Average energy consumption per capita,treatment for diabetic foot numbness,dosage for treatment of syphilis - Good Point

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The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. The key when trying to save energy is to know which appliances are responsible for most energy use at your home. We will focus here mostly on the electricity part, as this is the major part of energy delivery to households in the UAE. The following energy balance estimation for UAE residents is based on the AC part of electricity usage in the UAE and combining this with typical energy household usage information from the UK and the Netherlands. Fig: The data is based on the information from typical energy household balance information from the UK, USA and the Netherlands and an assessment of the average cooling contribution to household electricity use by DEWA. For lighting it is recommended to install either CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lights) or LED (Light Emitting Diode) lights. Because of the ongoing energy transition (see my other article) we have an increased need for smart appliances. In the future we might go to the situation where electricity prices might fluctuate during the day. Strange as it may seem, humans seem to have evolved in a way that we have a need for external energy, such as energy from burning wood or fossil fuels.
According to Todar’s Online Textbook of Bacteriology, energy is important for all living organisms.
We can see how different humans are from other animals by comparing ourselves to large primates such as chimpanzees.
The shift away from behavior similar to that of other primates seems to have started after humans learned to control fire and learned to cook food. With  the evolution to smaller teeth, smaller gut, and bigger brains, humans have a real need to cook at least part of the food they eat.
Humans gradually found other ways that energy could be used to help overcome their evolutionary deficiencies.
One deficiency of human evolution is that our tooth enamel has not evolved to withstand a diet high in starches. Humans, with their upright posture and large head sizes (because of large brains) have tended to have difficulty in childbirth, resulting in many deaths. In the natural order, each mother gives birth to more offspring than are needed to survive to maturity. One of the reasons for continued upward population pressure is the fact that humans have evolved to live beyond their reproductive years.
As an actuary (but not a pension actuary), I am aware that even when there are public pension programs, fewer children can cause funding problems.
The pressure of continuing population growth is a major reason for the need for supplemental external energy.
Thanks to the wonders of fossil fuels, world population has been able to rise to 7 billion. Craig Dilworth in “Too Smart for Our Own Good” says that there are instinctual behaviors that would normally act to prevent overpopulation. In K-selected species, territoriality tends to hold down population size by restraining the number of breeding pairs. The territories chosen by instinct by K-selected species are large enough to ensure that populations do not grow to such a size that they undermine their own resource base.
There are a number of related mechanisms for keeping K-selected populations in balance with the rest of the ecological system. Too high population tends to cause stress and leads to violence against neighboring groups.
If population is too high, hierarchical behavior (another instinctual mechanism) may appear or increase. A person often hears the comment, “We would have plenty of resources, if we would just share them more equally.” Yes, that is true, but as mentioned in the previous section hierarchical behavior is an instinct, put in place in other species to help keep population down. Hierarchical behavior, if combined with a taxation system that helps transfer money to the poor, seems likely to lead to greater use of resources.
Apart from all of the biological issues associated with the need for energy use, there is an economic aspect. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of how much goods and services an economy is producing. When we look back over the past 2000+ years, we see a pattern of gradually increasing GDP growth.
If we look at the long term, we can see that the really big increases in GDP growth (that is, over 1% per year), all came after 1870.
It is not surprising that GDP growth is a little higher than energy growth on Table 1, because GDP reflects growth in “goods and services”.
We can also show the GDP growth listed in Table 1 as a graph, shown below as Figure 2, below. The impression a person gets from looking over the long history is that as more energy products became available to society, people found ways to put them to use that allowed more goods and services to be sold. We can also look at the relationship between population growth and GDP growth more closely using estimates by Angus Maddison going back to 1 CE. But what if we really want to cut back on the amount energy that the world’s population wants, at a fixed price, without reducing the buying capacity of consumers? Here, I think the first issue in stopping demand growth is stopping the continued rise in the world’s population. Second, there is room for making vehicles more efficient, for insulating homes better, and for making other similar changes.
