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Most commonly known as freeze drying, lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a perishable or biological material. The lyophilization process is slow and can take days depending upon the samples and the freeze drying conditions.
The most common accessories that provide heat to samples when freeze-drying are heated product shelves. Many end users do not realize that when freeze-drying with flasks and manifolds, heat still enters the samples. The longest freeze dry runs will occur when the sample is placed on unheated product shelves within a chamber or placed inside the freeze dryer’s condenser. During the primary drying phase (first phase) of freezing-drying heat can be added to your sample to sublimate the water out of the sample. If you do not know the eutectic temperature, it is best to add heat slowly and observe the sample as you gradually add more heat to each subsequent run until you determine the maximum amount of heat that can be added safely to the sample. It is difficult to control the heat that is transferred to the sample when lyophilizing in flasks on a manifold. Putting a flask inside another larger flask with an air gap in between the two flasks is another way to provide insulation to limit the amount of heat that is transferred to the sample.
How a sample is frozen will not only affect the quality of the final freeze dried sample, it will also affect the length of the lyophilization process.
Spreading the sample out to increase the surface area as well as forming a thin layer of ice will speed the sublimation process.
If a shell freezer is not available, it is recommended to slant freeze samples in flasks to increase surface area as much as possible. At vacuum levels lower than .200 mbar, there are not enough molecules present in the system for good heat transfer. After all of the free water molecules are sublimated in primary drying, secondary drying begins.
New end point detection accessories are available on some models of freeze dryers to determine the end of the sublimation process for samples in flasks. By better understanding the lyophilization process and employing these suggestions, hours or even days can be saved when freeze-drying. It’s true that the SteamScrubber and FlaskScrubber are each loaded with great features and high quality construction.
The SteamScrubber operates much like a home dishwasher – water is pumped through a spray arm on the bottom of each rack and from a third spray arm mounted to the top of the washer. Thus, the SteamScrubber is best suited to wash standard laboratory equipment such as beakers, utensils, pans and other normal-shaped items found in the laboratory. The FlaskScrubber moves water through individual spindles, allowing for water to spray directly into narrow neck glassware. Additionally, the FlaskScrubber also utilizes the rack mounted and roof mounted spray arms found in the SteamScrubber washer. You can take advantage of the FlaskScrubber’s injection cleaning while simultaneously washing regular glassware items. Please log on to our NEW Glassware Washer Configurator Tool to design your own SteamScrubber or FlaskScrubber for your laboratory. Second, review the answers with a Labconco Application Specialist, and we will make the best product recommendations based upon your answers. This information is essential to determining how deep the hood needs to be to house your equipment. Applications that use extra-large equipment, such as 50-gallon drums, or applications that require equipment to be wheeled into the hood via a cart would require a floor mounted hood. These include (but are not limited to) airflow monitors, electrical outlets, compressed air, laboratory gas, vacuum and cold water fixtures.
If you do need base cabinets, do you need acid storage, solvent storage or non-chemical storage? Every fume hood needs a blower, and it is often misconceived that a blower comes attached to a fume hood. Will there be a dedicated blower (exhaust fan) for this hood, or will it connect to a central exhaust system? If you already have a blower, and it is sized appropriately, you can stop right here: Give Labconco a call and we can finalize your fume hood selection! Built-in blowers are easier to install (and therefore less expensive), but they can be noisy and they put the ductwork under positive pressure, so they should be reserved for non-hazardous applications, short duct runs and instances where a remote blower cannot be installed (such as a mobile lab). Remote blowers, though more complex to install, can be sized for the specific situation and keep the ductwork under negative pressure for safer operation.
Will the duct go directly to the roof, or does it need to make some turns before reaching the roof?
Finally, the exhaust stack should include a zero-pressure weathercap (not a gooseneck, mushroom cap or anything that would block the exhaust from discharging in a vertical, up direction), and should terminate at least 10 feet above the roofline to allow the fumes to reach the airstream and not be returned into the building’s air handling equipment. Labconco was a sponsor of the 65th Anniversary Greater Kansas City Science & Engineering Fair (GKCSEF) presented by Science City at Union Station. 95 Schools were represented this year, and the fair comprised 847 projects from 1148 student participants from across our metro.
The titles of some of the projects that were presented will give you a good indication of just how creative these young scientists and engineers can be.
Have you ever baked delicious cupcakes only to ruin them while attempting to pull them from the baking dish? UPDATE: The Kansas City Star reported on the winners, already performing cancer research in a lab outfitted with multiple Labconco Biological Safety Cabinets. As is the case with all categories of laboratory equipment, the longevity of your freeze dryer depends on how you use it (application), how often you use it (frequency of use) and how well you care for it (maintenance). While it is true that some freeze dryers continue to lyophilize effectively for decades, the average life span of a freeze dryer in today's laboratory environment is approximately 10 to 15 years. First and foremost, ensure your sample is compatible with your freeze dry system before you use the unit.
Certain acids should not be used with bare stainless steel and should only be used with PTFE models.
A low maintenance option, the scroll pump, is a new offering, which does not use oil at all.
In some cases, secondary acid or solvent traps can be used to extend the life of your vacuum pump by providing an additional barrier between the lyophilizer and the pump.
Dry ice traps are also available if you don't have the appropriate temperature differential between the eutectic temperature of your sample and the collector temperature. Last but certainly not least, make sure to change the oil in your vacuum pump every 1,000 hours (or sooner if your application warrants). Note that some pumps, such as hydrocarbon free scroll pumps, can pull a deep vacuum for freeze drying without using oil. Regardless of the sample used, you must rinse and wipe down any components that may have come into contact with chemicals to reduce the risk of damage. The vapors can then pass through the condenser and into the vacuum pump where they can do damage. Note that if a sample starts to melt back in-process, simply make adjustments so that is remains frozen or remove it from the system entirely. Overloading your freeze dryer can make sessions last longer or even cause them to be wholly unsuccessful. The instantaneous load capacity rating is the quantity of vapor a freeze dryer can accommodate at one time.
When freeze drying multiple, large volumes, make sure the condenser temperature does not rise shortly after the sample is loaded.
This article talks about a few things labs can be mindful of in order to keep their bills in check, including a special shout-out to Labconco for the Intelli-Sense Multi Speed Blower. So instead of going with rules of thumb, check out how laboratory equipment can work towards real energy efficiency.
A vacuum atmosphere in the concentrator lowers the pressure level so that evaporation will occur at low temperatures and the samples will not be damaged from heat. Cold traps are needed to create a closed system, meaning all of the solvents that are being evaporated are collected in the cold trap.
If a rotary vane (oil) vacuum pump is being used with the concentrator, a cold trap is required to protect the vacuum pump by collecting the liquids and vapors before they reach the vacuum pump.
If the lab would like to lyophilize in addition to concentration then a cold trap is needed as well as a vacuum pump that can produce a sufficient, deep vacuum. If a cold trap is not being used when concentrating large volumes a glass trap should be inline before the vacuum pump to collect any liquids that are condensing in the vacuum tubing before they reach the vacuum pump.
Labconco offers an extensive selection of centrifugal concentrators with each model designed for specific applications.
During the development of the Protector Echo Filtered Fume Hood, the design engineers decided to challenge the Echo with not one, but four different third-party containment tests. Why?
It’s simple, really - to ensure containment was going to live up to the Labconco standard. Instead, it is a filtering fume hood that will filter out the contaminated air and exhaust the clean air into the laboratory, making it very energy efficient.
It was designed with superior containment in mind, using all of Labconco’s highly engineered high performance fume hood features. All of the features that make Labconco’s ducted fume hoods effective provide the same protection on the Protector Echo.
During independent testing*, the Protector Echo Hood was challenged well beyond the SEFA-1† standards.
The Echo was subjected to both the standard ASHRAE 110 test using Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas test while attached to a canopy, as well as the modified ASHRAE 110 test with no canopy connection, using Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) to replace the SF6. And to go above and beyond, the NIH protocol was used – which means that during the test with a canopy, the SF6 release rate was increased to six liters versus four liters per minute in the standard ASHRAE 110 test, the hood was filled with paint cans and boxes and rapid walk-bys were incorporated. In all scenarios, the Protector Echo allowed 0.00 ppm average level of tracer gas outside the fume hood. This allows us to conclude that for those customers who cannot duct out of their building, or for those who want to save on energy costs and use filtered fume hoods in lieu of or alongside ducted fume hoods, this enclosure will present a safe alternative. Safety in the workplace is important regardless where you clock in every day, but it's especially important to master when your professional environment regularly contains hazardous particulates, harmful chemical vapors or radionuclides.
