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While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Canada may be divided into seven physiographic regions: Arctic Lands, Cordillera, Interior Plains, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canadian Shield Forest Lands, St Lawrence Lowlands and Appalachia.
Physiography originally meant "the study of natural phenomena," but later usage limited its application to physical geography in particular and, more recently, to landforms alone. Geologic structure (see Geological Regions), relief attributes of land, the distribution of continuous permafrost and the position of the treeline are the criteria used in the following physiographic regionalization. Combinations of these criteria, but with primary emphasis on geologic structures in southern Canada and the overwhelming influence of continuous permafrost in northern Canada, generate the major physiographic regions of Canada discussed in this article: Arctic Lands, Cordillera, Interior Plains, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canadian Shield Forest Lands, St Lawrence Lowlands and Appalachia. Canada's Arctic Lands are generally thought to lie north of the treeline and cover 2.6 million km2 (26 per cent of the country). Glaciation over much of northern Canada formed a landscape similar to an upright saucer with its centre flooded by Hudson Bay.
Lakes and rivers are ice-free from June–October in the south and from July–August in the north; they are ice-covered for the rest of the year. This region is part of the mountain system that extends the length of the western third of North and South America. The oldest recognizable feature of the Cordilleran landscape is the gently rolling upland of its interior plateaus. During the 12,000 years of postglacial time, rivers have formed terraces, alluvial fans, floodplains and deltas (see River Landform).
Volcanic activity has occurred sporadically at scattered locations in the Western and Interior systems up to the present. The Cordillera encompasses a great variety of climates because of its great latitudinal extent, its location between the Pacific Ocean and the continental interior, and its rugged terrain. The Cordillera as a whole is distinguished by its mountainous and irregular topography, and its great variety of climates, soils and vegetation.
The Interior Plains area of Canada encompasses the region between the Canadian Shield and the western Cordillera. The regional topography is partly determined by flat-lying limestones and shales of marine origin underlying the entire region. In addition to these erosional remnants, the relatively uniform slope of the southern portion of the region is broken into three steps (levels) by the Manitoba Escarpment and the Missouri Coteau. The next step to the west is the Saskatchewan Plain, the dip slope of the Manitoba Escarpment, which is underlain primarily by marine shales of the Cretaceous age (144.2–65 million years ago). To the west of the Saskatchewan Plain lies the Missouri Coteau, a gradual slope upwards to the Rocky Mountains representing a thickening of non-marine sediments of the Cretaceous age. The Northern Alberta Uplands, north of Lesser Slave Lake, are a series of disconnected plateaus rising 250–700 m from the surrounding Northern Alberta Lowlands to summits ranging from 760 to 1,050 m. The Interior Plains continue northward to the Arctic Ocean where they are bounded by the Arctic Coastal Plain and Arctic Lowlands. The southern Interior Plains are mostly characterized by grassland vegetation (see Prairie) under semiarid climatic conditions throughout the plains, but islands of mixed-wood forest prevail at high elevations on uplands in western Alberta. This land area of 320,000 km2 (or 3.2 per cent of Canada's land surface) is only 40 per cent of a sedimentary basin in the middle of the Canadian Shield, the remaining 60 per cent of which lies beneath Hudson Bay and James Bay.
The inland edge of the lowland (about 180 m high) coincides approximately with the highest level of marine inundation which followed the disappearance of glacial ice from Hudson Bay about 7,500 years ago. Closer to the coast, where the marine mantle is thicker, there are typically vast level plains of muskeg with thick peat accumulations and innumerable ponds.
At the coast the almost level nearshore zone is exposed at low tide as marshy and muddy flats, often strewn with glacial boulders (see Wetlands).
In the eastern lowland, flooding by marine waters was immediately followed by a re-advance of the ice sheet margin approximately along longitude 76–77? west.
Shield proper (about 5 million km2) covers 48 per cent of Canada's land surface (including freshwater lakes and Arctic islands).
