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Gonorrhea or the clap, refers to an extremely contagious sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a bacteria. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are even known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or venereal diseases. The most significant way of transmitting such illnesses are through sexual behavior such as vaginal, oral and anal sex. STDs can have terrible consequences on people’s lives and the lives of the ones infected by them, but the great news as well as good health tips is the fact that they can be prevented.
The sexually transmitted infections may be of bacterial nature, like Chlamydia, Gonorrhea or Syphilis, fungal nature like Candidosis, viral, like viral hepatitis or AIDS and some sexual transmitted infections spread parasites such as crabs and scabies. Genital herpies is an infection with the herpes simplex virus ( HSV) and is divided into two types: HSV-1 can be transmitted orally, causing sores and HSV-2, through sexual contact, affecting the genitals. Gonorrhea is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease that showcases symptoms mostly among men. In most cases, hgh injections are meant for the growth of human hormones by pharmaceutical companies. Sexually Transmitted Disease covers a huge number of infections that can spread via sexual contact. The results of how infections may prevent asthma have boosted developments in innovative devices capable of promoting wellbeing. Millions of people are affected with Lymphatic Filariasis or Elephantiasis especially those who are inhabitant in tropical countries. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the United States.
Both of these diseases, along with syphilis and herpes, have also been associated with increased HIV transmission, which is of particular concern among men who have sex with men (MSM) of all races and African-American men and women, where the HIV burden is now greatest. This document summarizes 2007 national data on trends in three notifiable STDs a€” chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis a€” that are published in CDCa€™s report, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2007. Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that can easily be cured with antibiotics, but usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. The reported chlamydia case rate for females in 2007 was almost three times higher than for males (543.6 vs. Reducing the impact of this disease among women will also require reducing and treating chlamydia among males. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, with 355,991 cases reported in 2007. As in previous years, in 2007 the South had the highest gonorrhea rate among the four regions of the country (156 cases per 100,000 population).
While the impact is greatest in the South, public health officials have also been concerned in recent years about increases in gonorrhea rates in the West, with the reported rate of gonorrhea rising 17.1 percent between 2003 and 2007.
While gonorrhea is easily cured, untreated cases can lead to serious health problems similar to those caused by chlamydia. With the loss of fluoroquinolones, recommended gonorrhea treatments are limited to a single class of antibiotics, cephalosporins. The rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis a€” the most infectious stages of the disease a€” decreased throughout the 1990s, and in 2000 reached an all-time low. P&S syphilis rates remained substantially lower among females than males, though overall rates have increased each year among females since 2004, following more than a decade of declines.
Syphilis, a genital ulcerative disease, is highly infectious, but easily curable in its early (primary and secondary) stages. CDC recommends that sexually active MSM be tested for syphilis, as well as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV at least annually. CDC also recommends that all pregnant women be screened for syphilis at the first prenatal visit.
Data in CDCa€™s 2007 STD surveillance report indicate persistent racial disparities in STD rates, with African Americans bearing a particularly heavy burden. These disparities may be, in part, because racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to seek care in public health clinics that report STDs more completely than private providers.
In 2007, the rate of chlamydia among blacks was more than eight times higher than the rate among whites (1,398.7 vs. In 2007, the P&S syphilis rate among blacks increased for the fourth consecutive year, following more than a decade of declines. To reduce the toll of STDs and protect the health of millions of Americans, expanded prevention efforts are urgently needed. CDC supports a comprehensive approach to STD prevention that includes expanded screening, treatment, and behavioral interventions, with a focus on reducing racial disparities.
In addition to recommending annual chlamydia screening for all sexually active women under 26 years of age, CDC also supports U.S.
To further progress against chlamydia, CDC, the Partnership for Prevention and eight other national organizations, established the National Chlamydia Coalition. Eliminating syphilis as a health threat in the United States will also require an increased commitment to education, testing, and treatment in all populations affected.
The clap is a nickname given to the treatment of clearing away the blockage inside the urethra due to gonorrhea plus, whereby the penis claps on both the sides at the same time.


