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admin 10.02.2015

Because biomass can be used not only to generate electricity, but also as a source of heat and motor fuel, it makes up the largest chunk of renewable energy in most countries by far. At the beginning of 2013, Berlin-based think tank Agora Energiewende published its 12 insights on Germany’s Energiewende (PDF), an overview of the main points. Given the discussion about the sustainability of biomass, the question is therefore whether the Energiewende itself is sustainable. Last August, the revisions to the Renewable Energy Act put a limit on funding for new biomass systems – no more than 100 MW would be supported. Up to now, the EU has been the main driver behind bioenergy to replace diesel and gasoline.
Indeed, Germany is so successful in its focus on reusing waste as a source of energy that there is already practically no further potential left. The bad news for the biomass sector is that Germany does not look like a lucrative market for the time being.
It would be healthier for the population, not to burn that waste but to concentrate it at a controlled storage site. It would be healthier for the population, not to burn that waste at all, but to concentrate it at a controlled storage site. All waste incineration, whether for energy production or merely to reduce the amount of waste in land-fills, produces dioxins that are the most potent form of carcinogen produced by people. In short: logging forrests or using good agricultural land for growing combustion biomass is not good for the climate.
As far as I know all imported timber power plants in the UK are laying idle anyhow, can’t compete – is this correct? Parts of the new poplar plantations are situated in Poland where there are huge open mines as well to be re-cultivated. Generation capacity, aka rated capacity: the maximum output a generator can produce under specific conditions.
Increase in wood as main source of household heating most notable in the Northeast - Today in Energy - U.S. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports. Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources.
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Wood as a main heating source in homes has gained popularity in many areas of the country in recent years, but the increase is most notable in the Northeast. Heating stoves are the most common equipment used by households that rely on wood as the main source of heat, and fireplaces are the most common choice for secondary wood heating. The Environment Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed updated emissions standards for new wood-burning stoves and other biomass heating equipment. Across all sectors, the EIA predicts wood biomass will be used to generate 105,000 megawatt hours (MWh) per day of electricity in 2013, increasing to 110,000 MWh per day next year.
Waste biomass is expected to be used to generate 55,000 MWh of electricity this year across all sectors, increasing to 57,000 MWh per day next year.
The commercial sector is forecast to consume 0.063 Quad of energy from wood biomass this year, and maintain that level of consumption through 2014.
Regarding heating costs, the EIA predicts an increase for most households when compared to last winter. According to the EIA, nearly 2.5 billion households used wood as their primary residential space heating fuel in 2012, equating to approximately 2 percent of all households.
The EIA notes that approximately 20 percent of New England homes, or 1.1 million, used wood for space heating, water heating or cooking in 2009. Within its report, the EIA predicts heating degree days during the first quarter of 2015 are projected to be approximately 12 percent lower than last year.
Hydroelectricity is the fourth power used in the world covering 16 % world electricity production. Hydroelectric power or hydroelectricity is an electric power obtained by converting hydraulic power of different water flows (streams, rivers, waterfalls, sea currents.).
Turkey, Brazil and South East Asia are the main electricity producers via a hydroelectric system.
In 2015, power plants will supply with almost 10 % Chinese global electricity consumption, what should replace the annual combustion equivalent to 50 million tons coal in power stations. Furthermore, the dam enables to welcome ships having a tonnage over 3 000 tons, with the possibility of reaching 10 000 tons. These dams represent the most important ship conveyor in the world (ship capacity 10 000 tons). Tidal power is issued from water movements created by tides, caused by the joint effect of Moon and Sun gravitational forces.
As you know, the tide phenomenon is due to the differential of rotational delay between Earth (24 hours) and Moon (28 days) which is then stationary compared to it. In a simple way, the so-called tidal power then constitutes a recovery of the kinetic power coming from Earth rotation.

The order of magnitude of the power naturally dissipated annually by tides is estimated at 22 000 TWh, i.e.
As only one fraction of this power is recoverable, the tidal power will be able to contribute for the future in a low part only, to meet world requirements. Ocean Thermal Energy (OTE) or Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is produced by operating the temperature difference between ocean surface waters and deep waters.