The Shield is composed of crystalline Precambrian rocks formed during several phases of mountain building between four and one billion years ago. The southeastern and eastern borders have been uplifted in the relatively recent geological past as a result of tectonic movements associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean.
The high, rugged terrain along the east and southeast rim of the Shield is classified as highland.
The two extensive shield zones, east and west of Hudson Bay, were the centres of ice sheet outflow during the last glaciation (from 75,000 to 6,000 years ago).
Prominent moraines on the western plateau and north of Lake Ontario mark temporary pauses in the retreat of glaciers, between 14,500 and 12,500 years ago. This subregion in southeastern Ontario and southern Quebec has undulating topography, developed on sedimentary rocks that are largely masked by glacial and marine deposits. Along the Shield and Appalachian fringes of the lowland, sandy terraces (elevation up to 200 m) were deposited in the Champlain Sea, which flooded the newly deglaciated lowland approximately 13,000 years ago.
This is a subregion that widens from the lower St Lawrence estuary into the Gulf of St Lawrence and narrows again to the northeast at the Strait of Belle Isle.
The Appalachian Region (360,000 km2, about 3.6 per cent of Canada's land surface) lies between the St Lawrence Lowlands to the northwest and the Atlantic Continental Shelf to the east and southeast. At the same time, regional uplift has maintained smooth-topped uplands and highlands on stronger rocks, while weaker rocks have been fashioned into lowlands and plains.
In western Newfoundland and northeastern New Brunswick summits stand at 600–800 m; elsewhere in the region, this highland belt is flanked by uplands at 300–600 m in Quebec, northwestern New Brunswick, southern and eastern Newfoundland, and southern Nova Scotia. In eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Iles de la Madeleine, northern Nova Scotia and the triangular Newfoundland Central Lowland, weaker rocks have allowed the development of plains and lowlands.
With deglaciation, between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago, crustal uplift was sufficiently great to exceed sea-level rise in the central and northern zones of the Appalachian Region, so that a coastal fringe exhibits raised marine terraces which often provide pockets of sandy, arable land.
Physiographic RegionsA map of the physiographic regions of Canada from National Resources Canada. Canada's EcozonesClick on the map to view the natural history of specific ecozones in Canada. First World War CollectionThe First World War of 1914–1918 was the bloodiest conflict in Canadian history, taking the lives of more than 60,000 Canadians. Natural solutions for a healthy, happy lifestyleAs Canadians have become more health-conscious than ever, more and more people want alternative solutions to health problems rather than conventional medical practices and drugs.
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Natural regions are intended to describe areas of the Earth's surface which possess similar qualities or attributes. Natural regions, or ecozones, include descriptions of an area’s living organisms as well as its physical environment.
The boundary lines between ecozones are often areas of transition where one set of ecozone characteristics gradually merges into another set. Ecozones represent large ecosystems and are useful for gaining a perspective on the nation as a whole. The Northern Arctic ecozone extends over most of the Arctic Islands and includes the northeastern portion of the Northwest Territories, most of Nunavut and parts of northern Quebec.
In the global circumpolar setting, this ecozone constitutes the largest arctic archipelago. Most of this ecozone is associated with the most extensive set of islands in the entire circumpolar Arctic area.