Even basic microbiological work has some associated risks, as oftentimes it is not only necessary to protect the person sitting at the face of the cabinet but the science taking place inside on the work surface. That just scratches the surface, so we decided to dig a little deeper and get the input of an outside industry expert to talk about the true meaning of creating a culture of safety for biosafety in laboratories and how that relates to leadership. He has testified in front of Congress about infectious diseases and, in 2014, prepared the clinical staff at Emory Healthcare to respond to the first cases of Ebola on American soil. What type of connection does your science require—are we talking recirculated A2 or thimble connected A2?
From a big picture perspective, we look to make sure the cabinet is certified, it is functioning properly and it passes a smoke test. The risk assessment list goes on and on, but having effective, tested and validated SOPs is critical throughout the life of the cabinet.
These technicians are dealing with long hours at the bench, and you have to consider posture, arm position and a number of other behaviors that can affect how safe the work actually is. Adequate preparedness is critical in the workforce, and that's a leadership responsibility.
Q: Can you explain in greater depth the role of ideal leadership in the laboratory and how that relates to safety? Guidelines and policies bring us together, but being together and doing together are very different things.
Sean Kaufman spoke before Congress on safety in the laboratory as it pertains to the anthrax incident of June 2014 at the Center for Disease Control.
For more of what Sean has to say about the importance of biosafety cabinet ergonomics, energy savings and efficiency access his latest webinar. You know that your process will require an evaporator, but how do you decide which one is right for your application? The volume of your sample will be an important factor in determining the evaporator that will accommodate your requirements.
The number of samples that you need to evaporate at one time will determine which evaporator is most appropriate for your application. The condition or state of the final sample is a definite determinate of which evaporator is the best solution for your samples. When it comes to selecting a vacuum pump there are a number of options for choosing the best pump for your application.
There are four main types commonly used in laboratories for freeze drying (lyophilization), evaporation and concentration. Traditional Rotary Vane (RV) Vacuum Pumps are often used because they can have a lower up-front cost, are smaller than other types, and can be used with multiple applications. Any solvents that are not trapped or recovered before they enter the RV vacuum pump can condense in the pump oil and damage the inside of the pump. Rotary Vane vacuum pumps reach deep ultimate vacuum levels and have high displacement capacity.
Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that operate using a pulsing motion that opens and closes valves to move air. While they can have a higher up-front cost, they do not use any oil so operation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than pumps that require oil.
Ultimate vacuum levels of these pumps are not extremely deep and displacement capacities are much lower than other types of vacuum pumps.
Combination Vacuum Pumps, also known as Hybrid Vacuum Pumps, have both a Rotary Vane and Diaphragm pump together in the same vacuum pump. So while there may be a higher up-front cost than an RV pump, the operation costs are lowered as less replacement oil is needed and less time is lost changing the oil. Combination pumps are recommended for freeze drying corrosive or volatile samples as they can be used with acidic samples and those containing harsh chemicals such as TFA, acetonitrile, HBe and Nitric acid.
Scroll Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that use two spiral scrolls to compress air and vapors and move them toward the exhaust.
Because the scrolls are made of metal, even on chemical- or corrosion-resistant models, only samples with acids below 20% are recommended. Scroll pumps are recommended for freeze drying as they can be used with aqueous and solvent samples including acetonitrile.
No matter what type of pump you’re using, one of the most important things to remember about vacuum pumps is that whatever goes in the pump will come out! Labconco offers multiple vacuum pump options and many vacuum pump accessories including the new Scroll Pumps. A Type B2 BSC experiencing a remote exhaust failure can pressurize the work zone, pushing contaminated air into the laboratory. An A2 can be ducted to handle odors and non-hazardous chemistry and it is easily adapted to exhaust systems. Type A and Type B BSCs cannot be retrofitted, altered or otherwise made into the other type of cabinet.
This information is provided to educate and inform life science and biosafety laboratories about their new options in selecting Class II BSCs for varying applications and operations.
The Active Protection Protocol engages only in emergency building exhaust system failures and provides safety to the BSC operator while they complete their emergency shut down procedures. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSC must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. During a remote exhaust failure the Axiom can protect an operator for up to 5 minutes while they complete shutdown procedures and secure their laboratory assets. MISINFORMATION: In regard to ventilation, laboratory building requirements today cannot be easily altered. TRUTH: Scientific laboratories and their mechanical systems are specifically designed to handle changes in laboratory airflow volumes and pressures.
FABRICATION: In laboratory design, the ventilation requirements for both supply and exhaust are calculated for pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load. TRUTH: The balance of a scientific laboratory is based on pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load in accordance with ASHRAE requirements. Even simple VAV systems can automatically adjust for this change based on programmable pressures, and even simpler versions are controlled using a PC interface program.
Moreover, it allows facility and laboratory management to maximize the usefulness of their existing laboratory space, eliminating the need to operate both Type A and B BSCs for varying or alternating uses. The Axiom can be tied into almost any existing appropriate building exhaust system (with sufficient CFM reserve).
MYTH: The inlet relief valve opens in the event that the building exhaust system pulls too much air through the BSC. Air is not pulled through a Type C1 by the exhaust system, conversely the exhaust system on a Type B BSC is required to pull air through the BSC. BENEFITS: Acting like a shock absorber, the inlet relief valve is an adaptive technology that balances and maintains negative pressure by allowing a small volume of room air to bleed into the transition plenum.
The inlet relief valve is part of the system that allows the Axiom to operate in either an A-mode or B-mode and makes it flexible enough to work on most building exhaust systems with sufficient CFM capacity in reserve. TRUTH: During building exhaust failures, both Class II Type A and Type C BSCs positively pressurize ductwork. A Type C BSC, such as the Axiom, prevents this positive pressurization from lasting longer than 300 seconds (or 5 minutes); limiting exposure to hazardous chemical vapors.
BENEFITS: Existing Standards and equipment manufacturers all agree, positively pressurizing chemically contaminated ductwork under normal operation is not recommended. The Active Protection Protocol that positively pressurizes duct work is an emergency response mode – not an operational mode.
If a facility wishes to not have their ductwork positively pressurized, then the program can be set to operate for zero seconds. MYTH: Cleanability at the grille, work surface and sump under the work surface is negatively impacted with the additional plenum in comparison to traditional BSCs with one large work surface and no obstacles underneath. BENEFITS: The plenum under the Chem-Zone can easily be removed for cleaning by using the lift knob. Yes, the Axiom uses paired internal exhaust and supply blowers to provide proper inflow, down flow and positively pressurized exhaust that is similar to a Class II Type A2; therefore, it can be used as a room recirculating BSC. FABRICATION: Since the Axiom has an internal exhaust motor blower, there is risk of fire or explosion when using vapor forming volatile chemistry inside the BSC. The Type B cabinets that are suggested to be safer for use with volatile chemical vapors have electrical outlets on the BSC interior, at the source of evaporation, where air is moving at a much slower rate. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSCs must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds.
TRUTH: With all applications handling hazardous materials a risk assessment must be completed. BENEFITS: Before the Axiom, selecting Biosafety Cabinets followed this risk assessment process of determining the difference between hazardous chemicals and hazardous chemistry. If a laboratory is using chemistry of any reasonable level with its microbiology now or in the future, the C1 should be selected. FABRICATION: The unique recessed area in the center may restrict the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC that require a flat work surface. The donation, which took place on May 12 in Beijing, includes shoes, hats and apparel, which will be used to expand the foundation's inventory for disaster prevention, to be better prepared for when disaster occurs. Nearly 400 stores and logistics and distribution centers of Wal-Mart participated in the donation, offering shoes, hats and clothing, a total of 252,838 pieces. Wal-Mart's logistics and distribution centers will also participate in the transfer and delivery of the materials.
To alleviate the loss caused by the natural disasters, the government has carried out immense activities on disaster prevention and alleviation.
Since the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, it has set May 12 as the National Disaster Prevention and Alleviation Day. In addition, Wal-Mart is also working on efforts to improve communities' disaster prevention capacities, he said.
Liu Wenkun, secretary-general of the China Foundation of Poverty Alleviation, said in the past few years the foundation had collaborated with corporations with a strong sense of social responsibility to carry out disaster prevention and alleviation work. The first is: Women's economic independence, especially in rural China, including measures to upgrade women skills through training and encourage their businesses to gain access to Wal-Mart's sourcing system. The second area is nutrition and food safety for children and the third is community and sustainability involving disaster prevention and alleviation, energy preservation and volunteering. The company, which also prepares students for entrance exams for overseas universities and offers English-language testing training courses, has provided 500,000 yuan ($76,300) in funding to the China Youth Development Foundation, and the two will work together on delivering the training. Many rural communities still lack qualified English teachers, and the skill levels that do exist among staff have often fallen well behind those in the country's major cities. The Youth Development Foundation is the founder of Project Hope, one of the country's most successful charities that has made a difference to the lives of students from impoverished families for more than 20 years. Since 2002, most rural primary schools in China started to launch English courses, and the government requires students of third grade and above to take English lessons. Lan Chen, a student now at the Beijing Dandelion Migrant Workers' Children School, said her English was weak, after she entered the middle school.
