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Antoine Lavoisier discovered that an element as a basic substance could not be further broken down into 1789. Neutral atoms exhibiting lower energy have the lower orbital value of (n + l) compared to the orbital with higher (n +l) value.Orbitals having same (n + l) would show lower energy only when the orbital has lower "n" value. For example, 3s-orbital (n + l = 3 + 0 = 3) possesses lower energy than 3p (n + l = 3 + 1 = 4) orbital. 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s.The complete electronic configuration of an atom can be written by,Determine the total number of electrons present in an atom from the respective atomic number. It’s difficult to memorize correct order of energy level, so it’s better to use the memory aid shown below to remind correct order of filling sub levels. For writing the correct order, first write the possible sub levels for each energy level in organized rows and columns. For example, in electronic configuration of carbon (Atomic number=6) , the valence electron fill in next orbital of 2p instead of pairing with previous electron. An emission spectrum is generated by the release of energy of valence electrons moving from an excited state to ground state. 4) Explain how dark lines appear in the spectrum of white light passing through a cloud of hydrogen gas. But the hydrogen electron doesn't only have the electron jumps that cause spectral lines in the visible region but also in the UV and infrared regions.


Further in 1805, John Dalton proposed that each element consists of atoms of a single, unique type. Now as we can see both have the same (n + l) value, but since 2p-orbital has "n" value lower than the other, therefore, it will have lower energy [(Rule (ii)]. Hence 2 electrons in s sub level, 6 to each p sub level, 10 to each d sub level, and 14 to each f sub level.Now there must be some rule to direct the filling of electron in different sub level to get correct electronic configuration. Hence electronic configuration must be 1s2, 2s2 , 2px1,2py1 , and 1s2 , 2s2 , 2px2 is incorrect.In electronic configuration, electrons are always filled in order of increasing (n+1). For writing the electronic configuration, we must know about quantum numbers, shells, sub shells and orbitals. Aufbau principle is the guideline for writing the correct electronic configuration of elements. If an empty lower energy orbital is present, electron cannot move to higher energy orbital. The d sub levels start on the third principal energy level, the f sub levels start on the fourth principal energy level, etc. The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a nucleus at the centre surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged particles known as electrons.The atomic nucleus contains positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. Start from the top arrow, follow the arrows one by one in the given direction and write the sub levels as you pass through them.The other rule is Pauli Exclusion Principle given by Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, states that no two electrons can have same quantum number.


That energy must be exactly the same as the energy gap between the 3-level and the 2-level in the hydrogen atom. For example, if n, l, and m are the same, and the spin quantum number must be different such that the electrons have opposite spins. According to the physics of that time, the planetary model of an atom should have an extremely short lifetime. In order to find out those corrections, Neils Bohr put forward the some postulates about the model of an atom in the knowledge of the emission spectrum of hydrogen.The distribution of electrons in an atom can be represented with the help of electronic configuration that is a sequence of atomic orbitals according to increasing order of their energy. There are some rules which are used to assign the position of electrons in atomic orbitals.
But for getting stable configuration one electron transfer from 4s to 3d and form 3d10, 4s2 valence shell configuration which is stable due to fulfilled 3d and 4s orbitals.



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