Because of the severe climate, vegetation is commonly ground-hugging and dwarf-like in form. Hunting, fishing and trapping remain activities for local residents in this ecozone, most of whom are Inuit. This ecozone only covers 2.5 per cent (250,590 km2) of Canada though it is part of a larger ecosystem extending into Greenland. At lower elevations, bedrock and the debris from frost-shattered rock covers the foot-slopes of the mountains. The Southern Arctic ecozone is largely restricted to the mainland and spans both sides of Hudson Bay. The Southern Arctic ecozone is where many of the more typical Arctic features begin to respond to the warmer temperatures and extended growing seasons. Mammals of the ecozone include muskox, wolf, arctic fox, grizzly and polar bears, arctic hare, arctic ground squirrel and lemmings. Taiga is derived from a Russian word that generally refers to very open and stick-like forests. It is uncommon in Canada to see mountain ranges that are not covered to a large extent by trees. The mammals that live in the area include Dall's sheep, woodland and barren-ground caribou, moose, mountain goat, black and grizzly bears, wolf, marten, lynx, arctic ground squirrel, American pika, hoary marmot and brown lemming. Most of this ecozone is a level or gently rolling plain, and has a discontinuous pattern of permafrost. The poorly drained areas are covered with moss, sedge, dwarf birch, Labrador Tea, willows and Bearberry. Physiographic regionalization is defined here as the process by which regions with relatively homogeneous physical geography are determined. These seven large regions have broadly homogeneous physical geographic characteristics, and differences between them are visible from satellite images (see Remote Sensing). They include the Arctic Coastal Plains and Arctic Lowlands, the Innuitian Region of the High Arctic, and parts of the Canadian Shield in Nunavut, northern Quebec and Labrador. For example, the mainland east of Great Bear and Great Slave lakes, the Ungava Peninsula and most of Baffin Island are part of the Canadian Shield, and are composed of resistant igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock.
The eastern rim, extending from Labrador north along Baffin Island and into Ellesmere Island, is a mountainous zone with elevations of 1,500 m and higher in the north, and a heavily fjorded coast. The largest river in Canada, the Mackenzie, flows north from Great Slave Lake and empties into the Beaufort Sea. The Canadian part of the Cordillera is about 800 km wide, and extends from southern British Columbia north to the Yukon and the Beaufort Sea.


The most continuous mountain chains, known as the Coast and Rocky Mountains, form high rims along the southwestern and southeastern sides of a belt of varied terrain.
The Eastern system consists of sedimentary rocks that have been tilted, faulted and folded. Valley sides have been modified by rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, soil creep and snow avalanches. Differences in climate caused by elevation in any particular area are reflected by altitudinal vegetation zones. Many aspects of its physiography, including steep slopes, natural hazards and severe climate, restrict land use by humans.
The plains are distinguished by vast expanses (1.8 million km2, or 18 per cent of Canada's land surface) of sedimentary bedrock consisting mainly of poorly consolidated shales, siltstones and sandstones. Younger, non-marine sediments, largely sands and gravels representing deposits from rivers flowing eastward from the newly developing mountains to the west, covered these marine sediments in the western part of the region. The first step is the Manitoba Plain in the southeast, which lies below the Manitoba Escarpment at elevations under 400 m. The marine bedrock is covered by glacial deposits, predominantly rolling moraines and till plains, and to a lesser extent, the large, flat deposits of former glacial lakes.
Beyond the Coteau, the third step begins with the Eastern Alberta Plains, only slightly higher than the Saskatchewan Plain, and extends to the Western Alberta Plains, where elevations reach 1,100 m.
The valleys of the Peace, Athabasca and Hay rivers are the most striking features in the lowlands. Elevations generally decrease northward along the drainage of the Mackenzie River Valley, with a gentle rise eastward from the valley to the Precambrian Shield and a sharp rise, with several large plateaus, westward to the Rocky Mountains. The grassland gives way to an aspen parkland to the north and east, under slightly cooler temperatures and higher precipitation.
Apart from the Sutton Ridges in the northeast of the lowland, the bedrock terrain is completely masked by a mantle of glacial and marine sediments associated with the advance and retreat of ice during the last glaciation. At present, sea level is still falling at approximately 90 cm per 100 years, continually exposing more of the offshore zone.
Even if the Arctic Shield is excluded, the Canadian Shield Forest Lands remain the largest physiographic region in Canada, comprising 32 per cent of the land surface. In the last billion years it has remained a relatively stable bulwark, unaffected by the plate tectonic movements, which have impinged on it to form the mountainous fringe of Canada. In Baffin Island and northern Labrador it stands at 800–1,500 m and possesses rolling plateau surfaces which are deeply dissected by glacial troughs, giving a fjord-like aspect to these coasts. The central parts of these zones show unorganized terrain mantled with till and also pocked with irregular, shallow lake basins.