Third, a country can easily make its energy consumption appear lower by “offshoring” heavy industry (which uses lots of energy), and changing to more of a service economy. To a significant extent, we start finding ourselves with what I call a “Whac a Mole” problem. The various population control mechanisms discussed in the article operate in a common set of circumstances. Our ability to migrate and settle new spaces has been a huge factor in contravening the normal limits imposed on overpopulation. The Institute for Energy Research is a not-for-profit organization that conducts intensive research and analysis on the functions, operations, and government regulation of global energy markets.
In the previous blog post, we discussed how President Obama and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are working to mandate reduced coal use in the United States. Oil remained the world’s leading fuel, with a 32.9 percent share of global energy consumption. Coal consumption grew by 3 percent in 2013, below the 10-year average of 3.9 percent, but enough to make it the world’s fastest-growing fossil fuel.
The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data. The floor area per dwelling for EU27 is extrapolated from the weighted average floor area of dwellings of 19 countries (9 EU-15 countries and 10 new members) which represent around 85% of the total EU stock of dwellings; the weighting factor is the stock of dwellings.


Energy professionals call this the energy balance: How much energy goes in (by which sources?) and for what is this energy used?
According to this article, DEWA (Dubai Electricity and Water Authority) estimates this to be an average of 20,000 kilowatt-hours per person annually. The better your home is isolated, the longer it stays at the right temperature without turning the AC on all the time.
In case for example you forgot to turn off the light, you can see at your work by an app that some lights are still on and turn them off from remote at your work. It can be more economical to use electricity during a sunny, windy day than during a cloudy, still day.
Use the AC as much during off-peak hours, and make use of additional support of air sealing, fans and regularly clean the filters.
While the evidence is not 100% certain, it appears that we learned to use fire long enough ago that it is now  necessary for our food to be cooked. Chris Organ and others have shown that for a primate the size of humans, cooking food decreases the amount of time that must be spent chewing food from 48% of daily activity to 4.7% of daily activity.
Grains are a major agricultural crop, so cooking helped enable the transition to agriculture, around 10,000 BCE. When Homo Erectus appeared at that time, teeth and guts were smaller than in predecessor species, and brains got larger.
So outside energy for cooking food is one real need for the 7 billion people on our planet today.
Richard Wrangham in Catching Fire argues that fire allowed humans to evolve without fur, because a hairless animal can warm itself by a fire.
About 75,000 years ago, humans discovered that by heating rocks before they made tools from them, tools could be made more efficiently, and with a sharper edge (KS Brown et al, 2009). This tends to work very well, because the offspring that are best adapted to the environment tend to survive to adulthood.
In their declining years, humans often need assistance, either from their offspring or from a public pension program, or both.
Public pension programs are typically transfer programs, where toady’s taxes on working citizens pay for today’s benefits to retirees. World population was able to increase greatly, once fossil fuels started adding to food supply about 1800.
Thus, if territoriality is working properly, there is no problem with tragedy of the commons (excessive use of shared resources), because the territory selected by the male for his family group is large enough to feed the family, with much available food left over. Because individuals who do not need resources get a disproportionate share of the total, there is less for those at the bottom of the hierarchy, helping to reduce population size more quickly than if resources are shared equally. If individuals at the top hoard more of the resources, then individuals at the bottom of the hierarchy are starved out–part of survival of the fittest, that humans (including myself) find so objectionable. If nature had been allowed to run its course, the portion of the population that nature considers excess would have been starved out. External energy is needed for any kind of manufacturing (except the simplest home handicrafts, such as picking reeds and making baskets from them). That was about the same time that energy growth started ramping up over 1% as well, because of the growth in coal usage. With more goods and services available, it was possible to feed and clothe more people, so the “survival of the fittest” issue referred to above became less of a problem. Here we find that prior to 1820, about 80% of GDP growth was absorbed by population growth.
World average growth rates in population, energy, and GDP based on data of Angus Maddison (GDP and population) and Vaclav Smil (energy).
As long as the world’s population is rising, even in lesser developed countries, there is going to be a continuing need for more food, clothing and housing.