STIs are known by this name because some persons may be infected without showing any symptoms, but they still can pass the disease to other people. Some sexually transmitted diseases might infect people by using infected needles, by close contact, sharing fluids, through childbirth or breastfeeding. In many cases, there are no symptoms, but like all STDs, if left untreated, it can cause serious consequences upon one’s health.
Syphilis is a STD that progresses through several stages if it’s left untreated, but the first two stages are highly infectious.
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CDC estimates that approximately 19 million new infections occur each yeara€” almost half of them among young people 15 to 24 years of age1. Biological factors place women at greater risk than men for the severe health consequences of STDs.
Reducing the preventable and persistent toll of STDs will require expanded access to prevention, treatment, and screening services for the diverse populations now at risk. These data, which are useful for examining overall trends and trends among specific populations at risk, represent only a small proportion of the true national burden of STDs.
Increases in chlamydia rates are more likely a reflection of the continued expansion of screening and use of more sensitive tests, rather than an increase in the total burden of the disease in the United States. Studies have found that women are most severely impacted by the long-term consequences of untreated chlamydia. Following a 74 percent decline in the rate of reported gonorrhea from 1975 through 1997, overall gonorrhea rates have remained relatively stable for the past decade, though the disease persists at too high a level.
Among women, gonorrhea is a major cause of PID, which can lead to chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Although recent data show no indication of cephalosporin resistance in the United States, continued monitoring for emerging resistance is critical, and accelerated research into new treatments are needed to continue the nationa€™s progress in controlling this common sexually transmitted disease. However, over the past seven years, the syphilis rate in the United States has been increasing. Since 2005, data reported to CDC has included gender of partners for persons with syphilis and in 2007, 65 percent of all P&S syphilis cases were among MSM, based on data from 44 states and the District of Columbia. If untreated, it can lead to serious long-term complications, including brain, cardiovascular, and organ damage, and even death.
To combat the increases in syphilis among MSM during the last decade, CDC has partnered with health departments and community groups in the cities hardest hit to implement new strategies for this population. This is critical for protecting infants from the serious complications associated with congenital syphilis.
The gonorrhea rate among blacks was 19 times greater than that of whites in 2007 (662.9 vs.
While this represents a substantial decline from 1999, when the rate among blacks was 29 times greater than among whites, significant disparities remain.
In addition to the threat of infertility, increased risk of HIV acquisition and other health risks, STDs have a substantial economic impact. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation to screen high-risk, sexually active women for gonorrhea. The partnership is comprised of non-profit organizations, health care professional associations, advocacy groups, health insurers, and government representatives working together to reduce the rates of chlamydia and its harmful effects among sexually active adolescent and young adults, to raise awareness of the importance of chlamydia screening to sexual health, and to help improve adherence to recommended screening guidelines.
While the disease was on the verge of elimination in the late 1990s, shifts in disease transmission have since resulted in substantial new prevention challenges.
Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Chlamydia screening in a health plan before and after a national performance measure introduction. Determinants of persistent and recurrent chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women: results of a multicenter cohort study. Incidence and repeat infection rates of chlamydia trachomatis among male and female patients in an STD clinic: implications for screening and rescreening. Determining risk markers for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection and reinfection among adolescents in public high schools. Increases in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men who have sex with men a€” United States, 2003, and revised recommendations for gonorrhea treatment, 2004. Update to CDCa€™s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006: Fluoroquinolones No Longer Recommended for Treatment of Gonococcal Infections.
HIV prevention through early detection and treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases a€” United States recommendations of the Advisory Committee for HIV and STD Prevention.
The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases among American youth, 2000. In short, female gonorrhea indicates thick discharge from the vagina of the female that might also affect the rectum, eyes, throat, skin, blood and joints. Knowing STDs, their symptoms and ways of transmission may help preventing future health complications.


It is also called the silent disease due to the lack of symptoms within a major percent of the population.
The two most commonly reported infectious diseases in America a€” chlamydia and gonorrhea a€” pose a particular risk to the health of women, as both can result in infertility if left untreated. Many cases of notifiable STDs go undiagnosed, and some common viral infections, such as human papillomavirus and genital herpes, are not reported at all. Up to 40 percent of females with untreated chlamydia infections develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a€“ a condition, which can lead to such long-term complications as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.2 Complications from chlamydia among men are relatively uncommon, but may include epididymitis and urethritis, which can cause pain, fever, and in rare cases, sterility. The 2007 total represents the largest number of cases ever reported to CDC for any condition. Much of this difference reflects the fact that females are far more likely to be screened than males.