During the first round of training, 30 children from the primary school affiliated to Tsinghua University, one of the top-performing primary schools in the country, trained with internationally acclaimed consultant and adidas AG soccer trainer Tom Byer.
Byer guided the children to improve their skills based on the soccer curriculum application of adidas, the German sportswear giant. Originally from New York, Byer's 20-year career nurturing the talent of more than 500,000 children has led him to become one of Asia's best-known and highly respected youth soccer coaches. Top coaches from AFC Ajax's Youth Academy then took over for an intensive training session, providing the children with a rare opportunity to experience the academy's world-class coaching, along with 50 observing PE teachers from Haidian district. They all got the opportunity to interact with star players from the team, including Jasper Cillessen, Amin Younes, Kenny Tete, Jairo Riedewald and Donny van de Beek, who shared tips on technique as well as advice on pursuing a career in professional soccer. China has set out a goal to develop 50,000 schools with mandatory soccer curricula by 2025.
Under adidas' three-year agreement with the MOE, the firm aims to deliver its dedicated grassroots soccer programs targeting both young players and trainers to a total of 20,000 schools and 30 million individuals nationwide. A delegation from Zoo Coffee, a South Korean chain brand of Zoo Holdings Group, visited Sichuan Longqiao Black Bear Rescue Center on May 19, to sign a memorandum of understanding with the Animals Asia Foundation, marking the official establishment of the moon bear protection project.
Supported by the Third Guangzhou Venture Philanthropy Project for Social Organizations, Chinese fast-food chain brand Real Kungfu and Guangzhou Volunteers' Union jointly launched a public service project in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, on Saturday. Vipshop, an online discount retailer, together with its Step for Love application, held a charity run event in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, on May 20. Shanghai Bright Dairy & Food Co Ltd and the Shanghai Charity Foundation has held a charity donation ceremony called Focus on Food Safety, at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Derek Aberle, president of Qualcomm Inc, said on Wednesday the mobile chip giant is dedicated to long-term investments in China to expand its server chip business, as the country's Internet Plus initiative is fueling an explosive growth of internet data centers. Aberle's comments came as the US company unveiled a new investment arm, Qualcomm (China) Holding Co Ltd, in Guiyang, capital of Guizhou province, to better tap into opportunities in areas such as the internet of things. Earlier this year, Qualcomm formed a 1.85-billion-yuan ($280 million) joint venture with the Guizhou provincial government, as part of its efforts to build up presence in the server chip sector, which is now dominated by Intel Corp. But five years later, the joint venture, Guizhou Huaxintong Semiconductor Technology Co, will be "one of our biggest growth engines (in China)", he added.
Qualcomm is now working hard to seek future growth points as its major revenue source - chips used in smartphones and tablets - is being affected by the slower growth rate of the global smartphone market. But as China intensifies its efforts to upgrade its traditional industries with information technologies, a large number of internet data centers have mushroomed, triggering a huge demand for server chips.
Roger Sheng, a senior analyst at research firm Gartner Inc, said it remains to be seen how Guizhou Huaxintong can help Qualcomm break into the Chinese server chip market, where the mobile chip heavyweight has limited experience.
Qualcomm is building server chips based on the ARM architecture, a chip design that is widely used in smartphones and tablets. But according to Aberle, the company's scale and power with the mobile chip business can give it an edge in the server chip market. Qualcomm also sees big potential for the internet of things, which the company said a lot of technologies it has already developed in mobile chips can be applicable to.
The company is working with Chinese companies such as Haier Group and Midea Group Co to make home appliances better compatible with each other across the smart home ecosystem. The new company, named Guizhou YottaCloud Technologies Co Ltd, was unveiled as Michael Dell, CEO and chairman of Dell, attended the ongoing China Big Data Industry Summit in Guiyang, capital of Guizhou province. Huang Chenhong, president of Dell Greater China, said Guizhou YottaCloud will be one of the vehicles for the company to sell cloud services to small and medium-sized enterprises and local governments. Guizhou Wing Cloud High Technology, the owner of Guizhou YottaCloud Technology, has been working with Dell in cloud services since last year.
Dell is the latest foreign tech giant that is seeking for local partnerships to tap into China's IT market as local governments and State-owned enterprises are in favor of homegrown tech companies' products and services amid concern over national security. Kitty Fok, director of International Data Corp China, said the biggest overseas giants have all tied up with local companies, especially State-owned enterprises. Last year, the company promised to invest $125 billion in China over the next five years to boost innovation, research and development, and other areas.
E-commerce companies have been given a one-year buffer period to rethink their cross-border strategies, after the government released new regulations, which ease controls introduced in April on certain imported goods sold online. The country's customs authority said it will continue to allow the direct import of cosmetics, baby formula, medical equipment and healthcare-related food in 10 pilot cities, without permission, or the filing of special applications. Companies have been told they have until May 11, 2017 to bring imported goods into bonded warehouses in the cities - including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Zhengzhou, Guangzhou and Shenzhen - without having to complete customs clearance forms originally required from early April on cross-border e-commerce activities.


Lu Zhenwang, an e-commerce expert and chief executive officer of Shanghai-based Wanqing Consultancy, said the April regulation required e-commerce companies to obtain certificates first in order to get their goods through customs, but that had already led to a fall in import volumes. But the new regulation now gives them effectively a one-year window to rethink their procedures and plan well ahead, said Lu. China started levying taxes immediately on retail sales on cross-border e-commerce platforms in early April, as well as placing stricter regulations on gaining import permits for goods sold online. The aim was to create a more level-playing field, said officials, for e-commerce platforms and traditional retailers and importers. The regulations, however, triggered mixed reactions among buyers and sellers, with many simply expecting prices of imported goods sold online to be driven higher, resulting in a fall in sales.
Gao Hongbin, head of AliResearch, a think tank affiliated with Alibaba Group Holding Ltd, said cross-border e-commerce is not a realistic competitor to traditional importers.
The launch of its Nanchang Wanda City looks perfectly timed by the company's ambitious founder, billionaire Wang Jianlin, to take at least some of the thunder from its biggest potential rival. On June 16, the gates are due to be thrown open to what is arguably the country's most-anticipated park ever, Disneyland Shanghai, the US entertainment giant's first venture on the mainland.
According to the Chinese Tourism Academy, total domestic tourism revenue last year soared to 4 trillion yuan ($616 billion), about 230 billion yuan of which was generated by theme parks.
Wang and his property conglomerate have ambitious entertainment plans right across the country, and have spared no effort in telling the Chinese public where they will be able to find the most fun, at the right price. In recent months, Wanda's top management have also been equally bullish, insisting its venues will beat Disney hands down in terms of visitor numbers and total revenue once it has rolled out what could eventually be as many as 20 Wanda Cities nationwide. Ben Cavender, the principal of China Market Research Group, however, is rather more balanced in his predictions for the market. A ticket to the first Wanda City outdoor theme park in Jiangxi's capital Nanchang costs 198 yuan during the week and 248 at weekends and holidays, compared with Disney's 370 yuan, and 499 on corresponding days.
Liu Mingsheng, Wanda's spokesman, said its ticket prices have been calculated based on its investment at the site: Nanchang Wanda City cost 20 billion yuan, compared with 34 billion yuan for Disneyland Shanghai. US theme parks giant Universal Studios Inc also plans to open a flagship site in Beijing, but most of Wanda's complexes are in cheaper second-tier cities, helping the company build more in the future. After Nanchang, Hefei Wanda City in the capital of Anhui province is expected to open in September, and there are five others already under construction in Harbin in Heilongjiang province, Guangzhou in Guangdong, Wuxi in Jiangsu, Chengdu in Sichuan and Guilin in the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. Lynn Xu, senior vice-president at Nielsen Greater China, is predicting massive growth and potential in years to come for theme parks, particularly in third-tier cities and rural areas, where competition will be far less fierce than in big population centers such as Beijing and Shanghai.