On the surface, thanks to solar power, the water temperature is high (it may exceed 25°C in inter-tropical zone). OTE (Ocean Thermal Energy) produces power thanks to a working fluid (sea water, ammonia (NH3) or another fluid, the dew-point of which is approx 4°C). The theoretical maximum output is really low compared to the traditional output of solar thermal machines (40 % for a natural gas turbine). Output varies according to the plant power : the more powerful it is, the higher the output is and this also depends on the cycle used. A marine current turbine (or underwater, or placed on water and half submerged) is a turbine which uses sea currents or streams kinetic power, such as a wind power plant uses air kinetic power. The marine current turbine enables the transformation of hydraulic power into mechanical power, which is then transformed into electrical power by an alternator. Marine current turbine advantages are due to the fact that they are far smaller than wind power plants for an equal power.
The European potential of marine current turbine energy is evaluated at approx 12.5 GW which might produce 48 TWh annually, what represents the capacity of three recent power generating plants. The etymology of ?biocarburant? (oil substitute) comes from the Greek language, ?bio? means life, living, and ?carbo? means coal in Latin. Biodiesel : it is obtained from oil contained in plants, such as sunflower, colza, soya, but mainly from palm fruit from which palm oil is extracted. The United States are the first ethanol world producer, mainly produced from corn (produced in Middle West ?corn belt?). The country launched American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES) in 2009, aiming at promoting agrofuel use, a plan similar to that of European Union Emission trading Scheme (EU ETS). Europe occupies the third position (United States first, Brazil second), and the first position if we consider the only biodiesel production (thanks to Germany and to France). Indeed, the European Parliament voted for a calendar including the introduction of clean fuel in transport in a ratio of 5.75 % in 2010, 8 % in 2015 and 10 % in 2020, as you can note in the hereunder diagram. As a summary, there is an effort made by more and more states to get out of fossil energy dependence. However, I specify that, to produce (in distilleries) this biofuel, power is necessary (gas for ethanol). This problem shows that farmers make more profits in cultivating their fields to make biofuel than to make food products. All these problems incited to create new types of biofuel from lumber, straw, forest residues, all that giving what is called cellulose ethanol. At last, there are oil companies, as British Petroleum (BP), which carry out research on biofuel produced from microalgae. Geothermal energy is the 9th energy used in the world with a total consumption reaching 1 %.
The main producing countries are the United States, Mexico and Indonesia, Italy, Japan and New Zealand, Iceland, Australia and South Korea.
To put this into perspective, the market had more than 5,000 MW of biomass-fired power generation capacity installed (cumulative) at the end of 2013. In two tables (1 and 2), the Ministry breaks up the biomass sector into various types of bioenergy and technology options.
But in October, the German government will implement a greenhouse gas quota instead of a minimum blend requirement for biofuels.
We have discussed the situation of wood pellets before, so I refer you to my most recent article on the issue. A study published this month on waste recovery (PDF in German) revealed that around 60 percent of trash in the US ends up in landfills, thereby going completely unused (other than polluting the local environment).
The good news for those worried about the Energiewende’s sustainability is that Germany started thinking about environmental impacts a long time ago. Even minute amounts falling out of the atmosphere onto farmland and houses can cause health problems.
2.4 acres) with fast growing poplar saplings, increasing the German biomass fields by about nearly 10%.
This land is of little and no use for farming, the ruined soil structure would make it difficult to grow even a halfway natural forest there. For instance, the tons of coal fed to a coal plant are considered primary energy, whereas the electricity that leaves the plant is considered secondary energy. For instance, a single wind turbine may have a rated capacity of 1,500 kilowatts (1.5 megawatts), but it will only produce that much power under strong winds. All nine states in the New England and the Middle Atlantic Census divisions saw at least a 50% jump from 2005 to 2012 in the number of households that rely on wood as the main heating source.
Although these proposed rules address health concerns associated with the release of fine particulates from burning wood, the standards would also result in increased efficiency levels of new wood-burning equipment. Energy Information Administration has published the October issue of its Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEO), providing forecasts for electricity consumption from wood biomass and waste biomass feedstocks.
In 2012, waste biomass was used to generate an average of 55,000 MWh per day of electricity. Energy Information Administration has released the January issue of its Short-Term Energy Outlook, which includes updated forecasts for energy production from wood and waste biomass as well as data related to home heating methods. Kinetic power of running water is transformed into mechanichal power by a turbine, then into electric power by an alternating current generator. It has three functions : to regulate stream flow against floods, to produce power, to allow a more regular navigation between Shanghai and Chong Qing.
The dam is associated with two hydroelectric power stations, one on the right bank of the stream with 12 turbine-alternators and the other one on the left bank with 14 turbine-alternators. It is a central artery with harbors handling 30 % water tonnage transported each year in China.

