et al., 2009). Astrocyte-specific TSC2hGFAP knockout mice showed enlarged cells, megalencephaly and astrocytosis, and start dying after 3 weeks old (Way et al., 2009).
TCTP (Translationally controlled tumor protein) serves as GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) for Rheb that leads to GTP-bound Rheb accumulation (Dong et al., 2009). Recently, a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been shown to interact with Rheb and inhibits mTORC1 activity when glucose level is low (Lee et al., 2009b).
Rheb also block aggresome formation by disrupting dynein-mediated transport of misfolded proteins (Zhou et al., 2009b). AMPK is activated both by the direct AMP binding and its phosphorylation at Thr172 by LKB1 (Hardie, 2005) (Figure 3F). AMPK activation induces 14-3-3 binding to AMPK-ULK1-mTORC1 complex via Ser792 phosphorylation of RAPTOR (Lee et al., 2010). AMPK activation downregulates the gene expression and the activity of SREBP-1c in mTOR-dependent manner (Zhou et al., 2001).
AMPK binds and phosphorylates GABAB receptors, enhancing synaptic inhibition especially in ischemic injury condition (Kuramoto et al., 2007).
This LKB1-AMPK activation facilitates glucose uptake and cellular catabolism to have more ATP available and inhibits the cellular biosynthetic processes to save ATP (Hardie, 2004). LKB1 also associates with BRG1 (brahma-related gene 1), another tumor suppressor on the same chromosome 19 (Marignani et al., 2001).
Germline mutation on LKB1 causes the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, a harmatomatous syndrome similar to PTEN and TSC mutations (Hemminki et al., 1998).
Rag-bound mTORC1 then relocalizes to Rab9-containing perinucleolar membrane structure where Rheb resides, thus activates mTORC1 activity (Sancak et al., 2008). MAP4K3 has been also identified as a kinase that senses and mediates amino acids signals to TOR in Drosophila (Findlay et al., 2007). The mTORC1 signaling is rapidly modulated due to the fast degradation of REDD1 (Kimball et al., 2008).
Phosphorylation of Tyr216 is essential for its basal activity, in contrast, phosphorylation at Ser9 inactivates it (Liang and Chuang, 2007). Epilepsy-related lafora disease is caused by defective mutation in laforin which dephosphorylates GSK3 at Ser9, thus inhibits glycogen synthase (Lohi et al., 2005).
It regulates adult neurogenesis by modulating the mTOR pathway via a protein KIAA1212 (Kim et al., 2009). It also regulates glutamatergic dendritic spines via Karlin-7 and Rac1 interaction (Hayashi-Takagi et al., 2010).
Constitutive ERK activation has been shown to induce spontaneous seizures in mice (Nateri et al., 2007). In traumatic brain injury model ERK has been shown to be activated in hippocampal mossy fiber, possibly mediating mossy fiber reorganization (Hu et al., 2004). Erk1 null mice showed that ERK1 may be involved in regulating neuronal excitability in hippocampal CA1 area under certain stimulation patterns (Selcher et al., 2003).
Erk2 conditional knockout mice have impaired proliferation of neuronal progenitors, fewer neurons and more astrocytes, and deficits in associative learning (Samuels et al., 2008).
Four isoforms are ubiquitously expressed and they are localized both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Rsk2 null mice show mild impairment of learning and long-term memory deficits, mimicking Coffin-Lowry syndrome associated with RSK2 mutations (Poirier et al., 2007). PP2A directly dephosphorylates and activates 4E-BP1 at Thr45 and Ser64, thus inhibiting protein synthesis (Guan et al., 2007).
It also dephosphorylates c-Myc at Ser62, promoting its ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation (Arnold and Sears, 2006). PLD level is increased in reactive astrocytes in kainate model, and interestingly, PLD1 and PLD2 showed differential patterns of gene expression in the hippocampus (Kim et al., 2004). They may be differently involved in epilepsy.CDC42CDC42 (cell division cycle 42) is a Rho family GTPase that regulates cytoskeleton organization, and membrane trafficking (Sinha and Yang, 2008).



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