We share and discuss news topics and send out news updates to a panel set up via WeChat, the instant messaging application by Tencent Holdings Ltd. At rough count, the number of group panels I am involved with on WeChat is at least 20 of the most active groups I need to check out frequently throughout the day, including 10 for business, five for family and five for friends and classmates. Social media allow you to work away from the office, no matter where you are; it also keeps the working clock ticking on a rolling 24-7 basis, whether during office hours or not. Besides those groups, our tech-savvy generation also creates numerous news groups at any time, whenever new story topics and plans pop out.
Actually, almost all the reporting tasks are assigned via WeChat and a majority of working group discussions, daily news budget postings and office notice releases are realized on WeChat.
According to Bloomberg, WeChat had 762.4 million monthly active users at the end of the first quarter of 2016. One in four users check WeChat at least 30 times per day, while more than half check it out over 10 times a day, according to a report by Tencent.
The more active users, the easier it is for the social media to charge better rates from its advertisers and expand its channels to be profitable. Sometimes I think: are people really better-off and happier with the ever deeper and wider penetration of social media like WeChat? But four years ago my parents started using iPhones and opened WeChat accounts, and now we rarely call each other. We do contact each other much more frequently, but the exchanges have become more superficial. Frankly, I need to think twice about whether social media have become a productivity booster or a productivity killer? China may open up its commodities futures market to overseas and financial investors, the country's securities regulator said, as the world's top consumer of many raw materials seeks to play a larger role in setting global commodities prices. Rising demand from China helped offset falling dairy prices and keep New Zealand's trade in surplus last month, according to the government statistics agency Statistics New Zealand. Inner Mongolia autonomous region, the country's second-largest coal-producing area, saw a 16.8 percent decline in coal output in the first four months of the year, as it pushed forward the supply-side reform.
Chinese sports brand Peak Sport Products Co Ltd said its controlling shareholder, investment firm Ever Sound Development Ltd, is considering plans to take the company private and delist from the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
BTS Group, which runs the Skystrain in Bangkok, has signed a contract to buy 24 trains from CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles Ltd and another 22 trains from Siemens AG, according to media reports.
Enactus, a global NGO whose mission is to create young entrepreneurs in developing countries, hosted the 2016 Enactus National Competition for China in Shanghai. South Korea's foreign debt position improved in the first quarter due to falling national debts and higher lending to overseas players, central bank data showed on Wednesday.
The Singaporean economy grew 1.8 percent on a year-on-year basis in the first quarter, unchanged from the previously preliminary estimates released in April. Struggling Australian dairy farmers have been given a $430-million lifeline, after the agriculture minister announced a financial package to bail out debt-ridden owners. Oil prices ended higher on Tuesday as investors awaited the closely watched US government data due out later this week, which is projected to show the country's crude inventories declined. Laos is expected to maintain economic growth of some 7 percent in 2016, the same rate that helped it boast one of the fastest-growing economies in the East Asia and Pacific region last year, according to the World Bank. A total of 21 examples of UK-China cooperation, in 10 countries with projects worth more than $27 billion, feature in a report jointly released in Beijing by the China-Britain Business Council and Tsinghua University on Wednesday.
The report includes case studies from some of the UK's most renowned companies such as HSBC Holdings Ltd, BP Plc, LME Ltd, Linklaters and KPMG, with the aim to encourage more British-Chinese partnerships on the enormous China-proposed Belt and Road Initiative.
Around two-thirds of the world's population live in the countries that are linked by the Belt and Road Initiative. Lord Sassoon, chairman of the CBBC, said that Sino-UK companies' partnerships fall into three major categories - UK and Chinese firms jointly working on projects in third-country markets, Chinese firms using the UK as a platform for servicing projects in third-country markets, and UK firms providing professional advice or services to Chinese firms operating in unfamiliar, often risky, business environments.
Chinese enterprises are experienced in building infrastructure, while entering unfamiliar, challenging and often risky business and geographical environments plays well to the expertise of UK firms, according to Giles Blackburne, editor of the report and CBBC executive director. The case study report demonstrates powerful partnerships between British and Chinese companies that play to their unique strengths.
It is vital that lessons are learned about regulatory, commercial and cultural differences while developing projects along the Belt and Road Initiative to make sure the demands of both parties are coordinated, Fang added. The developer that bought Hollywood studio Legendary Entertainment is preparing to fight The Walt Disney Co to lead China's - and possibly the world's - theme park industry. Wanda Group and its billionaire founder Wang Jianlin is inaugurating a sprawling entertainment complex on Saturday, three weeks before the June 16 opening of Disney's first Chinese mainland park in Shanghai. Wanda's 20 billion-yuan ($3 billion) site in the city of Nanchang, capital of Jiangxi province, has an outdoor theme park and teacup-shaped buildings that house a shopping mall, cinemas, restaurants, a film park and the world's largest ocean park.
Wanda has lots cash and a huge home market, but lacks Disney's brand power and decades of theme park experience.
Publicly laying down a challenge, Wang said on Sunday he plans to "overtake Disney" as the biggest global tourism company by 2020. Wang's boldness is a sign of China's growing cultural confidence after three decades of explosive economic growth.
The battle of the theme parks also demonstrates the growing importance of China's public, which has quickly evolved into one of the most important consumer markets.
The government is in the midst of a marathon effort to nurture self-sustaining economic growth by encouraging consumer spending to reduce reliance on trade and investment. Wanda already has three theme park resorts in China that also include other facilities such as shopping malls, theaters and a ski resort. Wanda boasts its "multiple-business model" of rides, film, culture and shopping is an advance over Disney's more narrowly focused entertainment.
Wanda signed a deal in February with French retailer Auchan Group to develop a 3-billion-euro ($3.4 billion) project called EuropaCity adjacent to Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris. Both EuropaCity and Shanghai Disneyland have attracted attention from leaders in France and China, reflecting the huge scale of their investment and hopes for tourism to drive economic growth.
Wang met French President Francois Hollande to discuss the 80-hectare project in Paris, which is due to have a theme park, hotels and a conference center.
Wang has said that path follows the transformation of China's economy from one reliant on investment in factories and housing to a consumer market fueled by sales of clothes, entertainment and other goods. This year, the company acquired Legendary Entertainment, maker of the Batman trilogy, for $3.5 billion, becoming the first Chinese company to control a major US film studio. Apart from investing in nonstandardized debt assets, commercial banks could bring their groups' advantages into full play by developing a comprehensive set of business. This could include insurance, leasing and investment banking, and exploring other types of wealth management products in the areas of equities, acquisitions and asset-backed securitization, said Yang Zhiyu, deputy head of the asset management department of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Ltd. Yang told a recent industry forum in Guangzhou that China should also speed up the transformation of its wealth management sector by turning it from being mostly focused nationwide, to being more into global asset allocation. At present, only 5 percent of the assets of high-net-worth individuals in China are allocated overseas, compared with the global average of 24 percent.
Pan Dong, deputy head of asset management at China Everbright Bank Co Ltd, agreed with Yang that the proportion of overseas asset allocation was too small in China, which was unreasonable in terms of asset allocation and the fact that the renminbi was depreciating against the dollar. Yang Zaiping, executive vice-president of the China Banking Association, said commercial banks faced big challenges they had not experienced before in terms of their wealth management business.
After China has fully liberalized its interest rates, he said, more than one-third of the banking sector's wealth management products - offering market-based interest rates that used to be higher than deposit rates - will lose their appeal to clients. Furthermore, as China is undergoing a process of deleveraging and a reduction of excess capacity in industry amid an economic slowdown, investment returns in the real economy were falling, while financial risks were on the rise.
He said this has led to a drop in average rates of return for banks' wealth management products from 6 percent to around 3 percent.
Two Chinese companies - Shanghai-based brokerage and financial services provider Everbright Securities Co and Beijing-based internet entertainment and technology group Beijing Baofeng Technology Co - have bought a 65 percent stake in MP & Silva Ltd, one of world's largest sports program distributors. MP & Silva distributes sports programming to more than 200 broadcasters in 215 countries, including English Premier League soccer and Formula One racing.
Baofeng Technology said on Wednesday the acquisition, for an undisclosed amount, was made through it and Everbright's jointly owned investment fund Shanghai Jinxin Investment Advisory Partnership.
Their 10-billion-yuan ($1.525 billion) Shanghai-headquartered fund invests in culture, the internet, sports, education and several other sectors, according to its prospectus.
MP & Silva said in a separate statement that it and Baofeng Technology plan to cooperate in the management of sports media rights, as well as on sponsorships and consulting services. Analysts said the acquisition deal would provide a boost to the media company's global growth, boost Everbright's profits from the growing sports sector and help with Baofeng Technology's efforts to develop content diversity. Private equity and venture capital funds as well as some of China's A-share listed companies have all been investing heavily in the sport sector in the past months, making it of the most popular industries in the capital market, said Zhongtai Securities Co in a research note. MP & Silva CEO Marco Auletta said the deal come after a competitive sales process involving lots of interest from international companies and private equity funds, according to Reuters.