It is used either as potential power, or by elevation of the sea level, or as kinetic power, tide currents. The result is that the terrestrial globe turns inside a sea water globe lengthened in both ways by lunar attraction.
Elsewhere, the temperature difference between the surface and the floor is not sufficient to obtain a sufficient output and then a sufficient power to pump the cold water in deep and feed a solar thermal machine.
This fluid switches from liquid state to steam state in the evaporator by contact with warm water taken out of the surface. Moreover, this latter does not take into account the work necessary for pumping deep waters.
The output will be highest for a maximum temperature difference between the surface and the floor. Nelha owns an immense site equipped with 3 types of canalizations : one surface canalization and two deep canalizations. The oil obtained is transformed chemically with alcohols and may then be used pure or mixed with conventional diesel oil. Since then, agrofuel production keeps growing in the United States (12 billion gallons in 2010). Let us know that, since 2007, Germany came first biodiesel world producer and France came second.
In Europe, Germany is the country having most counted on this new energy, but at world level China is far before everybody. In February, the German Energy Ministry published a presentation (PDF in German) showing that it understands that the already low target of 100 MW will not even be met this year – slide 11 says “probably less than 30 MW” of biomass will be installed in 2015. The focus is on reducing carbon emissions, but the German biofuels sector itself understands the change to be a challenge to its own market. As a previous study showed (PDF in German), that figure was less than one percent in Germany – way back in 2006. For instance, a coal plant with an efficiency of 40 percent consumes 2.5 times more primary energy (coal) than it produces in the form of electricity (secondary energy).
As the use of fuel oil and kerosene in this region has declined in recent years, many households have turned to lower-cost alternatives, including wood. And while households in higher income brackets are more likely to use wood, those at lower income levels who burn wood consume more on average.
Wood use was also more common in rural areas of New England, where almost half of all households used wood, compared to only 12 percent in urban areas. That production level is expected to increase to 119,000 MWh per day this year and 122,000 MWh per day next year. The hydraulic part may operate as well as a pump as a turbine and the electric part as well as an engine as an alternating current generator (synchronous machine). This rotating power can be used, causing the effect (in very tiny proportions, although definite) of slowing down Earth and expelling Moon for safekeeping reasons of the kinetic moment of the bundle. These facilities are only possible in a zone covering from Tropic of Cancer to Tropic of Capricorn, i.e. The pressure produced by steam goes through a turbo-generator to operate a turbine and produce electricity. By getting down to the floor, colder water is taken out and equal volume production increases. Concerning the surface canalizations, they are located in a perimeter of 180 meters away from coasts, 13.5 meters deep.
Moreover, marine currents are predicted and allow to evaluate accurately the electricity production. This gives then biodiesel, also called diester (in France), a biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Overall, heating prices are expected to be 13 percent higher than last winter’s average, but 4 percent below the average for the past five winters. The EIA also specifies that unlike other home heating fuels, there are currently no readily available sources for estimating wood consumption or prices at the regional or national level. Waste biomass was used to generate approximately 54,000 MWh per day of electricity last year.
The EIA currently predicts that will decrease to 4,228 heating degree days this year, and 4,204 heating degree days in 2016. In accumulation mode, the machine uses the power supplied to make water from lower basin to arise to the higher basin.
Indeed, the water density increases as temperature lowers down, what prevents deep waters to mix and to warm up. After the gas has lost its pressure, it goes into a condenser to go back to the liquid state by contact with cold water taken out of the floor.
They are placed at an accurate distance from sea floor so that sand, corals and aquatic life are not sucked off. Let us also note that corn transformation requires a great quantity of herbicides and nitrogenous fertilizers, what results, in the future, in high soil pollution. This year, the EIA predicts waste biomass will be used to generate 58,000 MWh per day of electricity this year, with production expected to be maintained at that level in 2016.
And in production mode, the machine converts water gravitational potential power into electricity.
This temperature difference may be operated by a solar powered machine, as this latter requires a cold source and a warm source to produce power. European government also implemented a tax policy very profitable to biofuel in order to develop it at a maximum in Europe. For example, in Sweden, generalization of E85 gasoline in petrol stations makes increase from 150 stations in 2006 to 1000 in 2008 and multifuel cars (said flex-fuel) are exempt from taxation and insurance is cheaper. The conflict is clear, because cereal quote used to produce agrofuel is indexed according to oil quote.

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