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1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. The complaints against Michael Culp (Natural Health and Wellness Centre),  London Leech Therapy and Lesley Parkinson (Brainhealth) were all informally resolved.
Our complaint against the Zhai Clinic has been referred to the Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP) compliance team, because the ASA already has well established positions on the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, and the use of the title ‘Dr’ by practitioners.
Our complaint against the Energy Clinic, where Margareta Griesz-Brisson practises, has been referred to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Episode 3 of the BBC2 series Inside Harley Street, broadcast on Monday 27th April, explored complementary and alternative therapies.
While it might not have been the intention of the programme-maker, the documentary shone a light on the large number of alternative treatments available in the Harley Street area, which appear not to be supported by good evidence. On examining the websites of each of the alternative medicine practitioners featured in the programme, we found that all of them were making claims which we felt to be misleading. We have reported all seven of the complementary and alternative medicine businesses featured in the programme to the Advertising Standards Authority. We suspect that dubious treatments could be given undeserved legitimacy if practised in the prestigious Harley Street area, especially if practitioners use the title “Dr”.
Our investigations found that three of the practitioners featured on the programme – Dr Michael Culp, Dr Xiao-Ping Zhai and Dr Lesley Parkinson – all use the title “Dr” in their advertising, although they are not registered with the General Medical Council.
By improving function the practitioner may not only treat any disease, but can also correct functional imbalances and promote optimal health and longevity.
Michael Culp was shown on the programme using Applied Kinesiology in order to make diagnoses and to select treatment.
Although practitioners may believe that it is effective, Applied Kinesiology makes no biological sense and is not backed by good evidence. Xiao-Ping Zhai runs a fertility clinic which uses Traditional Chinese Medicine to help patients conceive and to support a healthy pregnancy. The diagnostic techniques shown on the programme and described on the Zhai Clinic website are highly questionable. The treatments offered by the Zhai Clinic are not just unproven, but could also be harmful.
The patient shown on the programme admits that she did not know what was in the medicines she was sold.
One patient was referred to Lesley Parkinson  (who does not consider herself to be a complementary therapist) for neurofeedback therapy. Despite using the title Dr, Lesley Parkinson is not a qualified medical doctor as far as we can tell. The programme also featured Ainsworths homeopathic pharmacy, which sells a selection of highly questionable medicines, many of which do not appear to be licensed by the MHRA.
The choice of products on sale to the public from the Ainsworths website is bewildering and very worrying. Dr Margareta Griesz-Brisson is shown on the programme giving herself a vitamin C infusion for wound healing after having had dental work. One of Griesz-Brisson’s patients is shown undergoing a vitamin infusion while lying on a “magnetic mat” in order to “purge the body of electromagnetic waves”.
All claims regarding the use of leech therapy, with the possible exception of knee osteoarthritis, are unsupported by evidence.
Similarly, practitioner Susan Kennard advertises that Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), which involves tapping lightly on parts of the body, can be helpful for a huge range of health conditions, even though there is no good evidence that this is the case. Viewers of Inside Harley Street might be tempted to visit Harley Street practitioners, or therapists in their local area, in order to try the therapies featured in the programme. We asked the alternative therapists mentioned in this article for their comments, and two of them offered these responses. As a very experienced and well qualified practitioner, I operate under strict ethical guidelines. My web-site makes it absolutely clear that I am a Clinical Psychologist.  If you check you will find that Clinical Psychology is a Doctorate level profession, registered with and regulated by the Health Care Professions Council, of which I am a member. Our concerns about alternative therapists in the Harley Street area have been covered in an article that appeared in the Sunday Telegraph on 10th May 2015. We will be reporting back monthly on the progress of our complaints to the Advertising Standards Authority.
Podrás disfrutar de la comunidad y de las ventajas que tiene estar registrado en la Casa del Libro, como por ejemplo, vender los libros que ya no quieres. This text offers an authoritative account of general medical and surgical conditions as they apply to the practice of dentistry and oral healthcare.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium.
Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. The practitioners in question have all assured the ASA that they will amend their websites to bring them into compliance. It is worth noting that this is just the tip of the iceberg, given that we have encountered similar claims repeated by thousands of alternative therapists across the whole of the UK.
It is even possible that patients may delay consulting a conventional doctor in the belief that they are already receiving appropriate treatment from an alternative therapist. Culp received his medical degree from Bastyr University in Seattle, Washington, where he was later appointed to the faculty to teach courses in medical nutrition and nutritional biochemistry while practising as a family GP at University Health Clinic in Seattle. One particularly bewildering clip shows Culp explaining how a patient could suddenly develop a shorter limb during a consultation.
Culp’s website reveals that he uses a variety of other diagnostic techniques, which appear to us to be ineffective, including Live Blood Analysis.
According to the programme, the patient featured had her first appointment with Zhai around two weeks after suffering a miscarriage, after having tried to conceive for five years.