Auletta added that Everbright and Baofeng Technology had emerged as the right partners to support his group's international growth and help it expand into areas such as virtual reality, where Baofeng Technology was a key player in China. Everbright Securities CEO Xue Feng said he hoped Baofeng Technology and MP & Silva will jointly develop business in the mainland market and enjoy the opportunities brought by the fast growth of the sport sector in China.
Larry Feng, CEO of Baofeng Technology's, said MP & Silva was a well-known player in the market and had long-standing partnerships with some of the most important rights-holders and broadcasters and other content distributors in the world. Bayern Munich's fans cheer with a mock-up of the trophy prior to the UEFA Champions League semifinals, second-leg match between FC Bayern Munich and Atletico Madrid in Munich, Germany, on May 3. The regulator is likely to announce the policy by the end of this month, media reported on Tuesday. The rules will divide the NEEQ market, better known as the New Third Board, into two segments - the innovative market and the basic market.
The China Securities Regulatory Commission issued a draft regulation in March to solicit public opinion. The division will be based on a set of indicators of financial performance and shareholding structure of the listed companies, to ensure the relevant regulation is appropriately applied to them.
Analysts said the much-anticipated market division will allow the board to meet the different financing needs of companies, improve regulatory efficiency and reduce the cost of information collection for investors.
They said it also highlighted the urgency to better regulate the NEEQ market, which has seen explosive growth in the number of listed companies since its establishment in 2012. The NEEQ market, which serves as a financing platform for startups, had attracted 7,357 companies as of Wednesday with a total market capitalization of 2.9 trillion yuan ($440 billion). The number of listed companies was more than the combined amount on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges. Sources from securities firms told China Daily that there is high probability the regulator will roll out the final rules by the end of this month and will be officially adopted in early June. But details about the revision of the draft rules remain unclear, according to the sources.
A press official at the NEEQ market, however, said that final rules were ready but the date to announce them has not yet been decided.
Hong Kong stocks joined a global rally after US equities climbed amid speculation the US economy can tolerate higher borrowing costs, as odds increase the Federal Reserve will tighten policy this summer. Hong Kong stock gains were "driven by short covering after US new-home sales data greatly exceeded estimates", said Hao Hong, chief China strategist at Bocom International Holdings Co in Hong Kong. Energy companies rallied the most in Hong Kong, with China Shenhua Energy Co gaining 6.1 percent after the Economic Information Daily reported China's four biggest coal producers may consider a price increase in June. Three Squirrels is an "asset-light company" - no bricks-and-mortar outlets, no investment in growing nuts itself.
Zhou Ting, chief financial officer of the Anhui-based company, attributed the company's success to "a group of right people doing the right thing at the right time". Three Squirrels is among the emerging group of hundreds of online merchants and internet brands that are looking for funds for expansion. Like Three Squirrels, most of them do not own any factories nor employ production line workers. Their strength is their deep understanding of Chinese online shopping behavior and e-commerce, which helps them to outperform many of the bricks-and-mortar leaders in an incredibly short period of time.
To be sure, there are 44 public companies in China that are involved in businesses related to e-commerce.
According to China's e-commerce giant Alibaba, nearly 100 merchants on its online marketplaces have plans to go public. Guo Jia, chief executive officer of Mayn, a firm in Hubei province that assembles personal computers as per its customers' specifications, said after four years of growth in China, annual sales are projected to reach 3.5 billion yuan this year. Mayn is popular among video game fanatics who make enormous performance demands on their PCs. So, Mayn plans to list first on the New Third Board - the National Equities Exchange and Quotations - that has fewer regulatory hurdles than mainstream bourses. Later, Mayn will turn to ChiNext, China's Nasdaq-style board for tech companies and startups. Thankfully for firms such as Taotall and Mayn, equity investors regard e-commerce stocks as darlings. According to financial data provider Wind Information, the average price-to-earnings ratio for e-commerce-related stocks on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange was 142 times by the end of April, compared with 46 times for all stocks listed on it.
To help IPO-minded online merchants wade through legal and procedural waters, Alibaba set up a special department in March.
Earlier this month, Alibaba led a delegation of executives from 50 online merchants to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange on which most of China's tech stocks are listed. Alibaba's IPO in New York in September 2014 was the world's largest, raising more than $25 billion.
But the IPO aspirants will find the going a lot tougher than that, in spite of their boundless enthusiasm and energy.
Huang Song, a professor at Peking University's Financial and Industrial Development Institute, said there is no roadmap for such firms to follow, which means an online merchant's journey toward an IPO could be bumpy.
Many of online retailors rely on external online marketplaces such as Tmall from the Alibaba stable, product suppliers and manufacturers. Such high risks and hurdles, however, are not dampening the spirits of float-seeking online merchants. The Shandong-based e-commerce company, which has seen its annual sales surge from 3 million yuan ($458,100) in 2008 to 1.26 billion yuan in 2015, is a living legend, so to speak, in China's online shopping world. From fashion-conscious teenage girls to discerning women in their 50s, all love to shop on Handu. Jia, who is in charge of building Ebrandpark, an internet startup incubator under Handu, said the goal is to nurture 50 internet brands that can notch up annual sales of tens of millions yuan each.
Handu has also built up a very strong supply chain, which can produce clothes within 10 days of receiving orders online. SF Express, one of China's largest courier firms, is planning the reverse takeover of a rare-earth metals company, which will allow it a backdoor listing on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange.
The move came to light within a regulatory filing to the Shenzhen exchange by Maanshan Dingtai Rare Earth & New Materials Ltd, a little known Anhui-headquartered operation, and involves an asset swap and issuance of new shares. SF Holdings, parent of SF Express, is named as the buyer, in what is described in the document as a plan to attract investors to fund its overseas expansion plans. If the deal is approved by the China Securities Regulatory Commission, Dingtai will officially acquire SF Express, with the purchase funded by issuing new shares to the courier company. Dingtai will be converted into a logistic company, controlled by SF Express Chairman and founder Wang Wei, according to the filing. The filing describes the value as "reasonable", considering SF Express' current business model, market share and other performances indicators. SF Holdings is known to be backed by leading private equity players including CITIC Capital Holding Ltd, Oriza Holdings, China Merchants Group and Jade Capital.
Shares in its intended shell company have been suspended from trading since April 5, according to the filing. According to a research note by Minsheng Securities Co, SF Express is well ahead of its rivals in terms its infrastructure, talent pool, management model and most importantly, business model. The logistics company is also expanding into other areas, such as payment and supply chain management, Minsheng said.
His comments came as the Taiwan authorities were reported to have begun reviewing the Beijing-based firm's proposals to buy stakes worth nearly $1 billion in two Taiwan chip packaging and testing firms.
Zhao Weiguo, the Unigroup chairman, said: "No matter who is the leader of Taiwan, there is always a desire there for development. The State-owned firm revealed last year it was investing $365 million in ChipMOS Technologies Inc, and around $600 million in Powertech Technology Inc, for 25 percent stakes in each. The deals would make Unigroup the largest shareholder in Powertech and second largest in ChipMOS.
But both have been cast into doubt after Taiwan's new leader Tsai Ing-wen was inaugurated on Friday. Unigroup has said it plans to spend 300 billion yuan ($47 billion) over the next five years on research and development of chip technologies as well as acquisitions, in a bid to become one of the world's top-three chipmakers, which will put it on a par with global giants such as Intel Corp, Qualcomm Inc and Samsung Electronics Co.
The intensified efforts to boost its chip-related resources come as the mainland seeks to reduce its reliance on imported technology, amid worries that it posed a risk to national security.
Roger Sheng, a senior analyst at research firm Gartner Inc, currently on a business trip to Taiwan, said it has become increasingly difficult for mainland firms to acquire or invest in Taiwan firms since Tsai took office. Raw materials have been on a tumultuous ride this year after tentative signs of a demand revival in China ignited a firestorm of speculation. Chinese manufacturing gauges and trade figures have also missed predictions, while a high-profile warning by the People's Daily about elevated levels of debt have damped hopes for more easing.
Gauges of materials and telecom companies in the CSI 300 slid at least 1 percent for the steepest losses among 10 industry groups.
