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Researchers at Annamalai University of Tamil Nadu, India have worked out how to blend ethanol and dimethyl ether, both renewable chemicals, with diesel to produce a significantly improved fuel.A  M. Emulsification of diesel with ethanol is one of the possible approaches to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of pollutants from diesel engines.A  Ashok notes ethanol added to diesel results in different physicochemical changes in diesel fuel properties, particularly a reduction in cetane number, viscosity, and heating value. Ashok says in the study, a€?Even though this emulsified fuel gives better brake thermal efficiency and gives less SFC, SD, and PM based on the performance and emissions, respectively, in comparison to diesel no. The best decrease in the Smoke Density value was obtained for DME-added emulsified fuel compared to the other two fuels.
Particulate Matter emission is low at lower outputs and equal to the emulsified fuel values at higher outputs for DME-added emulsified fuel.
The NOx (nitrous oxide) value is reduced because of the additive DME; it is usually higher for the emulsified fuel using the normal surfactant. The peak pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise decrease because of the reduction in ignition delay. The heat release rate is higher for the emulsified fuel than the diesel and additive DME-added emulsified fuels.
In simple terms you are just adding oxygen which makes me wonder if diesel fuel could not somehow be whipped and emulsified so that it includes more oxygen without having to add the water and alcohol.
Everyone of these BMW automobiles offers proof that efficiency and dynamics compliment one another perfectly. It was found that the oxygen-enriched additive-added emulsified fuel has the best performance and lower emissions when compared to the other fuel mix ratios. Soni and Dilip SharmaAbstracta€” The world is presently confronted with the twin crisis of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. This is due to the lower cetane number of ethanol, which causes high temperatures, resulting in a longer ignition delay. Indis- criminate extraction and lavish consumption of fossil fuels have led to reduction in underground based carbon resources. The search for an alternative fuel, which promises a harmonious correlation with sustainable development, energy conservation, man- agement, efficiency, and environmental preservation, has become highly pronounced in the present context.
For the developing countries of the world, fuels of bio-origin can provide a feasible solution to the crisis.In the present investigation, hydrogen-enriched air was used as intake charge in a C.

Hydrogen may become an important energy carrier for sustainedpower consumption with reduced impact on the environment. It can be used in combustion devices or fuel cells without any carbon emis- sions and minimal emissions of other pollutant gases.
When hydro- gen is burned, hydrogen combustion does not produce toxic products such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxide of sulfur, organic acids or carbon dioxide, instead its main product is water. Like elec- tricity, hydrogen is an energy carrier and must be produced from another substance.
Hydrogen is not widely used today but it has great potential as an energy carrier in the future. SI engines are suitable for hydrogen but in recent time CI engines are also in the process of modification to run with hydrogen [1]. It is important to mention here that since hydrogen has an auto-ignition temperature of about576 A°C, it is not possible to achieve ignition of hydrogen by com-pression alone [1]. Some sources of ignition have to be created inside the combustion chamber to ensure ignition [1].
Combustion trigger- ing devices such as installation of glow plugs in the combustion chamber and the preliminary addition of fuel to the combustion chamber through either pilot injection or a small leak are the few solutions to the problem.Studies by Ma et al.
However a significant drop in brake power of the engine was observed due to low compression ratio. It was con- cluded that the hydrogena€“diesel co-fuelling will solve the drawback of lean operation of hydrocarbon fuels such as diesel, which are hard to ignite and results in reduced power output, by reducing misfires, improving emissions, performance and fuel economy. The hydrogen was then passed through a flame arrestor, in order to prevent explosions inside the hydro- gen-containing system, which also acts as an NRV. Next, the hy- drogen was allowed to pass through a flame trap, used to sup- press flash-back into the intake manifold. The flame trap is made of cast iron that contains a sleeve to suppress the flame and water to put out the flame. The engine was started with diesel fuel and on supplying hydrogen enriched air during suction the consumption of diesel got reduced. The opti- mum injection timing was found at 23A° crank angle BTDC for neat diesel operation of engine.Fig.

It was ob-served that as flow rate of hydrogen started increasing, there was decrease in flow rate of diesel but at the higher hydrogen enrich- ment condition, engine shut down at high loads due to reduced availability of oxygen. After selection of optimum hy- drogen flow rate, experiments were taken to find out the optimum diesel injection timing. This increase in exhaust gas temperature in case of hydrogen enrichment is due to enhanced combustion rates of hydrogen.Fig.
It can be observed that EGT for hydrogen enriched fuelled engine was maximum in comparison to conventional diesel fuel due to enhanced combustion rates of hydrogen.Fig.
Hot wire ignition of hydrogena€”ciency at around 70% of full load whereas when operated with diesel thisoxygen mixture. Hydro-comparison to neat diesel due to better combustion characteristics of hy-gen for dual fuel engine operation. Optimized mixture formation fora€? BSEC in case of hydrogen enrichment was 31.8 % less com-pared to that of neat diesel operation at 70% of full load. Due to high exhaust temperature, there will be increment in NOx emission that can be reduced by EGR technique.
Other emission will reduce due to the lack of availa- bility of carbon particle in hydrogen gas. Overall, hydrogen is an acceptable and environment friendly fuel for future use to meet the excess need of conventional fuel.5 REFERENCE[1]. The development of a dual injection hydrogen fueled engine with high power and high efficiency. Computational com- bustion and emission analysis of hydrogena€“diesel blends with experimental verification. NOx emission and performance data for a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine at 1500 rpm using exhaust gas recirculation.
An experimental investigation on hydrogen as a dual fuel for diesel engine system with exhaust gas recir- culation technique.

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