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There is growing evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as several studies have demonstrated the presence of the organism in atherosclerotic lesions.
BackgroundCoronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and is predicted to be the leading cause of death in the world [1]. MethodsEnrollment of patientsDuring the period from March 2005 a€“ 2006, 91 patients (72 males and 19 females) attending Cardiology out patient department of Safdarjung hospital, suspected of coronary artery disease and subsequently admitted for angioplasty were enrolled for the study.
Taking nPCR as gold standard the baseline clinical characteristics age, sex, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and family history of CAD, blood pressure and diabetes were compared in C. In (Figure 7) nPCR positivity in blood of CAD patients were compared with positivity for C. Competing interestsThe author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.Authors' contributionsJha HC, Harsh, Gupta R and Mittal A contributed to data interpretation and writing of the paper. El termino neumonia se aplica a la inflamacion pulmonar y existen unos 50 tipos de neumonia o clases de  inflamacion pulmonar de este tipo. La neumonia esta causada por infecciones respiratorias causadas por los rhino-virus,  los adeno-virus y el virus de la gripe tambien pueden llevar a una neumonia. Para hacernos una idea, solamente en los Estados Unidos se producen al ano unos 90.000 fallecimientos a causa de la neumonia. Detectada a tiempo y con el tratamiento adecuado, una persona de buena constitucion fisica puede recuperarse rapidamente, igual que en el caso de una gripe.
Ademas de la neumonia causada por el Streptococcus pneumoniae, hay neumonias causadas por otras bacterias que se incluyen en la categoria de las neumonias bacterianas.
Neumonia causada por la Chlamydia pneumoniae: se trata de la enfermedad contagiosa causada por este tipo de bacteria. Los pacientes generalmente tienen que someterse a diferentes tipos de analisis para el diagnostico de infecciones causadas por la Chlamydia pneumoniae.
Desde Mas que Salud os recomendamos consultar a un profesional, pero por regla general, la mayoria de las formas de neumonia de origen bacteriano se pueden tratar con antibioticos. A Montano-Loza a, E Vazquez-Ballesteros a, J Meza-Junco b, I Villalobos-Zapata c, M Olivera-Martinez aa Departamento de Gastroenterologia. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido establecer la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra C. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes que ingresaron con IAM a la Unidad Coronaria del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza.
A pesar de que el IAM se observó con una frecuencia incrementada de 70% de seropositividad hacia C. Salud Publica de Mexico es una publicacion periodica electronica, bimestral, publicada por el Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (INSP), con domicilio en Avenida Universidad num. Titulos Elevados de Anticuerpos Contra Chlamydia Pneumoniae Como Factor de Riesgo Para Cardiopatia Isquemica. Los trabajos publicados en esta revista estan protegidos por una Licencia de Atribucion de Bienes Comunes Creativos (CC) 3.0 .
Acquired metabolic abnormalities like hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus are major risk factors associated with CAD, besides inheritance.
Positive and negative controls were included in all PCR reactions.i) Multiplex PCR (mPCR)mPCR was used for the detection of C. La mayoria de los casos de neumonia virica son suaves y se resuelven normalmente en el plazo de una semana, con o sin un tratamiento especifico.
Sin embargo, algunos casos agudos de neumonia pueden poner en peligro la vida del paciente. El nombre generico de la bacteria causante de este tipo de neumonia es Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Una de ellas, la causada por el Mycoplasma pneumoniae, un organismo unicelular carente de nucleo. Los brotes de esta neumonia se producen por ejemplo entre estudiantes en centros educativos o entre militares. Es una forma de neumonia que generalmente sufren personas con sistemas inmunologicos debilitados o enfermos de leucemia.
En ocasiones, su diagnostico se ve dificultado porque los sintomas apuntan en principio hacia otras formas de dolencia causadas por la bacteria Chlamydia.
Estos analisis incluyen cultivos celulares para excluir otras enfermedades con sintomas parecidos, como por ejemplo la candidiasis, trichomoniasis, el herpes y la gonorrea. Normalmente, los medicos tambien recomiendan una vacunacion en el caso de personas de mas de 50 anos y aquellas que sufran de casos agudos de neumococos. Registrese en Elsevier y obtendra: informacion relevante, maxima actualizacion y promociones exclusivas.
Determinar si los anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae en pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio y factores de riesgo coronario se asocian con la muerte.
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether antibodies against Chlamydophila pneumoniae in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary risk factors are associated with death. In India there is an urgent need for sensitive methods that could detect and provide direct evidence of C.
Por lo general, la neumonia lobar sigue a una infeccion respiratoria aguda, especialmente de las vias respiratorias superiores. La bronconeumonia causa una fiebre mas baja que en el caso del estreptococo de la neumonia.
Otra, cuyo origen esta en un relativamente inocuo protozoo llamado Pneumocystis carinii y finalmente la neumonia atipica causada por la Chlamydia pneumoniae.
Generalmente, la neumonia atipica se cura por si misma y puede solucionarse con el uso de antibioticos. Este tipo de neumonia ha sido la principal causa de fallecimiento entre los enfermos de SIDA (Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida).