The West St Lawrence Lowland consists of a limestone plain (elevation 200–250 m) that is separated by a broad, shale lowland from a broader dolomite and limestone plateau west of Lake Ontario. Level clay and sand plains, which were deposited in glacial lakes, fringe the present lakes. Like other mountain regions, its terrain is a mosaic of uplands and lowlands, the characters, boundaries and shapes of which reflect the complexity of rocks and structures.
Highlands and mountains are disposed in a Z-shaped belt, from the Quebec border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northeastwards to the Gaspe Peninsula, then southwestwards across New Brunswick, and then continuing northeast north of the Bay of Fundy to Cape Breton Island.
Except in southern Nova Scotia, the uplands share with the highlands smoothly undulating skylines and deeply cut valleys. In Newfoundland and southern Nova Scotia, terrain strongly resembles that of the Shield, with extensive, glacially smoothed bedrock plains, patchily covered with bouldery till and dotted with irregular lakes. In the south, bordering the Atlantic Ocean, post-glacial sea-level rise has exceeded uplift along this submerging coast with rocky headlands, irregular bays and salt marshes. This collection brings together a number of our resources on the First World War.View Collection! For many, a natural approach to healing common ailments and serious health issues alike is preferable to invasive procedures and prescription drugs with their numerous side effects.Sherry Torkos, one of Canada's leading pharmacists, is renowned for her expansive knowledge of natural treatments. Living organisms may include plants, animals, insects and bacteria, while the physical environment encompasses rocks, soils, climate and water. The transition between the treed boreal ecozones and the arctic ecozones, for example, may take place over tens of kilometres.
However, they can be further subdivided into smaller subsystems which have increasing significance at the provincial and local levels. Hundreds of islands — as massive as Baffin Island and as small as Garnet Island — give this area a special character. The islands and mainland associated with this unit consist of mostly plains and rolling hills. The resulting soils are frozen year-round except for thin surface layers that thaw in the brief summer period. The main vegetation in upland areas consists of lichens and herbs, whereas wetter lowland sites will be predominated by sedges and mosses. Mammals of the Northern Arctic ecozone include Peary caribou, muskoxen, wolf, arctic fox, polar bear, arctic hare and collared lemmings. The terrain has marked relief (as is typical of fjord-dominated areas) and elevations (reaching over 2,000 m). Very few people live here and climate stations are few in numbers and often located at low elevations.
Coastal communities like Pond Inlet, Clyde River and Qikiqtarjuaq are examples of larger communities. Over three-quarters of this ecozone is on the western side of the bay in the northern parts of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. While the area is dominated by shrubs, herbs and wetland species, there is a fair range in the size of shrubs.
Most strikingly, the area is the major summer and calving grounds for the barren ground caribou.
It provides habitat for loons, whistling swan, snow goose, gyrfalcon, willow and rock ptarmigan, jaeger, snowy owl and snow bunting. This ecozone is small — just under three per cent of Canada, or 264,840 km2 — and lies along the northern portion of the Rocky Mountains.
Plants with deep roots, such as trees, cannot easily grow here because the soil beneath the surface is often permanently frozen. Their nesting grounds are fairly safe in this remote area, and there are abundant insects for food. Areas quoted for these regions are the land areas and do not include adjacent continental shelves or bodies of ocean water within Canada's territorial limits. Higher elevations consist of bedrock outcrops, while upland surfaces and upper valley-side slopes are covered by angular rock-rubble accumulations. While most of the Cordillera lies within these regions it also extends into southwestern Alberta and the Northwest Territories.