German software company SAP SE is seeing big growth opportunities from China's e-commerce boom and its partnership with Alibaba Group Holding Ltd, said Mark Gibbs, president of the software giant's Greater China region, on Tuesday. Gibbs' comments came after SAP Greater China delivered a strong financial performance in the first quarter of 2016, defying the country's economic slowdown.
As China beefs up efforts to upgrade its traditional industries with cutting-edge information technology and tech-savvy manufacturing, SAP will see more robust growth here, Gibbs said. SAP partnered with Alibaba Cloud last month to help local businesses accelerate digital transformation. In the first quarter of 2016, SAP's China branch recorded double-digit growth in its software revenue and triple-digit growth in its cloud business. In China, more than 75 percent of the company's customers are small and medium-sized enterprises, while more than 50 percent of China's leading State-owned firms are also using the company's service.
SAP also has a product for small and mid-sized businesses called SAP Anywhere, which was innovated in China.
China's cloud-computing market is still in its infancy, but it is starting to get crowded, with players including international heavyweights Microsoft Corp, and homegrown internet companies like Alibaba and Tencent Holdings Ltd.
Vincent Fu, an analyst at Gartner Inc, said traditional software vendors such as Microsoft and SAP are eager to evolve into a service provider by boosting their cloud computing capabilities. Executive board members of SAP SE pose before the company's annual general meeting in Mannheim, Germany, last year.
The report, released by Inmarsat, a London-based leading provider of global satellite communication services, involved a survey of more than 9,000 passengers worldwide who took a flight last year, and carried at least one personal electronic devices onboard.
Chinese passengers are very likely to use in-flight Wi-Fi, as the country has the highest takeup of all the tested Asia-Pacific markets, this shows strong opportunities in the China market, the report revealed. Du Ni, a 26-year-old office worker in Beijing, said: "I would bring books and an iPad with pre-downloaded TV dramas, or sleep, when I take a long-haul flight. Currently, only 3 percent of aircraft operating in the Asia-Pacific region offer in-flight Wi-Fi services. The survey also showed that 54 percent and 57 percent of Asia-Pacific fliers would choose in-flight Wi-Fi as their preferred service on short- and long-haul flights, respectively, and most think that in-flight Wi-Fi can deliver all of their onboard needs, compared with only 16 percent and 18 percent choosing traditional in-flight entertainment.
In-flight Wi-Fi services emerged in the United States a few years ago, and then spread to Europe, and only came to the Asia-Pacific region recently. Most airlines decide their own prices for Wi-Fi services, and passengers would be able to pay beforehand when buying the tickets, or pay onboard. In a move that spells a continued move away from the online games industry in which Chen made his early fortune, the Singapore-based investment company said it is teaming up with three other investors in acquiring the stake.
Lending Club stunned the market on May 9 after its founder and Chief Executive Officer Renaud Laplanche resigned following an investigation by the US Justice Department revealed the company had knowingly sold $22 million of near-prime loans to one single investor, which violated the criteria set by the buyer. The company's shares have plummeted more than 40 percent since the irregularities were reported. But the Shanda-led investment appears to have restored stability, with Lending Club's shares rising 8.27 percent on Monday. One of the forerunners of the online lending sector, founded in 2006, Lending Club's share price has tumbled more than 80 percent in the past 12 months, with its market value crumbling from $5 billion to $1 billion. Shanda said in a statement it was a "strong believer" in the business model that Lending Club had created, and was "positive on its long-term" prospects as it continues to evolve and refines its business.
Shanda first dipped its toes into the P2P lending sector in 2013, when it invested in the Chinese online lending platform, P2P Eye, which proved the start of its move away from online gaming.
Its interests are spread across animation, film, cloud computing, private equity investment, public market investment, real estate and mutual funds. It said recently it is poised to increase its stake in Sotheby's to as much as 10 percent, at a time when the auction house's market value has shrunk by more than one-third. The product shelves of most Tray Dryers are microprocessor controlled, and the shelf temperatures are automatically changed according to a program that has been set and stored. It is very difficult to transfer heat through an air gap and even more difficult when the air gap is under vacuum.
The eutectic temperature (triple point) is the temperature at which your sample only exists in the solid phase.
If the eutectic temperature is unknown, developing the optimal method will require many trial and error runs until the critical temperature is determined. At vacuum levels above .200 mbar, there are too many molecules present and this will slow down the sublimation rate. Set the vacuum level in the freeze dry system at .200 mbar to maximize the sublimation rate. Because ending a run too early can cause a sample to melt back or result in a collapsed cake, the tendency is to error on the side of caution and extend the lyophilization run further than necessary.
Because of evaporative cooling, the sample temperature will be lower than the shelf temperature. The multi-directional spraying arms move as much as 112 gallons per minute throughout the washer chamber, ensuring powerful scrubbing of water to the entire chamber. Once wash and rinse cycles are complete, items are dried by air forced through the wash arms and a floor-mounted blower. After wash and rinse cycles, air is forced through each spindle, in addition to the spray arms, for fast drying of tough-to-dry glassware.
There are so many options to choose from and so much information to gather in order to make an informed decision.
When you have answered all seven questions, you will have successfully established the criteria necessary for choosing a fume hood system.
Sponsoring this science and engineering fair allows us to pursue our mission to promote scientific discovery starting right here at home in Kansas City, where Labconco has had its roots since 1925. For this event, students worked with the scientific method and its cousin, the engineering method. It’s a wonderful way to integrate engineering and science in a familiar, science fair-like environment.


A good rule of thumb is to plan for your most challenging sample and choose a system based on that need. Systems that reach -84°C are ideal for lyophilizing samples with low eutectic temperatures (like those that contain acetonitrile). The good news is that performing regular pump maintenance can help solve the problem, both reducing immediate downtime and increasing unit life in the long term. If you've chosen a scroll pump, make sure to change the scrolls after every 40,000 hours of use. If it's not, a large volume of the sample will evaporate, thereby producing a high initial vapor load.
Or, in worst-case scenarios, liquid could be sucked directly into the pump, causing even more damage. This is a different measurement than the ice holding capacity or the 24-hour collection rating. Equipment such as a single fume hood can use the equivalent energy of three and a half single family homes per year [1] making energy efficiency a priority for labs. This blower is meant for use with small labs that want a night set-back option for their fume hoods, and do not have the resources to sustain a VAV system.
Biological samples are heat sensitive thus the heat that drives the evaporation process must be limited. Centrifuges spin samples at variable rates creating G forces that separate samples according to density.
To ensure you are getting the best CentriVap for your needs, simply use the Scout™ Lab Equipment Selector on the Labconco website. These tests ranged from the standard ASHRAE 110 containment test, to a challenging modified containment test with adverse conditions to truly test its limits. It's with this eye toward protection that laboratories have rightfully turned to employing the use of biosafety cabinets, allowing their technicians to properly and safely handle biosafety agents requiring BSL 1-3 containment. Sean's approach to the biosafety industry is truly safety-centric, and his knowledge has been called upon in various high profile circumstances including the 2001 Anthrax attacks and SARS outbreak. He then traveled to Nigeria and Liberia to prepare healthcare workers there to do the same. When you look at a biosafety cabinet, the first and most basic thing you have to do is determine what you're going to be using it for.
If all those are in check and you've chosen the appropriate equipment, the biosafety engineering aspect has been done for you. Leaders need to train them how to choose appropriate personal protective equipment and develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) that answer real questions. In my opinion, by the way, the cabinet should be broken down and cleaned at the end of each night. When there are standard, easy to follow checklists in place for routine operations, some of those processes can be streamlined and the risks minimized. However, the minute they come in contact with a human exhibiting human behaviors, that person better be trained or the cabinet could risk losing its protectiveness.
Even if they were to follow all of them, leadership still has a responsibility to the workforce.
Everyone has to be on-board with safety in order for it to work, and that starts at the top. Some evaporators can accommodate a wide range of sample sizes while others are designed for a very specific size of sample. Vacuum pumps are available in different types that offer varying displacement capacities and ultimate vacuum levels.
RV pumps use oil to ensure a tight seal, lubricate the working parts and remove heat to cool the rotors.
It’s necessary when using an RV pump to collect the evaporated vapors upstream of the pump. It is recommended that the oil in these pumps be checked regularly and changed approximately every 3,000 hours of use. While there are systems that automate oil changing, time is still lost while the pump is out of use for the maintenance. Diaphragm pumps can handle highly viscous liquids and be used with a wide range of samples but the applications are limited to those requiring higher ultimate vacuum levels. Therefore, almost any type of sample, even those containing a combination of solvents and acids can be used with these pumps, making them a good choice for both evaporation and concentration. In a combination pump the diaphragm pump keeps the oil of the RV pump under negative pressure to reduce or eliminate vapors going through it and condensing in the oil. The ultimate vacuum level and displacement capacity with combination pumps is similar to those of RV pumps. While they can have higher up-front costs, the lifetime operation costs are much lower because they don’t require oil and very little maintenance is needed.