In men, untreated gonorrhea can cause epididymitis, a painful infection in the tissue surrounding the testicles that can result in sterility.
Untreated syphilis in pregnant women can also result in congenital syphilis (syphilis among infants), which can cause stillbirth, death soon after birth, and physical deformity and neurological complications in children who survive. These approaches range from new Internet-based strategies for notifying sexual partners to education campaigns targeted to high-risk populations and health care providers. Socioeconomic barriers to quality healthcare and STD prevention and treatment services have likely contributed to a higher prevalence and incidence of STDs among racial and ethnic minorities. While elimination efforts were originally targeted to heterosexuals in the geographic areas where syphilis was concentrated, increases in syphilis among MSM across the country have since required that limited resources be shifted to combat two distinct syphilis epidemics. While the symptoms of this venereal disease are usually mild, it can lead to serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility . It basically spreads by way of semen in case of unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner.
It is wrong to think that wearing a condom is enough to be protected from all STDs since not all of them are passed through vaginal or anal intercourse. Together, these diseases were reported in almost 1.5 million Americans in 2007, but the majority of cases continue to go undiagnosed. The P&S syphilis rate among males is now six times the rate among females, whereas the rates were almost equivalent a decade ago , suggesting that increases in men have largely been among men who sex with men. As CDC continues to evaluate and work to replicate the most effective approaches to reducing this burden, it is clear that regular screening of MSM, especially HIV-positive MSM, remains one of the most critical steps toward preventing the spread of syphilis. Ensuring that minority communities have access to prevention, screening, treatment and partner services needed to improve health is critical to addressing these disparities. In 2007, there were declines in gonorrhea rates among all racial and ethnic groups, except blacks, among whom the gonorrhea rate increased by 1.8 percent between 2006 and 2007. As a result, declines in reported syphilis cases in some areas and populations continue to be offset by syphilis increases in others. It can also be associated with prostatitis, epididymitis or even rare fertility complications. An early treatment includes intake of antibiotics only, including Cipro®, Levaquin® and Tequin®, a single dose of each. CDC estimates that there are approximately 2.8 million new cases of chlamydia in the United States each year1, indicating that more than half of new cases remain undiagnosed and unreported. Ultimately, successful elimination of this disease will require intensified efforts at the federal, state, and local levels to reach the diverse and expanded populations now at risk. Also, contamination of fingers with genital discharge can lead to eye infections , when chlamydia conjunctivitis  develops.Risk groups are girls under the age of 25 years, while the percentage of elderly patients is halved.
In the absence of symptoms, screening for STD (STI) is best done 2 weeks after a sexual contact with a partner of unknown sexual health status.
The frequency is associated with frequent change of sexual partners, multiple other infections, genital organs and unprotected sex .Chlamydia infection is confirmed by laboratory testing, and it is possible to be detected from urine and the cervical smear.
However, with the new techniques used, the screening test may be positive as soon as 2 days after exposure. Sexually active girls younger than 25 years are recommended to screening for chlamydia at least once a year.
The annual test is also recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or more), as well as all pregnant women and persons who are planning a pregnancy.What are the symptoms of chlamydia ?Chlamydia usually has a mild and unnoticeable symptoms, which rarely indicate the existence of the infection. The first symptoms of this disease are pain in the lower abdomen, fever and changes in vaginal discharge. When it is not treated promptly, chlamydia can lead to chronic infection, which causes various complications such as inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) , seminal vesicles (epididymitis) or even infertility. Tetracyclines (Doxycycline) , ciprofloxacin (Ciprobay, Ciprinol), clarithromycin (Fromilid) during 10-14 days and azitromycin (Sumamed) in a single dose of 1g (single shot) are most commonly used.
During this period, seven days after completion of therapy people should abstain from sexual intercours  .Both partners should be subject of  the treatment, given that women whose partners are not treated appropriately have a high risk of reinfection which increases the possibility of serious complications .



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