The Interior system's mountain ranges and dissected plateaus are underlain by folded sedimentary and layers of volcanic rock, by metamorphic rocks and numerous, small igneous intrusions. Since then, it has been uplifted, partly buried by lava flows, dissected by river erosion and modified by glaciers. Valleys and lowlands commonly contain thick silts and clays that were deposited in ice-dammed lakes during glacier melting, and sands and gravels that were deposited by meltwater streams.
The youngest lava flows and cinder cones are only a few hundred years old; these eruptions are described in certain legends told by Aboriginal peoples. Heavy rain and snow on the Coast Mountains give rise to dense forests and maintain extensive snowfields and glaciers at relatively low elevations.
Bedrock relief plays a role in large-scale physiographic features, but small-scale features are largely the result of Quaternary glaciation (2.6 million to 10,000 years ago). Erosion of the less resistant of these non-marine sediments, in association with uneven uplift that continued with mountain building to the west, resulted in the carving of the western part of the region into a series of isolated uplands. The Saskatchewan Plain, which is lower and smoother than the plains to the west, has surface elevations that range from 460 to 790 m, reaching 915 m in hillier areas.
Except for the Cypress Hills, which are isolated, the Southern Alberta Uplands form a buffer between the plains and the mountains, with elevations approaching 1,650 m. As this trend continues northward, a mixed-wood forest transitions to the dominantly coniferous boreal forest.
These have not been totally masked by younger marine deposits and therefore give the surface a corrugated appearance. There, scores of parallel, gravel beach ridges were thrown up by storm waves during the last 5,000–6,000 years, as sea level fell in response to rapid uplift of the Earth's crust. The stability of the Shield has allowed denudation to level its surface, giving it characteristic level or undulating skylines.
Highlands north of the St Lawrence River stand at 500–900 m with isolated summits at 1,000–1,200 m in terrain, which is more dissected, with few plateaus. Around these, glacial scouring of the bedrock is more obvious, with occasional ice-moulded till hills and many eskers marking the courses of sub-glacial rivers, and large moraines marking pauses in retreat of the ice front across the Shield. They are the exhumed roots of volcanoes that formed as the Atlantic Ocean was forming about 120 million years ago.
The low, rolling moraine trends southwest from near Quebec City to near the Vermont border. These fragments have a smooth terrain influenced by flat or gently dipping sedimentary bedrock. From there, broken by Cabot Strait, the belt continues along the high, western spine of Newfoundland.
In the rest of the region, even highland and mountain zones show only locally severe glacial erosion, particularly in valleys crossing the "grain" of the terrain. Trenhaile, Geomorphology: A Canadian Perspective (1998, 4th edition, 2010) and The Geomorphology of Canada (1990). In this new edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Torkos provides a definitive and up-to-date resource that includes natural treatments for everything from bug bites to muscle aches, osteoporosis to diabetes. For many, a natural approach to healing everything from common ailments to serious diseases is preferable when compared to the invasive medical procedures and prescription drugs that abound.Sherry Torkos, one of Canada’s leading pharmacists is widely regarded for her knowledge of complementary medicine. The term “natural region” is often used interchangeably with the word “ecozone.” Canada has 20 natural regions (15 terrestrial and five marine). Calcareous soils and bedrock along with the dry, cold climate can combine to create very harsh and desert-like conditions in some areas.


In some areas where there is influence from nearby mountains, the precipitation can reach 500 mm, as in the Labrador area.
In landscapes where calcareous soils are prevalent, the plant cover and types of species are typically limited.
Plants such as purple saxifrage, mountain avens, arctic poppy, crustose lichens, cotton grass, arctic willow, moss campion, sedges, arctic lousewart, white heather and willow are common.
Birds include red-throated loon, brant, oldsquaw, gyrfalcon, ptarmigan, jaeger, snowy owl, snow geese and snow bunting. As the Arctic has nearly 60 per cent of Canada's estimated oil resources and 50 per cent of the potential gas resources, various oil and gas activities have been active in the area. The Arctic Cordillera ecozone contains the only major mountainous region of Canada outside the western mountain system known as the Rockies. The tops of the mountains, however, are often mantled by ice caps towards the northern parts and by glaciers in the southern parts.