Looking at the tongue is not a biologically plausible method of diagnosing fertility or any of the causes of infertility. Acupuncture commonly has minor side effects (such as bruising, bleeding and temporary pain) and there is an additional rare risk of serious side effects.
The overwhelming majority of Chinese herbal medicines are not licensed by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, which means that such products are essentially unregulated.
One customer shown on the programme, who also happens to be a naturopath, explains that she is self-medicating with a selection of Ainsworths remedies including homeopathic X-ray and homeopathic coffee.
Although the products themselves are homeopathic and presumably contain no active ingredient, it was of concern to find that many of the products share their names with illnesses or with prescription medicines, thereby suggesting that they can be used for serious conditions. There are also homeopathic preparations of various bacteria advertised for sale (eg various Bacillus species),Tetanus Toxin, Tetanus Antitoxin, various types of cancer (Osteosarcoma, Melanoma Metastasen, Melanoma Sarcomium, Tumour Bowel) and homeopathic preparations apparently based on various prescription medicines (Penicillin, Temazepam). She also explains that she tries to avoid using sticking plasters because of toxins in the glue. Yet Maryam Rahbari’s London Leech Therapy website claims that leech therapy can help with a variety of skin diseases, neurological disorders, rheumatic diseases, endocrine diseases and more.
It is of particular concern that some of the conditions listed on her website, such as asthma and “blood pressure” can be serious and life threatening and would require appropriate medical advice and treatment. We strongly urge any patients looking at alternative or complementary treatments such as these to be extremely cautious, to always question the validity of the treatment they are considering, and to discuss with their GP whether or not alternative therapies are appropriate. I never claim to heal or cure and before I start work with a client or even if it’s free, I ask them to sign a form which clearly states I am not a medical practitioner and do not claim to heal or cure. I am also a member of the British Psychological Society and other Scientific Societies.  I am a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. The sheer volume of misleading claims on Culp’s site was astonishing, with over a hundred claims which appeared to breach UK advertising rules. Zhai does not take the patient’s pulse in the conventional way, but uses a method which is typically used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and which is not based on modern understanding of physiology. Chinese herbal medicine also carries significant risk – if the products contain any active ingredients there could be unexpected side effects.
The MHRA have had to issue warnings on a number of occasions when Traditional Chinese Medicines have been found to be contaminated with microbes or heavy metals, or to be adulterated with prescription drugs. Although neurofeedback has been used to treat epilepsy and ADHD, it is not a well established technique in our opinion and the evidence to support it to treat other conditions appears to be weak and inconsistent.
None of these products are licensed medicines, as far as we can ascertain, and are particularly worrying because their names suggest that they are intended to treat or prevent serious disease. Many patients appear to be asked to avoid anything which is not sourced from nature, and some patients may be supported in their false belief that they could be suffering from electromagnetic sensitivity. We feel that the advice given could be alarming to patients and could encourage them to undergo treatments and to make lifestyle changes which would not be in their best interests.
Several of the conditions named on her website, such as pancreatic diabetes, require medical attention.
Patients could be put at risk if they decide to forego or delay taking prescribed medicine in the belief that EFT is effective. The use of emotive testimonials, alternative diagnostic techniques and misleading advertising claims could encourage patients to waste time and money on therapies that turn out to be completely ineffective, and sometimes even harmful. I consider myself a practitioner who uses energy techniques to help others to be empowered and make their own choices. I have presented at Scientific Conferences which have Scientific Boards evaluating proposals and presentations.
Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
However, neither Zhai nor any of the other doctors named on the Zhai Clinic website is registered with the GMC.
This should be of additional concern to a patient who is trying to conceive, as she could be in the early stages of pregnancy. In our view, this is a serious issue which affects the entire industry across the whole of the UK.
Ainsworths pharmacist Tony Pinkus, who also appeared on Inside Harley Street, had been prepared to recommend homeopathic pills called Pertussin to parents as an alternative to the whooping cough vaccination. Griesz-Brisson practises at the Energy Clinic, which advertises that infusions of “vitamin, micro-nutrients and complex homeopathics are essential for optimal health and primary prevention”. We feel that patients could be put at risk and may even delay appropriate treatment in the belief that leech therapy could be of benefit. To essentially help them to clear unwanted beliefs that can lead to stress both emotional and physical.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
Furthermore, there is no good evidence that either Chinese herbal medicine or acupuncture is effective to treat any of the causes of infertility. In 2011, the ASA upheld a complaint against advertising for Ainsworths homeopathic travel kit, which offered alternatives to travel vaccinations and in 2013, the MHRA told Ainsworths to stop advertising a number of homeopathic “vaccine” products, including Pertussin.
I have found this to be very effective and watched my clients create the lives they choose by releasing emotional clutter.
It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.


In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face.
Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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