By eliminating the oil, the hydrocarbon-free design means these pumps are environmentally friendly as well. Compared to diaphragm pumps, scroll pumps can reach deeper ultimate vacuum levels and have higher displacement capacities. They may be used with concentration applications also, however the cost tradeoff may make another type of pump more attractive.
Even with filters, you need to take other precautions when samples include potentially hazardous materials. If you’re unsure which vacuum pump is the best for your application, our Application Specialists are always here to help. Though similar in airflow to a B1, the Type C1 does not require special considerations when handling hazardous chemistry, nor does it require a dedicated exhaust system. The Type C1 adopts the strengths of the Type A and B BSCs while addressing their limitations and is cross functional. It will be designated something other than a Type A or Type B, will be defined as such, and upon completion will be recognized by NIH, CDC, CFIA, and PHAC. Type B2 cabinets are commonly selected out of an over-abundance of caution related to a microbiology lab’s use of chemicals considered to be hazardous, not out of risk assessment determining that the application is using hazardous chemistry.
However, since the B2 must have a dedicated exhaust system, the cabinet is forever committed to its installation. This is possible because the cabinet does not exhaust 100% of its air and does not need a dedicated exhaust system.
Though there are laboratory balance considerations, modern laboratories outfitted with VAV and lab balance mechanical systems can easily handle the volume of air this entails.
If the Axiom’s installation is changed, all of these requirements would have to be recalculated and physically changed. This flexibility makes it possible for a laboratory to save over 50% of operational costs compared to Type B BSCs (over $50,000 compared to the life time operating costs of each Type B2 BSC). One Axiom does the job of both Type A and B while costing the institution only the price of a single BSC. The inlet relief valve is used to ensure that the exhaust transition plenum is kept under negative pressure in B-mode – maintaining containment of hazardous chemistry in the duct. The inlet relief valve is open all the time when the Axiom is operating with proper building exhaust in B-mode. What’s more, positive relief valves shunt chemically contaminated air back into the laboratory. ANSI Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation only briefly mentions Class II BSCs in the ventilation (section 5) and merely describes the types of connections and requirements for manifolding (ganging) BSCs with hoods and general exhaust.
These large VAV mechanical systems are significant enough in volume to absorb the volume of air being moved by an Axiom with the Active Protection Protocol engaged.
It is designed to bridge the gaps in safety, flexibility and engineering that exist among current BSC types. For the A2, A2 with canopy, B2 and C1 – users simply work inside the dished work surface.
When using chemicals, this is where the operator MUST work – an operational requirement sure to cause fatigue, mistakes and injuries.
A back wall mounted latch can be used for hands-free assist by holding the Chem-Zone work surface out of the way during cleaning. However, the large volume of the air moving through the exhaust system keeps most chemical applications in a BSC well below ignition levels. For the purpose of selecting the correct BSC type, this risk assessment must determine one thing: is the chemistry being used hazardous or not? Chemical and biological risks are addressed with the chemical containment of a type B, the flexibility of a type A and remote exhaust failure dynamic protection exclusive to the Axiom.
Of that, there were 104,951 pairs of shoes and hats, comprising 47.5 percent of the total value. All donations will be transported to the disaster prevention inventory under the foundation in Jiangsu, Sichuan, Fujian, Shanxi and Yunnan provinces, as well as one in Tianjin. According to government statistics, natural disasters affected 186 million people in 2015, with an estimated economic loss of 270.4 billion yuan.
This massive project requires concerted effort from all parties, said Wang Dengfeng, director of the Ministry of Education's physical, health and art education department. The company's grassroots program consists of youth leagues, coach training courses, player development programs as well as summer and winter camps, to develop soccer talent at an early age. Zoo Coffee spokesman Kim Kun-woo said that the coffee chain would launch a new coffee product consisting of soy milk, to spread the concept of health, environmental protection and caring for moon bears. Real Kungfu will distribute 15,000 nutritious meals within 150 days to sanitation workers and their children.
Around 11,000 runners participated in the activity and donated a total mileage of 37,633 kilometers via the application.
In the next five years, we have to invest a lot of money before we see our return," Aberle said in an exclusive interview with China Daily on the sidelines of the ongoing China Big Data Industry Summit in Guiyang.
You may argue it's become the typical way of meeting for discussing and pitching news for digital platforms.
For example, when we planned an in-depth report on the value-added tax reform before its introduction on May 1, a special VAT reporting group was formed immediately consisting of reporters from the macroeconomic reporting team, retailing sector and finance beat. I can't help wondering what an amazing invention it is, and how greatly communication efficiency has improved with it. For example, WeChat's payment service witnessed a huge capital flow of 32 billion yuan ($4.9 billion) in six days in February during the Chinese Lunar New Year, amid people's feverish involvement in sending and receiving red-pocket money.
To be honest, I find it harder to keep concentrating on my job while I am jumping from one group to another, switching topic from this to that, in limited space and time. I used to phone my parents who live in my hometown of Zhengzhou, Henan province, at least once a week, talking about my work and my life in general and asking about their health. We just send text or voice messages, or sometimes I make group video-calls with my parents and my sister. A report by the University of Maryland said that 18 percent of social media users in the United States can't go beyond "a few hours" without checking Facebook.
Before I work out the answer to that one, I'd better pick up my phone and call my dear old folks, 800 kilometers away. China's commodities exchanges will also maintain a close eye on movements in the futures market, China Securities Regulatory Commission Vice-Chairman Fang Xinghai said. The pace of decline, however, eased from the fall of 13.8 percent registered in the first three months, the Ministry of Finance said. The region churned out 250.9 million tons of coal during the January-April period, its coal mine safety department said.
The central parity rate of the yuan dropped 225 basis points to 6.5693 against the greenback, according to the China Foreign Exchange Trading System.
The 46 four-car trains from both the Chinese producer of mass transit vehicles and German-based trainmaker will be used for the Thai capital's green lines and their extension in the next 10 years.
Senior executives from more than 60 corporations including Dell, Bayer, Freudenberg, NuSkin and other corporate partners served as the final round judges and selected Guangdong-based Sun Yat-sen University Enactus Team as the 2016 champion. Its Ministry of Trade and Industry has maintained the country's GDP growth forecast for 2016 at 1 to 3 percent.
Following a milk cooperation price war, which left farmers crippled financially, Barnaby Joyce said the package which will be given to farmers in the form of concessional loans at lowered repayment rates. US crude stockpiles are likely to have dropped by 2 million barrels last week, according to a leading market survey. In 2015, its growth saw a half-percentage point drop from the 7.5 percent posted in 2014, fuelled by low oil prices and subdued inflation. HSBC, along with two Chinese banks, has provided debt facilities for a power plant in Bangladesh with the design, consultancy, engineering and construction expertise supplied by major Chinese enterprises. Disney is "entirely cloning previous intellectual properties, cloning previous products, with no more innovation".
Annual visitor numbers are forecast to more than double from 133 million in 2014 to 282 million in 2019, according to Euromonitor International, a research company.
Nanchang is the first of a planned series of "Wanda City" sites meant to mix culture and tourism. This, he said, was due to an increasing exposure to risks triggered by a growing number of financial products such as peer-to-peer lending, the practice of direct lending between unrelated individuals via internet platforms. That accounted for 26 percent of the total balance of 90.36 trillion yuan for wealth management products held by various kinds of financial institutions.
The sports media rights firm also said it will have access to technology like virtual reality and internet-based services.
Media copyright distribution, electronic sports, sports venue operations and agency services have become the most popular subcategories for investors," the note said. Whether shares can sustain the rebound amid concerns about higher US rates and slowing mainland economic growth will depend on turnover, according to Partners Capital International in Hong Kong. They were all born and raised in China's booming e-commerce industry, which pulled in nearly 4 trillion yuan in sales last year from more than 400 million shoppers. Some of them do not even sell physical products but peddle services, expertise and technologies. Nelson Li-led Guangzhou Taotall Technology Co Ltd, which offers turnkey solutions for firms seeking to set up online shops, has already listed on the New Third Board. The initiative will act as a go-between linking merchants, bourses and China's securities regulator. Fair valuations for a diverse range of e-commerce firms with intangible assets are not easy to obtain because such assets are not readily recognized by regulators and investors.