But getting large savings in this manner is not as easy as it looks, partly because an initial investment is involved, and partly because when people find that they can save money by the change, they are likely to spend the money they have saved on another product that also requires energy to make, such as taking a vacation. If it still continues to use products created by heavy industry, just importing the products rather than making the products itself, it is not at all clear that there are savings for the world as a whole. They also believe that there might be other explanations for his findings, such as greater eating of meat. Modern science is proving that we migrated all over the globe hundreds of thousands of years before there was energy other than sunlight and wind. It turns out that the United States is nearly alone in the world in reducing coal use—the leaders of countries around the world are trying to provide their citizens with more reliable, affordable energy, even as President Obama is trying to do the opposite here. Coal’s share of global primary energy consumption reached 30.1 percent, the highest since 1970. The same principles apply to your washing machine, a robot vacuum cleaner, the dishwashing machine, all your electronics etc.
Otherwise, we would need to spend half the day chewing our food, and we would not be able to do much besides gather food and eat it. Except for humans, plants and animals get all the energy they require from natural sources: from the food that they eat, or from sunshine through photosynthesis. They are not as intelligent as humans, and they mostly live in trees, so as to be able to avoid predators.
A hairless animal is at an advantage chasing animals because it can dissipate heat much more quickly, allowing a hairless animal to catch one with fur by chasing it until it drops of heat exhaustion.
They later discovered that metals could be created with the use of external heat, expanding the type of tool that could be made.
It, too, uses a lot of external energy, including metal tools (created using heat), sterilization, and medicines made from petroleum products. As changes occur, such as a change in climate, or an increase in a particular type of predator, the offspring that are most able to handle the new environment are the ones who survive. Humans have found ways to increase food supply, through the use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and refrigeration, all of which require fossil fuels.
Because of concern for their own old-age, people without pensions tend to have enough children so that there is a significant chance that a child of the right sex will survive to adulthood. If the number of retirees becomes too high relative to the number of workers, it becomes very difficult to pay a reasonable level of pension benefits to retirees. The additional people also needs jobs, and in today’s world, these jobs require external energy inputs. We have found ways around this problem, thanks to the use of fossil fuels for fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, irrigation, cultivation, and fast transport to market.
If humans live in close proximity to each other without adequate sanitary precautions, infectious diseases become a problem.
With the combination of hierarchical behavior and taxes to protect the poor, we have (from an energy demand perspective) the worst of both worlds: lots of people at the bottom of the hierarchy, who thanks to the transfer payments have the financial ability to buy goods and services made with energy products, plus we have all of the people at various distances from the top, who want to gather as much of the resources as they are able to, in an attempt to get to the top of the hierarchy. It is needed for any kind of transportation of goods or people, except walking or transport based on animal labor. Thus, if an economy grows by 1%, there are 1% more goods such as houses built and food sold, on average during that year.


Although data on energy usage is not available prior to 1820, we know from other sources that there was a gradual growth in other types of energy usage prior to that date, such as the burning of peat most, water power, wind power, and a little coal usage. Energy Growth estimates are based on estimates by Vaclav Smil in Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, and Prospects.
Services, such as financial services or the cutting of hair, can often be done with little energy input. If we compare Figure 2 with Figure 1, we can see that the spike in population coincided with the rapid rise in GDP, in the last couple of centuries. It is only since the growth in the use of fossil fuels, and especially since World War II, that rising GDP has has been far above population growth, permitting a sustained rise in standard of living. All you have to do is either (1) increase the price of that energy, so the poorer folks can’t afford it, or (2) reduce consumers’ incomes (perhaps by laying them off from work), so they can’t afford it. If we look at Figure 3, we can see that energy consumption definitely rose more rapidly in the 2000 to 2010 period than in the previous two ten-year periods.
