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Electric generators' roles vary due to daily and seasonal variation in demand - Today in Energy - U.S.
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Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. As demand varies over the day, different generators play different roles in meeting demand.
One way to show these generator roles is to look at hourly unit output data averaged over a year. The 2,301 megawatt (MW) Vogtle nuclear plant has a 95% capacity factor for each hour of the day (purple line).
The 3,400 MW Scherer coal-fired plant is one of the lowest variable cost coal plants in the Southern Company system.
The 463 MW Effingham gas-fired combined-cycle plant only runs during the night about 10% of the time (red line). The 98 MW SOWEGA Power gas turbine peaking unit rarely runs, and, when it does, it is only between 10 a.m.
Peaking capacity runs a few times a year for short periods to help electricity systems meet peak demand.


Seasonal demand for electricity is greater in the summer and winter than in the spring and fall. It is a baseload plant that produces at full capacity when it is available most of the year (green line).
Some generators run as baseload capacity most of the year, but cycle on and off like intermediate capacity during the spring and fall low-demand seasons. The chart shows, for each hour of the day, the average output of four units over the year 2010 divided by the plant's maximum possible output.
The annual average of its hourly capacity factor tops out at only 9% in the middle of the day. Typically, peaking capacity is expensive to run and is called on only during very high demand hours, particularly during heat waves in the summer.



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