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Dedicated to the memory of Ernesto Fattorusso, a pioneer in marine natural products chemistry. The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antituberculosis, antiviral and other antiprotozoal activities. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. IntroductionThe current article presents a systematic review of the preclinical pharmacology of the marine natural products literature in 2009–2011, with a similar format to previous reviews [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], and which resulted from extensive searches of several databases, including Marinlit, PubMed, Current Contents® and Chemical Abstracts®. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products.

We have limited this review to the peer-reviewed literature that reported bioactivity or pharmacology of structurally characterized marine chemicals, and have continued to use a modification of Schmitz’s chemical classification [8] to assign marine structures to six major chemical classes, namely, polyketides, terpenes, peptides, alkaloids, shikimates, and sugars. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects.
The preclinical antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacology of marine chemicals is presented in Table 1, with the corresponding structures shown in Figure 1. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies.
Marine compounds that affect the immune and nervous systems, as well as those with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects are shown in Table 2, with their corresponding structures presented in Figure 2.
Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline.

Finally, marine compounds that have been demonstrated to affect a wide variety of cellular and molecular targets are exhibited in Table 3, and their structures presented in Figure 3. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories.

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