Wrangham in a 2009 paper argues that the early date isn’t really necessary for his finding to be true; even 250,000 years ago would be sufficient for evolutionary changes to take place. They’re based on an actual confrontation between the circumstances and the very limits themselves. Coal use grew 3 percent in 2013 and was the world’s fastest growing fossil fuel, according to BP in its annual Statistical Review of World Energy. China accounted for 67 percent of global growth in coal, which provided 67.5 percent of China’s total energy demand in 2013.
Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries. You might even opt for taking a subscription of an Energy Service company, which can do this optimization for you. We don’t think of humans as having instincts, but like dogs, we have a tendency toward hierarchical behavior, and this affects our need for (or at least “want for”) external energy.
Those changing to cooked food could do more hunting, and because of this change, include more meat in the diets. The down-side of having no fur is that humans need at least some type of protection from the outside elements, especially if humans move to locations outside the tropics. Humans evolved with hands that were more dextrous than those of other animals, so being able to produce good tools gave humans an advantage over other animals. They have developed trade, so that so areas with shortfalls can benefit from surpluses elsewhere. The use of “pay-as-you go” funding reflects a reality of life: whatever goods and services are available in a given year will have to be split between retirees and the current working population. In today’s world, these are not much of a problem, because we have built water and sewer systems, and have developed antibiotics.
If an outsider is of some value to us because of goods we gain through trade, then an individual is less likely to kill the outsider when he comes into contact with him. External energy is used extensively in today’s production of food, even when produced organically.
Having more goods and services available is especially helpful if population is growing, and new members need to be fed and housed. To the extent that part of the growth in the economy is services, less than the full amount of energy is required to produce the corresponding  GDP percentage growth. He also argues that compared to chimpanzees, humans seem to be adapted for a higher-quality diet because they “exhibit higher energy use, but have reduced structures for mastication and digestion”.
How much more food, water, energy and jobs are needed to support the additional billion people added to the planet in the last 12 years?
Emerging economies accounted for 80 percent of demand growth needed to bring power to their citizens and to fuel their growing economies. The shale boom from hydraulic fracturing in the United States was largely able to offset disruptions to production elsewhere in the world. In this post, I will explain how these and other evolutionary issues relate to mankind’s need for external energy, such as wood, or gasoline, or electricity. Because of these natural mechanisms, these species have everything they need for survival, without requiring clothing or shelter, or other types of goods.
Their total number is far smaller than humans, because they need to stay in habitats to which they are adapted.
According to Wrangham, if early humans were gathered around a campfire, and a predator approached, one means of defense was to swing a fiery log at the predator.
If there are fewer workers relative to retirees, funding becomes very cumbersome for the workers. Another is religious beliefs that encourage respect for human life, and thus prevents killing of infants. A person would expect there to be a connection between the amount of energy available, and the amount of goods, such as food or new homes, produced. There may also be savings through more efficient use of energy, for example, through more energy-efficient cars, trucks, or light bulbs.
While there was some energy savings in countries that sent manufacturing overseas, the energy consumption of developing countries in Asia grew more rapidly than the energy savings, resulting in higher overall growth in world energy consumption. Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits.
The number of large primates varies by species (100,000 to 200,000 chimpanzees, about 130,000 gorillas, and fewer than 250,000 Gelada baboons according to the National Primate Research Center), but is always far fewer than the 7 billion humans in the world. Outside energy would be helpful in creating food and shelter, but not as essential as for cooking food.
A group of humans could be protected from predators overnight by having a watchman with access to burning logs stay up all night.
The financial system has also allowed investors to pay for goods after they are put into service, so that the cash flow resulting from an investment can be used (after the fact) to pay for the cost of the investment.
The availability of sufficient resources, as has mostly been the case since World War II thanks to fossil fuels, may also act to reduce territoriality. CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content.
Here again, being able to cook was helpful, because the reduced chewing time permitted more time for creating clothing and shelter.
Eventually, humans learned how to use outside energy sources to build transportation of many types: automobiles, trucks, boats, and airplanes, to make up for deficiencies in the area of self-transportation.
Global proved reserves of oil increased to 1,687.9 billion barrels at the end of 2013, almost enough to equal 50 years of global consumption at current rates.



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