But, when it comes to online retailers, it's hard to tell at which time incomes become realized as revenue," he said. Even if they go in for a float, there is high chance that their businesses would be undervalued by investors, said an expert from China Merchants Securities Co Ltd, a brokerage based in Beijing, who sought anonymity.
Ma Sanxin, deputy manager of nine-year-old Linshi Muye, an online furniture brand, said the firm has always adopted strict rules in its operations, and is now intent on going public in 2020. This strategy is a new chapter in our evolution as a business," said Jia Peng, deputy manager of Handu. It has recently applied for a listing on China's New Third Board or the National Equities Exchange and Quotations.
People are looking for things that can differentiate themselves from others, be it in segments like clothes, accessories, perfumes or body lotions," said Jia. Our valuable experience can energize startups and help them achieve quick growth," he said.
We invested in that because we're aware spending an extra second each on packing, say, 500,000 orders, could mean you need about six extra days to finish the dispatch process," he said. Jiangxi Copper Co and Angang Steel Co dropped at least 1.2 percent, while Yanzhou Coal Mining Co retreated the most in two weeks.
The frenzy led to a clampdown from regulators and exchanges, weakening prices once more, including for iron ore and steel. After romping 23 percent higher last month as China's ill-fated frenzy gathered pace, the price has tumbled by the same amount so far in May. The two sides are working on HANA one, a lighter version of HANA, which is SAP's in-memory computing platform, and aims to create a one-stop-shop cloud-computing environment. It allows firms to buy services at a cost-effective rate and the implementation time is hours, not days or months, which are often seen in rival products. Inmarsat said the Western market has a relatively lower demand, but the difference remains very small. The report said two-thirds of respondents are willing to pay for unlimited internet usage during a flight, indicating the tremendous potential for airlines to use it as a differentiation point to attract more customers. Some basic connectivity options are free, and the low-cost package carries a price tag of $5, in addition to a high-end package for about $20, which covers unlimited usage of long-haul flight. Increasing the amount of the sample that is in contact with the glass sides of the flask, will increase the heat transferred to the sample and will result in a faster lyophilization rate. If your frozen sample goes to a temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, it will begin to melt.
The more heat you apply the faster the process, however your sample must remain below its eutectic point during primary drying.
If a sample in a flask is melting back (getting too much heat) simply, insulate the flask with foam to slow the heat transfer down.
As the front moves through the sample, the sublimating water vapor must pass through the dry cake that is formed behind the ice front, as it is being evacuated from the sample to the condenser. If there are no molecules present around a sample, it is difficult to effectively transfer heat. With sample temperature probes and heated shelf temperature probes, end point can be detected when the sample temperature becomes equal to the shelf temperature.
Finally, do the fixtures need to be factory installed, or will the installer handle that at the job site by using field-installed kits?
Once the duct penetrates the roof, a final 90-degree elbow will be needed to turn the duct horizontal, then three to five feet of straight duct is needed between the elbow and blower.
Labconco is a company that engineers equipment for scientific laboratories, so GKCSEF couldn’t possibly align more perfectly with our mission. In these instances, consider staggering the loading so samples are started at varying intervals.
Especially when there are multiple users of a single system, keeping a maintenance log of oil changes and compressor cleanings can help ensure none of these crucial tasks are neglected. In a vacuum atmosphere pressure levels are lowered and liquids boil or evaporate at lower temperatures.
Concentrators spin samples at a fixed, low-speed that creates just enough force to keep the liquid samples in tubes or microplates so a vacuum can be applied to liquids without losing any samples. You can spend thousands and thousands of dollars on a cabinet, but all the control can be negated in an instant with inappropriate behavior. That's how we have instances of individuals coming out of biosafety cabinets and contaminating other areas of their laboratories. Determining whether your sample is heat-sensitive or not will help narrow down which evaporation method is best for your specific scenario.
RV pumps work especially well for aqueous samples and solvents with high boiling points whose vapors can be easily trapped before they reach the pump.
The valves are often made of polytetrafluoroethylene making the pump resistant to corrosives and less susceptible to damage from vapors. This design keeps the oil cleaner and allows for less frequent changing – oil lasts up to 10 times longer between changes compared to RV pumps. Because the diaphragm pump is incorporated into the design, these pumps are better at handling acids and solvents than RV pumps. Scroll pumps handle water vapor better than most types of pumps and make significantly less noise during operation. A B1 BSC cannot operate without exhaust and therefore will always require the infrastructure and cost associated with moving expensive tempered air.
Type B2 BSCs also heavily tax exhaust systems with large volumes that can exceed 1,200 CFM – this can cost over $100,000 per BSC to operate over its life. Meanwhile, the BSC continues to operate as well, allowing operators to continue their work without forcing a shutdown.
During which the Type C1 Axiom provides an audible alarm, visual alarm – describing the alarm occurrence, and provides a countdown timer to BSC shutdown. This does not mean that hazardous chemicals are being used; rather that the chemicals being used are of a concentration and volume that would require a chemical fume hood. Zoo Coffee will donate part of the new products' sales to the rescue center next year and black bear protection work by the Animals Asia Foundation. Bright Dairy donated 100,000 yuan ($15,000) to the Shanghai Charity Foundation, for 50 senior professors suffering from serious illnesses.
But the truth is we have a much wider and deeper obsession about WeChat, both for work purposes and personal matters.
It's a bit like a circus clown juggling - tossing balls up into the air, trying to keep three of them moving about without dropping them, with only two bare hands. It's estimated that US office workers spend about one quarter of their working hours browsing social media for non-work related activities.
A surge in prices of China commodities futures this year followed by a rapid slide has sparked fears of a boom-and-bust cycle. Facing excess capacity, the region has slashed coal production capacity of major State-owned mines by nearly one-third to 192.5 million tons in the period. In China's spot foreign exchange market, the yuan is allowed to rise or fall by 2 percent from the central parity rate each trading day. In the Tuesday filing to the Hong Kong bourse, Peak Sport Chairman Xu Jingnan said "preliminary consideration is still in progress" on the firm being taken private, without disclosing any reason for the move nor potential financial terms. The champion team will go to Toronto in September to compete with teams from 35 Enactus participating countries for the Enactus World Cup. Farmers will be allowed to borrow up to $740,000 or half of what they owe, whichever is the lesser, while they will also get access to a farm 'household allowance', which provides them with a $740 fortnightly payment to help raise the standard of living. Prospects for economic growth in the developing nation of some 6.5 million people remain strong on the back of opportunities for closer regional integration in transport, trade, production value chains and tourism, said the WB. Infrastructure is key to the economic development along these routes and many opportunities exist for UK companies. UK law firm Linklaters has provided legal services to Chinese banks involved in financing a coal mine and associated power station in Pakistan. Commentators demanded to know why China couldn't make a hit film about its own national animal. But in China's rapidly growing internet industry, a potential market-leader, it seems, can be built from scratch within five years. Banks are not an option for firms such as Mayn that have very little, in terms of physical assets like factories, to offer as collateral for loans. The visibility and the money that an IPO generates could help us secure high-quality talent, which is very critical for the company's growth in the long run.
The e-commerce giant announced its annual sales for the fiscal year ended March exceeded 3 trillion yuan and overtook Wal-Mart Stores Inc, making it the world's largest retailer. Instead, it wants to empower up-and-coming e-commerce startups so they could be as successful as itself. Each of its brands has its own detailed formula to communicate with customers online in a particular tone of voice.
They remain price sensitive, and are less motivated by high-priced activities like streaming," he said. Room temperature variances will certainly affect the required length of time to freeze dry. Knowing the temperature your sample cannot go above enables the greatest amount of heat to be added to the sample without experiencing melt back.
By increasing the surface area, more sample is in contact with the flask resulting in better heat transfer to the sample. The less cake the water vapor must pass through, the faster the molecules will sublimate, resulting in a faster run. Because the majority of the water in the sample has already been sublimated, the sample temperature can rise above the eutectic point without melting back. Just be advised that the drying time may be a little slower as the SteamScrubber does not support forced air-drying through spindles. Typically the evaporation process will involve a vacuum pump if a sample is heat sensitive, so the boiling point can be significantly lowered under the decreased pressure. Does your method involve taking your sample to dryness, or do you need to stop the evaporation before the sample is dry? Fang said opening up the market would help support China's role as a "price maker" globally and enable domestic companies to better cope with market volatility. And who hasn’t needed to improve their search strategy for a vector-like quark at some point?
A total of 520,000 yuan has been raised through the event, which will be used for the construction of multimedia classrooms for the primary schools in mountainous areas.
The goal of pre- freezing is to form large crystals with a slower freezing rate while making sure the sample does not separate in the longer pre-freeze process.




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