These valleys are the only locations where plants thrive to any degree and some habitat is provided for animals. The lower mountain slopes provide some vegetation cover, and this markedly increases in the narrow confines of fjord-carved valleys. These local communities have a collective population of just over a 1,000 people and constitute one of the world’s least populated areas.
Some of the drumlins along the upper Back River are nearly flat and others west of Chantrey Inlet are among the most dramatic in Canada. Near the poleward limits of trees to the south, the sizes of the shrubs vary from a metre and decrease to heights of a few centimetres toward the northern edge. Nearly a million caribou migrate here including the Qaminirjuaq, Beverly, Bathurst, Bluenose and Porcupine herds of the territories, and the Leaf and George River herds of northern Quebec and Labrador. It covers parts of the Yukon and the southwestern part of the Mackenzie District in the Northwest Territories. Other mountainous forms like buttes (cylindrical-like forms) and mesas (flat-topped mountains with steep sides) are found here.
Much of its notoriety comes from the many naturally-occurring square-to-rectangular lakes that cover the vast expanse of flatlands. The average growing season ranges from 1,000 GDD in the south to about 750 GDD in the north. The ecozones of Canada (see Natural Regions) provide more detailed breakdowns of Canada's land mass based on an ecological classification system.
Taken together, Canada's Arctic and Subarctic Lands comprise nearly 40–45 per cent of Canada's land surface. Bedrock is disrupted by joint and fissure widening, and by its separation into angular blocks.
The zone between the Shield and the Western Cordillera is a Palaeozoic plain (542–253 million years old) gently sloping from 500 m in elevation downwards to the Arctic Ocean.
The total area covered by this physiographic region is 1.6 million km2 (16 per cent of Canada).
In the Western system, the Coast Mountains consist of a mass of interlocking igneous intrusions and metamorphic rocks, but the westernmost mountains (the Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island ranges) are geologically similar to the Interior system. The most widespread landforms and surface deposits of the Cordillera date from the glaciations of the past million years. In the south, permafrost exists beneath only the highest, windswept ridge crests, but northward, the permafrost limit becomes lower and, in the central and northern Yukon, there is permafrost at all elevations. Where the Interior Plains extend northwards, as in the Northwest Territories, they become subarctic in nature while, even further north in the islands of the western Canadian Arctic, they constitute tundra lowlands that are truly arctic in nature. The underlying Palaeozoic rocks (544–250 million years old) are covered by glacial lake silts and clays deposited by Lake Agassiz.
This third step has a bolder, more varied relief, reflecting the close proximity of the erosion-resistant bedrock surface in many areas.
Finally, at the northern extension of the Interior Plains, forest gives way to treeless tundra and polar deserts.
Extending from northwestern Quebec through northern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Nunavut to northwestern mainland Nunavut and the eastern Mackenzie districts in the Northwest Territories, this terrain (200–500 m elevation) is upland only by virtue of its elevation above the Hudson Bay Lowland and the Interior Plains which border it. The periphery of these two core areas is marked by more level terrain which was flooded by lakes and seas during ice retreat. From the escarpment the plateau slopes gently southwest to lakes Huron and Erie (elevation 173 m). Surface conditions may be barren and dry, forested or boggy, depending on surface slope and the influence of coastal winds. These highlands reach over 1,200 m in the central Gaspe Peninsula (Mont Jacques-Cartier, 1,268 m). Her latest book, The Canadian Encyclopedia of Natural Cures, is the definitive source for alternative health care for Canadians; it is totally comprehensive and easy-tofollow, providing natural cures for everyday problems such as insect bites and muscle aches, as well as for serious chronic disorders such as osteoporosis, Parkinson’s disease, and diabetes. However, on Devon Island, and the Brodeur and Borden peninsulas, steeply-sided coastal cliffs of 200 to 300 m separate land from water. These are indications of how the landscape is subject to the churning caused by repeated freezing and thawing cycles. The average growing season ranges from less than 125 to 250 growing degree days (GDD) above 5°C.