Un subgrupo de estas enfermedades son causadas por diversas cepas de la bacteria de tipo trachomatis.
Un metodo moderno de diagnostico de las infecciones causadas por la Chlamydia son los analisis inmunologicos. Esta vacuna tambien garantiza una inmunidad contra casos virulentos de afecciones de neumonia. Nucleic Acid Amplification tests (NAATs) has emerged as an important method for detecting C.


Lane 1 Positive control, Lane 2, 4, 5 DNA of CAD patients, Lane 3 negative control and Lane 6, 100 bp ladder. Lane1 positive control, Lane 2&3 DNA of CAD patients, Lane 4, 100 bp ladder, Lane 5, negative control. Lane 1 100 bp ladder, Lane 2 negative control, Lane 3,4,5 and 6, CAD patients DNA 100, 75, 50, 25 ng respectively.
La inflamacion neumonica de los pulmones se produce debido a la acumulacion de residuos celulares y celulas de sangre en los sacos de aire de los pulmones. Incluso en personas plenamente sanas inicialmente, la neumonia puede complicarse si no se detecta a tiempo. Los sintomas de la neumonia lobar son el dolor en el pecho al respirar o toser y fiebre, acompanado de la sensacion de frio y temblores. Otra forma severa de dolencia causada por la bacteria chlamydia esta causada por una cepa especifica de la Chlamydia trachomatis, que se trasmite por el aire. Estos analisis detectan directamente los anticuerpos producidos por el sistema inmunologico del paciente afectado por la infeccion causada por la chlamydia. Tambien se administra como una forma de soporte adicional del sistema inmunitario a personas con dolencias cronicas de higado, pulmon o corazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 patients hospitalized in the Coronary Unit of Centro Medico La Raza Hospital of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, between 1999 and 2000. A detailed questionnaire including reasons for referral to cardiology department, age, sex, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and history of heart disease, blood pressure, or diabetes was maintained for all the patients included in the study.Collection of samplesVenous blood (5 ml) was collected in heparinized tubes (Heparin-Hi Media, Mumbai, India) and 2 ml in non- heparinized tubes from CAD patients and controls. On X-axis; smoker groups are divided into heavy smoker, occasional smoker and never smoker.
On X-axis- alcoholic groups divided into heavy alcoholic, occasional alcoholic and never taken alcohol.
Further studies are needed to define and determine the clinical and prognostic implications of such findings. Si las personas afectadas por neumonia no reciben rapidamente el tratamiento apropiado, esta puede llegar a tener consecuencias muy serias. Ademas de la Chlamydia pneumoniae,  hay otras dos especies de esta bacteria, la Chlamydia psittaci y la Chlamydia trachomatis. Se incluyeron en el estudio 100 sujetos que, entre 1999 y 2000, estuvieron hospitalizados en la Unidad Coronaria del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico La Raza, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Los pacientes aceptaron y firmaron la carta de consentimiento informado para participar en el estudio. Estos conductos estan en contacto con los pulmones, lo que en el caso de la bronconeumonia puede llegar a ser peligroso. Esto ha llevado a que en los Estados Unidos, la neumonia haya pasado de ser la tercera a ser la quinta causa de fallecimiento en ese pais.
Se trataba de una muestra constituida por pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con infarto agudo del miocardio y riesgo coronario. Antibodies against Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psitacii and Chlamydia trachomatis were measured using an indirect microinmunofluorescence assay.
Antes de la aparicion de los antibioticos, muchos de los fallecimientos se debian a una neumonia lobar. Mediante microinmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psitacii y Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, blood samples from 33 patients from the original group were taken when the patients were discharged from the hospital, and 3 months after their myocardial infarction. Basinkevich AB, Shakhnovich RM, Martynova VR, Kolkova NI, Rakovskaya IV, Karazhas NV et al. Responsable de la version electronica: Subdireccion de Comunicacion Cientifica y Publicaciones, Avenida Universidad num. La neumonia lobar generalmente solo ataca a un lobulo de los mismos, o parte del mismo, de ahi su nombre. Data analysis consisted of geometric means and standard deviations as well as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Reports suggest that there is poor concordance between different laboratories, as only 25% agree on one specimen and there is no correlation between the detection rates and the sensitivity of NAATs used.Keeping these observations in mind all good laboratory practice guidelines were followed according to Kwok and Higushi [22].
Identification of HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response in primary biliary cirrhosis: T cell activation is augmented by immune complexes cross-presented by dendritic cells. These data are based on serology, animal model studies, direct detection of the organism in atherosclerotic lesion, and preliminary clinical trials showing improved outcome among patients treated with antibiotics [9a€“11]. Our results also indicate that nPCR is highly sensitive to detect as low as 25 ng of DNA from CAD patients. Setenta por ciento de los pacientes de la muestra inicial presentaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila pneumoniae; no se identificaron anticuerpos contra Chlamydophila psitacii y Chlamydia trachomatis.
Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. This will help in order to prepare strategies for the antibiotic intervention to avoid the progression towards CAD. Changes in habits (Drinking, smoking, junk foods) and habituation (urbanization, migration) also conferred their role in extending predisposition towards CAD [12].It is reported that Indians have the highest risk of CAD and the prevalence of CAD in India has recently been estimated to be 11% [13]. No statistically significant association was found between antibodies and death in these patients with coronary risk factors and AMI.
Medline4.Garcia-Suarez C, Crespo J, Fernandez-Gil PL, Amado JA, Garcia-Unzueta MT, Pons Romero F. In the subgroup of 33 individuals 25 had antibodies against Chlamydophila pneumoniae and in 83% of them antibodies decreased three months after the AMI event. Concentraciones plasmaticas de leptina en pacientes con cirrosis biliar primaria y su relacion con el grado de fibrosis. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute coronary heart disease events in non-insulin dependent diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in Finland.
25, 50, 75 and 100 ng were taken and amplification was carried out as described above.SerologyThe detection of C.
Smoking is a potential confounder of the Chlamydia pneumoniae-coronary artery disease association. Deficiency of the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.


This is done on the basis of index number, which is obtained by dividing the absorbance for the sample by the calculated average cut off control value.
Our first aim was thus to find a reliable NAAT test that would give help in precise detection of C. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA seropositivity is associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease, myocardial infarction and stroke in dialysis patients.
For comparing diagnostic assays, the Fisher-exact statistic for binary related variables was used. T cell receptor gene rearrangements of T lymphocytes infiltrating the liver in chronic active hepatitis B and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC): oligoclonality of PBC-derived T cell clones. Relation of Chlamydia pneumoniae serology to mortality and incidence of ischaemic heart disease over 13 years in the caerphilly prospective heart disease study. As increased IgA antibody levels often reflects an active or persistent infection, whereas IgG levels reflect only a previous or past infection with C pneumoniae [18], our third aim was to correlate the presence of C. For the comparisons of results, pairs of assays, the two highest-ranking diagnostic assays were compared with all others by using McNamara's test of two related variables. Serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a long-term predictor of cardiovascular death in renal transplant recipients. Most of the proposed proatherogenic actions of smoking, such as interference with blood coagulation, induction of endothelial dysfunction, and promotion of lipid peroxidation, reverse themselves shortly after cessation of smoking.
Effect of treatment for Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on markers of inflammation and cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: South Thames Trial of Antibiotics in Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina (STAMINA). Such a pathomechanism may be relevant to the development of vessel pathology among smokers because of the facilitating effects of smoking on the manifestation of various types of persistent infectious illness [12, 31]. The mechanism by which alcohol consumption reduces the risks for CAD appears to be multifactorial and remains conjectural [32].
Although it has been reported that long-term ethanol feeding reduces the severity of early atherosclerotic lesions in mice and ethanol inhibits human platelet activation and enhances endothelial fibrinolytic activity both of which are important for athrombogenesis [33]. Clinical picture of community-acquired Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia requiring hospital treatment: A comparison between chlamydial and pneumococcal pneumonia. The microimmunofluorescence test for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: Technique and interpretation.
Molecular identification of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in liver tissue of primary biliary cirrhosis: is Propionibacterium acnes involved in granuloma formation?
Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae.
Metaanalysis of sero-epidemiologic studies of the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis: Does study design influence results? Relation between Escherichia coli R(rough)-forms in gut, lipid A in liver, and primary biliary cirrhosis. Detection of retroviral antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis and other idiopathic biliary disorders. Mycobacterial DNA not detected in liver sections from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Current knowledge on Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, an important cause of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases. Chlamydia pneumoniae: Risk factors for seropositivity and association with coronary heart disease. Association of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Japanese rural districts; association of smoking and physical activity with Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity.
Tissue antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis, active chronic (lupoid) hepatitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and other liver diseases and their clinical implications. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity and clinical history of ischemic heart disease in Singapore. The role of coronary artery lesions in ischemic heart disease: Insights from recent clinicopathologic, coronary arteriographic, and experimental studies. Demonstration of Chlamydia benefit from antibiotic treatment concerning embolus pneumoniae in arteriosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries.
Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2.
Cross-reactivity of anti-Mycobacterium gordonae antibodies with the major mitochondrial autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: Results from a large prospective study.
High prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity in Mexican patients with ischemic heart disease. Histopathological study of primary biliary cirrhosis and the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on histology progression.
Medline29.Murtaugh PA, Dickson ER, Van Dam GM, Malinchoc M, Grambsch PM, Langworthy AL, et al. Primary biliary cirrhosis: prediction of short-term survival based on repeated patient visits. Studies on the mechanism of the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase in cholestasis: significance of the hepatic bile acid concentration for the leakage of alkaline phosphatase from rat liver.
Identification and specificity of a cDNA encoding the 70 kd mitochondrial antigen recognized in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Reactivity of primary biliary cirrhosis sera with Escherichia coli dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p): characterization of the main immunogenic region. Pathology and immunopathology of primary biliary cirrhosis with emphasis on bile duct lesions: recent progress.




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