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Abstract energy efficiency background made of green, yellow, orange and red stripes and soft effects.
An energy transfer diagram or a Sankey diagram is used to show the transfer of energy across a process or a device. An ordinary light bulb works on the principle of a thin wire (filament) being heated by the resistance to the electrical current. Here a greater proportion of the electrical energy is converted to useful light, thus the energy saving light bulb is a more efficient device. When energy is transformed or transferred only part of it can be usefully transformed or transferred. Both the useful energy and the wasted energy which is transformed or transferred are eventually transferred to their surroundings which become warmer. The greater the percentage of the energy that can be usefully transformed by a device the higher its efficiency. The Sankey diagram shown in this post on the Green Car Congress blog visualizes that only 25% (green arrow) of the energy from combustion is used as “effective power” for mobility and accessories, while 40% of the energy is lost in exhaust gas.
Projects are being carried out at John Deere, Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel and Mack Trucks, to name just a few. The inefficient energy use of car engines and other vehicles are the main reason for the transport sector being (next to energy generation and transmission) the sector where most energy is being lost (see this post). Indeed, waste heat from the exhaust and from EGR system of combustion engines offer a huge potential for fuel economy.
For racing applications the interest is having more power while respecting the regulations.
The European Energy Star Programme is a voluntary energy labelling programme for office equipment.

Manufacturers, assemblers, exporters, importers and retailers are invited to register with the European Commission allowing them to place the Energy Star label on products that meet or exceed energy-efficiency guidelines.
As office equipment is traded world-wide, the initial Agreement was signed December 2000 between the Government of the United States of America and the European Community intended to co-ordinate energy-efficient labelling programmes for office equipment – computers, monitors, copiers, printers, scanners and fax machines …– in two of the major global markets for office products. A regulation adopted in November 2001 establishes the general rules and procedures for the implementation of the Energy Star programme in the Community.
Early 2006 the Council gave a mandate to the Commission to negotiate with the USA a new Energy Star Agreement for office equipment. The new EU-US Energy Star Agreement for office equipment has come into force in December 2006 and is valid for a second period of five years. DG JRC manage on behalf of DG TREN the EU European Community Energy Star Technical Working  which will collect and discuss technical inputs by EU Member States experts and manufacturers on the revision process for the office equipment specification. Input energy is taken in by the device in one form and transformed to output energy in another form.
It is a flow diagram in which the widths of the arrows show the relative amounts of each type of energy. Here the electrical energy is supplied to electrodes which generate fast moving electrons that pass through a tube containing mercury gas.
The energy which is not usefully transformed or transferred is referred to as wasted energy. As the energy spreads out it becomes more difficult to use for further energy transformations. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding research projects that target the increase of efficiency of car engine.
The Energy Star logo helps consumers identify office equipment products that save them money and help protect the environment by saving energy.

The Energy Star programme for office equipment aims at fostering the energy efficiency of office equipment without creating barriers to trade. It takes into account the experiences of the first period of programme implementation, and contains new demanding and innovative energy efficiency criteria. Thus the 100J of electrical energy is transformed to 5 J of light energy and 95J of heat energy. As the electrical energy is required in heating the wire hence this is why most of the energy is given off as heat.
On collision with the mercury atoms ultraviolet light is produced which then collides with the phosphor atoms coated around the tube converting the ultraviolet to visible light. Office information and communication technology equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, scanners and multifunction devices) is responsible for a growing share of electricity consumption in the EU. The criteria cover the energy consumption both in the standby and in the use phase, and will be further developed and adapted to future technology and market evolution.
In the case of the light bulb the 95J of energy transferred as heat is wasted energy as it is not useful because the purpose of the device is to produce light. ENERGY STAR is part of the Community strategy to better manage energy demand, contribute to security of energy supply and mitigate climate change.

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