Where the soil material is derived from shales or sandstones, the cover and types of species are better.
The waterfowl, in particular, rely on the Arctic wetlands and small lakes as key breeding and nesting grounds during the summer period. National parks like Aulavik on Banks Island and Auyuittuq on Baffin Island attest to the area's beauty.
It provides an eastern spine to the Arctic, occupying most of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands, as well as the eastern edges of Devon, Bylot and Baffin Islands, and parts of northern Labrador. Man-made constructions such as pipelines or roads must use special designs over the years to prevent the disruption of habitat, as well as wildlife migration routes.
By contrast, areas of unconsolidated sediments from the Paleocene to Quaternary periods (65 million to 10,000 years ago) form more undulating, poorly drained lowland terrain. The tundra progressively changes into polar desert at extreme high latitude as climate becomes increasingly colder and drier. Most striking are the badlands, formed from the dissection of soft underlying rocks in the arid southern region.
The relief of the hills increases because of differential erosion of linear geological structures formed in former mountain belts. Torkos emphasizes the role of lifestyle, nutrition, exercise and supplements in optimizing health and preventing disease. Summers are short and cool as the mean daily temperatures only rise above freezing in July and August. The poorly- drained lowlands and wetlands normally provide the most diverse and rich sites for plants.
As in many of the Arctic ecozones, the summer period in which the mean average temperature is above freezing is brief (July and August mainly), but the periods of daylight are extremely long. Examples include crustose lichens, purple saxifrage, mountain avens, cottongrass, willows, moss campion and arctic heather. Being relatively untouched by ice-scouring activities of the last Ice Age, it is well known as a "refugia" for many plants.
Soils are generally frozen throughout most of the year and thaw to moderate depths in the summer. Several distinctive landforms occur in the Arctic Lands, most often associated with the growth of permafrost and ground ice. The rock layers in the south are mainly flat lying, but in the Arctic Archipelago they have been folded and then eroded.
The treeline also approximates the southern boundary of the zone of continuous permafrost; that is, north of the treeline, the terrain is perennially frozen and the surface thaws for a period of only two-to-three months each year.
Farther north, extensive parts of the Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories were too dry for glacier formation, although very cold. This book features a detailed A to Z reference of ailments and disease, with the latest information on the natural cures that have been proven to assist in their treatment.
The Brodeur Plateau is vast and seemingly uninterrupted for over 300 km, and is dissected, very much like the southern badlands, with mesas and painted canyons. In the nearby marine environment, typical species include walrus (in the east), seals (bearded, harp and harbour), beluga whales and narwhal.
These rivers of ice spread outwards from the peaks like roots on a tree, slowly crawling down through the valleys. Easterly flowing rivers such as the Thelon and Back have played an important part in history and are currently used for canoeing and wilderness adventures.
The occurrence of permafrost throughout the landscape is variable and therefore, is considered to be discontinuous. Tundra polygons, a tortoise-shell pattern of cracks up to 30 m apart with ice wedges below the cracks, cover many thousands of square kilometres. Surface elevations rise from near sea level in the northwest to approach the high mountain rim in the east.
Detailed information will also advise readers of potential drug interactions that can occur when supplements are taken alongside prescribed medications.Canadians seeking to create a more holistic and personalized health program for themselves and for their families will turn to this reference time and time again.
Other distinctive periglacial landforms are pingos, over 1,500 of which have been counted near the Mackenzie Delta. Faulting followed by further deepening during glaciation may have caused the many channels among the islands. Beyond the traditional mineral soils, the ground may contain massive ice lenses tens of metres thick. While the Barnes Ice Cap is in the middle of Baffin Island, the majority of the famous ice caps — Devon Island, Ellsemere Island and Grise Fjord — are north of Lancaster Sound.



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